Jack (playing card)
A jack or knave is a playing card which, in traditional French and English decks, pictures a man in the traditional or historic aristocratic dress associated with Europe of the 16th or 17th century. The usual rank of a jack, within its suit, plays as if it was an 11; as the lowest face card, the jack represents a minimum standard — for example, many poker games require a minimum hand of a pair of jacks in order to continue play. The earliest predecessor of the knave was the thānī nā'ib in the Mamluk card deck; this was the lowest of the three court cards and like all court cards was depicted through abstract art or calligraphy. When brought over to Italy and Spain, the thānī nā'ib was made into an infantry soldier or page ranking below the knight card. In France, where the card was called the valet, the queen was inserted between the knight; the knight was subsequently dropped out of non-Tarot decks leaving the valet directly under the queen. The king-queen-valet format made its way into England.
As early as the mid-16th century the card was known in England as the knave. Although jack was in common usage to designate the knave, the term became more entrenched when, in 1864, American cardmaker Samuel Hart published a deck using "J" instead of "Kn" to designate the lowest-ranking court card; the knave card had been called a jack as part of the terminology of the game All Fours since the 17th century, but this usage was considered common or low class. However, because the card abbreviation for knave was so close to that of the king, the two were confused; this confusion was more pronounced after the markings indicating suits and rankings were moved to the corners of the card, a move which enabled players to "fan" a hand of cards without obscuring the individual suits and ranks. The earliest deck known of this type is from 1693, but such positioning did not become widespread until reintroduced by Hart in 1864, together with the knave-to-jack change. Books of card games published in the third quarter of the 19th century still referred to the "knave" however, a term, still recognized in the United Kingdom.
In the English pattern, the jack and the other face cards represent no one in particular, in contrast to the historical French practice, in which each court card is said to represent a particular historical or mythological personage. The valets in the Paris pattern have traditionally been associated with such figures as Ogier the Dane for the jack of spades. In some southern Italian decks, there are androgynous knaves that are sometimes referred to as maids. In the Sicilian Tarot deck, the knaves are unambiguously female and are known as maids; as this deck includes queens, it is the only traditional set to survive into modern times with two ranks of female face cards. This pack may have been influenced by the obsolete Portuguese deck which had female knaves; the modern Mexican pattern has female knaves. The figure of the jack has been used in many literary works throughout history. Among these is one by 17th-century English writer Samuel Rowlands; the Four Knaves is a series of Satirical Tracts, with Introduction and Notes by E. F. Rimbault, upon the subject of playing cards.
His "The Knave of Clubbs: Tis Merry When Knaves Meet" was first published in 1600 again in 1609 and 1611. In accordance with a promise at the end of this book, Rowlands went on with his series of Knaves, in 1612 wrote "The Knave of Harts: Haile Fellowe, Well Meet", where his "Supplication to Card-Makers" appears, thought to have been written to the English manufacturers who copied to the English decks the court figures created by the French; the cards shown here are from a Paris pattern deck, include the historical and mythological names associated with them. The English pattern of the jacks can be seen in the photo at the top of the article; the jack, traditionally the lowest face card, has been promoted to a higher or the highest position in the traditional ranking of cards, where the ace or king occupied the first rank. This is seen in the earliest known European card games, such as Karnöffel, as well as in more recent ones such as Euchre. Games with such promotion include: List of poker hand nicknames One-eyed jack "The Jack", a song by AC/DC, in which the playing card is a metaphor for a sexually transmitted disease The Knave of Hearts, a character in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland The Jack of Diamonds, a group of artists founded in 1909 in Moscow "Jack of Diamonds", a traditional folk song Jack of Diamonds, the title used by George de Sand in the 1994 anime Mobile Fighter G Gundam Knave of Hearts, a 1954 film directed by René Clément The Jack of Hearts, a Marvel Comics superhero The Jack of Hearts, a 1919 short Western film "Lily and the Jack of Hearts", a song by Bob Dylan Pub, an album by Đorđe Balašević.
King, Knave, a novel by Vladimir Nabokov first published in Russian under his pen name, V. Sirin
A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific. Countless card games exist, including families of related games. A small number of card games played with traditional decks have formally standardized rules, but most are folk games whose rules vary by region and person. Games using playing cards exploit the fact that cards are individually identifiable from one side only, so that each player knows only the cards he holds and not those held by anyone else. For this reason card games are characterized as games of chance or “imperfect information”—as distinct from games of strategy or “perfect information,” where the current position is visible to all players throughout the game. Many games that are not placed in the family of card games do in fact use cards for some aspect of their gameplay; some games that are placed in the card game genre involve a board. The distinction is that the gameplay of a card game chiefly depends on the use of the cards by players, while board games focus on the players' positions on the board, use the cards for some secondary purpose.
A card game is played with a pack of playing cards which are identical in size and shape. Each card has the face and the back; the backs of the cards are indistinguishable. The faces of the cards may all be unique; the composition of a deck is known to each player. In some cases several decks are shuffled together to form a single shoe; the first playing cards appeared in the 9th century during Tang-dynasty China. The first reference to the card game in world history dates no than the 9th century, when the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang Dynasty writer Su E, described Princess Tongchang playing the "leaf game" with members of the Wei clan in 868; the Song dynasty statesman and historian Ouyang Xiu has noted that paper playing cards arose in connection to an earlier development in the book format from scrolls to pages. During the Ming dynasty, characters from popular novels such as the Water Margin were featured on the faces of playing cards. A precise description of Chinese money playing cards survived from the 15th century.
Mahjong tiles are a 19th-century invention based on three-suited money playing card decks, similar to the way in which Rummikub tiles were derived from modern Western playing cards. The same kind of games can be played with tiles made of wood, bone, or similar materials; the most notable examples of such tile sets are mahjong tiles and Rummikub tiles. Chinese dominoes are available as playing cards, it is not clear whether Emperor Muzong of Liao played with domino cards as early as 969, though. Legend dates the invention of dominoes in the year 1112, the earliest known domino rules are from the following decade. 500 years domino cards were reported as a new invention. Playing cards first appeared in Europe in the last quarter of the 14th century; the earliest European references speak of a Saracen or Moorish game called naib, in fact an complete Mamluk Egyptian deck of 52 cards in a distinct oriental design has survived from around the same time, with the four suits swords, polo sticks and coins and the ranks king, second governor, ten to one.
The 1430s in Italy saw the invention of the tarot deck, a full Latin-suited deck augmented by suitless cards with painted motifs that played a special role as trumps. Tarot card games are still played with these decks in parts of Central Europe. A full tarot deck contains 14 cards in each suit. In the 18th century the card images of the traditional Italian tarot decks became popular in cartomancy and evolved into "esoteric" decks used for the purpose. In Europe, "playing tarot" decks remain popular for games, have evolved since the 18th century to use regional suits as well as other familiar aspects of the Anglo-American deck such as corner card indices and "stamped" card symbols for non-court cards. Decks differ regionally based on the number of cards needed to play the games; the French suits were introduced around 1480 and, in France replaced the earlier Latin suits of swords, clubs and coins. The suit symbols, being simple and single-color, could be stamped onto the playing cards to create a deck, thus only requiring special full-color card art for the court cards.
This drastically simplifies the production of a deck of cards versus the traditional Italian deck, which used unique full-color art for each card in the deck. The French suits became popular in English playing cards in the 16th century, from there were introduced to British colonies including North America; the rise of Western culture has led to the near-universal populari
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Truc, pronounced in France and in Spain, is a 15th-century bluff and counter-bluff trick-taking card game, likened to poker for two. It is played in Occitania, Sarthe and the Basque Country, is still popular in the Valencia region. More elaborate versions are played in Argentina, Venezuela and Brazil under such names as Truco and Truquiflor; the game of Truc originates from the end of the Middle Ages in Spain, regarding the etymology of the word, which means "trick" migrating to France. The Diccionario de Pompeu Fabra states that Truc is a game of cards played by four players, each receiving three cards and scoring points for winning two of the three tricks, whose bluffing objective is to trick the opponent into conceding the number of points summed by the point value of two cards of the same suit under a vie, in some variants of Truquiflor, by having Flor or a winning Flor whose point value is higher than another. Francesc de Borja i Moll, in his Diccionari Català, offers a similar definition, recalling the hierarchy of the cards as: 3 2 A K Q J 9 8 7 6, a brief entry on the Matarrata variant, a similar game in which the 7 ♦ ranks higher than 7 ♠, A ♣ and A ♠.
Truc is related to the old English game of put, first described by Cotton in The Compleat Gamester. Two players use a 32-card pack ranking 7 8 A K Q J 10 9 in each suit. A rubber is the best of three games, a game is 12 points, which may require several deals to reach. Players deal in turn with the first dealer being chosen by any agreed means. Players receive 3 cards dealt in 1s; the aim in each deal is to win two tricks, to win the first trick if it comes to be that both players win one and the third is tied, by making the opponent fold to a raise. Non-dealer may propose a redeal if dealer agrees; the hands are put aside and each receives 3 new cards. Only one redeal may be made, only if both players agree. Non-dealer leads to the first trick and the winner of each trick leads to the next; as Truc is a no-trump game, any card may be played by either player and tricks are taken by the highest card led regardless of the suit played. If both play cards of equal ranks, the trick is considered "spoilt", belonging to none of the players, the same leader leads to the next.
Theoretically, the winner scores one point to every game. However, before playing to a trick, either player may offer to increase the score for a win by asking: "Two more?". The first such increase raises the value from 1 point to 2, subsequently increases add 2 more each, raising the game value from 2 to 4, than 6, so on. If the other says: "Yes", play continues, if not he throws his hand in, play ceases and the challenger scores whatever it was worth before he offered to raise, it is possible for both players to raise in the same trick. It is legal to concede at any time if the other has not just offered to double. Mon reste An more drastic raise may be made if either players on his turn to play may declare: "My remainder, thus jump-raising the game value to whatever he needs to make 12. To this, the opponent may either concede, in which case the increase does not take effect, or may himself announce "My remainder", in which whomever wins the deal wins the game; the round finishes when trick tricks have been completed.
Whoever took three tricks, or the first if each took one, scores the point, or whatever value it may have been increased to. If all three tricks were spoilt, neither player scores. Four players sit crosswise in partnerships; the turn to deal and play is counter-clockwise. The dealer acts as governor for his eldest hand as governor for his. Only eldest may propose an exchange, only dealer may accept or refuse it. Eldest leads to the first trick, each subsequent trick is led by the winner of the last, or by the previous leader if the trick is spoilt. Only the governor may accept or concede when an increase is proposed. Throughout play, governor's partner may indicate what card or cards he holds by means of conventional code or gestural signals, the governor for his part may tell his partner what to play. Players may not reverse these roles; the holding of a Seven is indicated by an Eight by a wink, an Ace by a shrug. The signaller will attempt to signal when his governor is looking and his opponents are not.
An instruction may take the form: "Play the Seven", "Play low", "Leave it to me", so on. Signals must be truthfully made, instructions obeyed. A trick is spoilt if the highest card played by one side is matched in rank by the highest card played by one of the other. In case of a tie-winning trick played by two partners, whichever of them led to it first, leads two the next, if neither of them two led, the trick is spoilt just as if one of the tied cards were played by the other side. Truco Mus Put Calabresella El Truco: Historia de una Tradicíón, Francisco José Fuentes Pereira, in Spanish Truc rules at Pagat.com
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Tressette or Tresette is a 40-card, trick-taking card game. It is one of Italy's major national card games, together with Briscola, it is popular in the regions that were once controlled by the Italian predecessor states, such as Albania, coastal Slovenia and coastal Croatia. It is recorded only from the early 18th century, though greater antiquity is suggested by its trumplessness; the name of the game "three Seven" may refer to seven sets of three or four point possibilities when a minimum of three each are dealt, or to the fact that it is played up to twenty-one. There are many variants. Tressette is played with a standard Italian 40-card deck and the cards are ranked as follows from highest to lowest: 3-2-Ace-King-Knight-Knave and all the remaining cards in numerical order from 7 down to 4; the game may be played with four players playing in heads-up play. In either case, ten cards are dealt to each player. In one-on-one play, the remaining twenty cards are placed face down in front of both players.
The object of the game is to score as many points as possible. Players must follow suit unless that suit does not remain in their hand, players must show the card they pick up off the card pile to their opponent. Points are scored by collecting the face cards and twos. An ace scores one point on its own; each player can only score an integer number of points. There are 10⅔ points in a deck; the match continues. Basic strategy in tressette revolves around gathering as many Aces as possible because they are worth three times the value of any one face card; as such, players attempt to "strip" their opponent of the Three and Two in the suit in which they themselves hold an Ace. Hence, when holding several lower ranked cards in a suit plus the ace you may play the lower ranked cards in the hope your opponent is forced to play the three or two of the suit allowing you to play the ace. Holding Ace and Two of a suit is a powerful holding as it allows you to play the Ace with impunity, careful not to surrender it to an off-suit card.
As picking up the last hand garners a point, players try to organize their card play for this purpose near the end of a round. When playing in partnerships, any verbal communication between partners regarding the game is considered cheating, unlike in briscola. There are, three conventional signs that can be exchanged between partners: Busso: The player knocks or raps on the table; this sign can be used only by the first player of the trick. It instructs that player's partner to play the highest-ranked card of the suit being played, in an attempt to win the trick. If the partner does win the trick, he is supposed to play any card of the same suit; this strategy allows a player who has a strong card in a suit to check whether his partner has the other one, without risking to play both cards on the same trick and keeping the flow of the game under his control. Volo: The player lets the card drop or "fly down" from a few centimeters above the table; this sign signifies. Striscio or Liscio: The player slides the card across the table before playing it.
This sign signifies. In some regional variants the use of this sign is deprecated and considered as illegitimate as speaking openly. Called Tresette con l'accuso, it is one variation scored up to 31 is to use bonuses during game play; when you gather three Aces, three Twos, three Threes or any Napolitana and decide to play one of the group of cards, you declare that you have that grouping in your hand and score three points. A group of four scores three points; as well, the bonus may be repeated if having played one of the grouping, you happen to pick up a card that makes the grouping in your hand yet again. To keep track of all this, players traditionally turn one card in their collected cards face up, as it is done in scopa. Ciapanò known as traversone in Central Italy and as ko manje or chi fa meno in Croatia and Montenegro, is a variation where the goal is to score the fewest points; the game ends when a player has 21 or more points, the player with the fewest points wins. It is possible to do "cappotto", i.e. collecting all the 11 points, in which case the player scores 0 points and everybody else scores 11.
Ciapanò can be played by more than two players: if the players are 4 or 5 each one plays on his own, they receive 10 or 8 cards respectively. If the players are 2, the normal rules apply. If the players are 3, two players receive 13 cards and the one at the right of the dealer i
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games, performing magic tricks and flourishes, for cardistry, in card throwing. Playing cards are palm-sized for convenient handling, are sold together as a deck of cards or pack of cards. Playing cards were first invented in China during the Tang dynasty. Playing cards may have been invented during the Tang dynasty around the 9th century AD as a result of the usage of woodblock printing technology; the first possible reference to card games comes from a 9th-century text known as the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang, written by Tang dynasty writer Su E. It describes Princess Tongchang, daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang, playing the "leaf game" in 868 with members of the Wei clan, the family of the princess' husband; the first known book on the "leaf" game was called the Yezi Gexi and written by a Tang woman.
It received commentary by writers of subsequent dynasties. The Song dynasty scholar Ouyang Xiu asserts that the "leaf" game existed at least since the mid-Tang dynasty and associated its invention with the development of printed sheets as a writing medium. However, Ouyang claims that the "leaves" were pages of a book used in a board game played with dice, that the rules of the game were lost by 1067. Other games revolving around alcoholic drinking involved using playing cards of a sort from the Tang dynasty onward. However, these cards did not contain numbers. Instead, they were printed with forfeits for whomever drew them; the earliest dated instance of a game involving cards with suits and numerals occurred on 17 July 1294 when "Yan Sengzhu and Zheng Pig-Dog were caught playing cards and that wood blocks for printing them had been impounded, together with nine of the actual cards."William Henry Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which doubled as both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for, similar to trading card games.
Using paper money was inconvenient and risky so they were substituted by play money known as "money cards". One of the earliest games in which we know the rules is madiao, a trick-taking game, which dates to the Ming Dynasty. 15th-century scholar Lu Rong described it is as being played with 38 "money cards" divided into four suits: 9 in coins, 9 in strings of coins, 9 in myriads, 11 in tens of myriads. The two latter suits had Water Margin characters instead of pips on them with Chinese characters to mark their rank and suit; the suit of coins is in reverse order with 9 of coins being the lowest going up to 1 of coins as the high card. Despite the wide variety of patterns, the suits show a uniformity of structure; every suit contains twelve cards with the top two being the court cards of king and vizier and the bottom ten being pip cards. Half the suits use reverse ranking for their pip cards. There are many motifs for the suit pips but some include coins, clubs and swords which resemble Mamluk and Latin suits.
Michael Dummett speculated that Mamluk cards may have descended from an earlier deck which consisted of 48 cards divided into four suits each with ten pip cards and two court cards. By the 11th century, playing cards were spreading throughout the Asian continent and came into Egypt; the oldest surviving cards in the world are four fragments found in the Keir Collection and one in the Benaki Museum. They are dated to the 13th centuries. A near complete pack of Mamluk playing cards dating to the 15th century and of similar appearance to the fragments above was discovered by Leo Aryeh Mayer in the Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, in 1939, it is not a complete set and is composed of three different packs to replace missing cards. The Topkapı pack contained 52 cards comprising four suits: polo-sticks, coins and cups; each suit contained ten pip cards and three court cards, called malik, nā'ib malik, thānī nā'ib. The thānī nā ` ib is a non-existent title. In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards.
Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaks, called their cups tuman which means myriad in Turkic and Jurchen languages. Wilkinson postulated that the cups may have been derived from inverting the Chinese and Jurchen ideogram for myriad; the Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons due to religious proscription in Sunni Islam, though they did bear the ranks on the cards. Nā'ib would be borrowed into French and Spanish, the latter word still in common usage. Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao and old European card games like ombre and maw. A fragment of two uncut sheets of Moorish-styled cards of a similar but plainer style were found in Spain and dated to the early 15th century. Export of these cards, ceased after the fall of the Mamluks in the 16th century; the rules to play these games are lost but they are believed to be plain trick games without trumps.
Four-suited playing cards ar