Córdoba Synagogue is a historic edifice in the Jewish Quarter of Córdoba, built in 1315. The synagogue's small size points to it having been the private synagogue of a wealthy man, it is possible that Córdoba's complex of buildings was a yeshivah, kollel, or study hall. Another possibility is that this was the synagogue of a trade guild, which converted a residence or one of the work rooms into the synagogue; the synagogue was decorated according to the best Mudejar tradition. After the expulsion of the Jews in 1492, the synagogue was seized by the authorities and converted into a hospital for people suffering from rabies, the Hospital Santo Quiteria. In 1588, the building was acquired by the shoemakers guild, who used it as a community center and small chapel, changing the patron saint of the building to Santos Crispin-Crispian, the patron saint of shoemakers, it was declared a National Monument in 1885. Since it has undergone several phases of the restoration including that of Felix Hernandez in 1929.
In 1935, the Spanish authorities marked the eight-hundredth anniversary of Maimonides' birth by changing the name of the square in which the synagogue is located to Tiberias Square, honoring the great native-born philosopher, buried in Tiberias. At this celebration the first Jewish prayer service in 443 years to occur and with full knowledge of the authorities was held at the synagogue. Another restoration was begun in 1977 for the reopening of the building in 1985 to celebrate the 850th anniversary of Maimonides birth, it is the only synagogue in Córdoba to escape destruction during years of persecution. Although it no longer functions as a Jewish house of worship, it is open to the public; the floor plan of Córdoba Synagogue, as well as other synagogues of the time period, was affected by the restrictions placed upon synagogue construction by Christian leaders. Restrictions varied depending on the location of the synagogue and whether or not Jews enjoyed a privileged status in that community.
The size of the synagogue had to reflect its humility and inferiority to the Catholic church, but it differed from place to place in accordance with the Christian buildings in the area. Sometimes the king's favor was not sufficient to avoid the troubles that the local clergy could cause. In April 1250, Innocent IV ordered the Bishop of Córdoba to take action against the Jews who were building a synagogue whose height was not acceptable to the local clergy. Documents from the reign of Pope Innocent IV recorded resentment toward a prominent new congregational synagogue:The Jews of Cordoba are rashly presuming to build a new synagogue of unnecessary height thereby scandalizing faithful Christians, wherefore... we command... to enforce the authority of your office against the Jews in this regard.... The Córdoba Synagogue has a gate in the eastern wall that leads into a small courtyard that measures more than twenty-five square meters; the courtyard walls of the synagogue measure 5.5 meters on the northern wall, 5.5 meters on the western wall, however the southern wall is only 3.5 meters long, the eastern wall which contains the gate is the longest at 6 meters.
This gives the floor plan of Córdoba an unusual trapezoidal footprint. This unusual shape is most due to the layout of the surrounding streets, which run at an angle; the entrance to the synagogue, the facade, is located on the northern wall of the courtyard with three openings: a door and two windows on either side. Beyond the facade is the entrance hall that measures 7 meters on the northern wall, 6 meters on the southern wall, a 3 meters western wall, an eastern wall of 3.4 meters. This room has a wooden stairwell; this entrance hall functioned both as a place for the maskilta. The ceiling of the entry hall is 2.3 meters high. The prayer hall is the largest room in the synagogue, but it is small in comparison to most buildings or homes of the period, it is rectangular, measuring 6.5 by 7 meters. It has an high roof in comparison, at 11.5 meters to the top of the gables. The height of the room is notable because it is high among larger synagogues; the women's section of the synagogue is in the gallery above the entrance hall.
It is unclear whether the entrance hall were part of the original building. Differences in the structure and height of the roof suggest that this part of structure may have been added later; the women's section features three broad arches. These arches are decorated with elaborately interwoven stucco and latticework, customary in Sephardic synagogues; the original latticework was either of stucco. The three arches are interwoven with Hebrew text; the central arch is different than the identical outer arches, having different decoration and being taller in order to accommodate the doorway. The hekhal, where the Torah scrolls were kept, was located on the eastern wall, customary; the wall is angled, following the street outside, was decorated with elaborate stucco in accordance with the Mudejar tradition. One of the Hebrew inscriptions mentions the hekhal, reading "I will bow down before Your Holy hekhal...." The second focus, the bimah, may have been in the center of the room. Benches for the congregants were placed along the walls of the room.
The location of the hekhal was based on directions given by M
Historic centre of Córdoba
The historic centre of Córdoba, Spain is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. In 1984, UNESCO registered the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba as a World Heritage Site. A decade it expanded the inscription to include much of the old town; the historic centre has a wealth of monuments preserving large traces of Roman and Christian times. First a Carthaginian township, Córdoba was captured by the Romans in 206 BC, soon becoming the capital of Hispania Citerior with fine buildings and imposing fortifications. In the 6th century, with the crumbling of the Roman Empire, the city fell to the Visigoths until the beginning of the 8th century when it was conquered by the Moors. In 716, Córdoba became a provincial capital and, in 766, capital of the Muslim emirate of al-Andalus. By the 10th century, as the Caliphate of Córdoba it had become one of the most advanced cities in the world, recognized for its culture and religious tolerance, it addition to a huge library, the city enclosed over 300 mosques and a multitude of palaces and administrative buildings.
In 1236, King Ferdinand III took the city, built new defences and converted the Grand Mosque into a cathedral. The Christian city grew up around the cathedral with palaces, a fortress. Although the city lost its political significance under Christian rule, it continued to play an important role in commerce thanks to the nearby Sierra Morena copper mines; the historic centre as defined by UNESCO comprises the buildings and narrow winding streets around the cathedral. It is bordered on the south by the River Guadalquivir so as to include the Roman Bridge and the Calahorra Tower, on the east by the Calle San Fernando, on the north by the commercial centre. To the west, it includes the San Basilio district. Evidence of the Roman period can be seen in the 16-span bridge over the Guadalquivir, the mosaics in the Alcázar, the columns of the Roman temple, the remains of the Roman walls. In addition to the Caliphal Baths, the Moorish influence in the city's design is evident in the Alcázar gardens adjacent to the former Grand Mosque.
Minarets from the period survive in the churches of Santiago, San Lorenzo, San Juan and the Santa Clara Hermitage. The Jewish presence during Muslim rule can be seen in the La Judería district in which the synagogue was used until 1492; the Alcázar a Moorish castle, was adapted to serve as a residence for the Christian kings in the 14th century while the Calahorra Tower, built by the Almohads, was comprehensively reworked by King Henry II in 1369. The little Chapel of San Bartolomé was completed in the Gothic-Mudéjar style in 1410. A church, the former San Sebastián Hospital, now the Congress Centre, was completed in 1516 in a combination of Gothic, Mudéjar and Renaissance styles. Other churches from the period include San Nicolás and San Francisco. There are a number of important 16th-century buildings including the San Pelagio Seminary, the Puerta del Puente, the Palacio del Marqués de la Fuensanta del Valle designed by Hernán Ruiz. Of note is the 18th-century Hospital del Cardenal Salazar with its Baroque facade.
Other historic monuments in the old town include the Episcopal Palace built on the remains of the former Visigoth palace and now the Diocesan Fine Arts Museum, the Royal Stables built by King Philip II in 1570 as part of the Alcázar
Roman bridge of Córdoba
The Roman bridge of Córdoba is a bridge in the Historic centre of Córdoba, southern Spain built in the early 1st century BC across the Guadalquivir river, though it has been reconstructed at various times since. Most of the present structure dates from the Moorish reconstruction in the 8th century, it is included in the small preserved area known as Sotos de la Albolafia. The bridge was built by the Romans in the early 1st century BC replacing a previous wooden one, it after the Islamic reconstruction, has 16 arcades, one fewer than and a total length of 247 meters. The width is around 9 meters; the Via Augusta, which connected Rome to Cádiz, most passed through it. During the early Islamic domination the Muslim governor Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani ordered a bridge to be built on the ruins of what was left of the old Roman construction. In the Middle Ages, the Calahorra Tower and the Puerta del Puente were built at the bridge's southern and northern ends, respectively; the bridge was expanded to its current size.
The arches depict the famous Moorish architecture. In the 17th century, a sculpture depicting St. Raphael was put in the middle of the bridge, executed by Bernabé Gómez del Río. During its history, the bridge was restored and renovated several times, now only the 14th and 15th arches are original, it was extensively restored in 2006. Colin O’Connor: Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press 1993, ISBN 0-521-39326-4, pp. 103 Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari: Nafhu at-Teeb min Ghosni al-Andalusi ar-Rateeb, pp. 480 Media related to Roman bridge, Córdoba at Wikimedia Commons Page at Structurae website Page at Cordoba24 website
The Caliphal Baths are Arab baths in Córdoba, Spain. They are situated in the historic centre, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1994; the hammam are contiguous to the Alcázar andalusí. The baths were constructed in the 10th century, under the Caliphate of Al-Hakam II for the enjoyment of the caliph and his court. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, they were used by Almoravids and Almohads, their dynasties noted by the plaster-carved acanthus motif and epigraphic bands of the era, which are stored in the Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Cordoba; the remains of the baths were found accidentally in 1903 in the Campo Santo de los Mártires, were subsequently buried. Between 1961 and 1964, a group of city historians recovered them; the Caliphal Baths have different sections of cold and hot water baths. Architectural details include rooms with masonry walls, semicircular arches, columns with capitals; the ceiling is punctuated by cut-outs of stars. Media related to Baños califales at Wikimedia Commons
Roman mausoleum of Córdoba
The Roman mausoleum of Córdoba is an ancient structure in the Jardines de la Victoria, Córdoba, southern Spain. It is a funerary monument of cylinder-shaped that corresponded to a group of funerary monuments of the Republican era, built in the 1st century AD, it was discovered in 1993 during archaeological excavations. It includes the chamber tomb that housed the Urn, as well as remains of the basement and crenellated parapet. Unusual for such structures in Roman Iberia, it may have been designed by an Italian architect, due to similarities to other mausoleums in Rome and the rest of Italy, its size suggests that it belonged to a wealthy family. The mausoleum is located near the road that connected the ancient city with Hispalis, exited from the city by the western gate, or "Porta Principalis Sinistra"; the archaeological site includes remains of the pavement of the latter. Roman mausoleums of "Puerta Gallegos" in Córdoba
Episcopal Palace, Cordoba
The Episcopal Palace in Córdoba, Spain, is situated in the historic centre of the city, just opposite the west front of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba. Media related to Palacio Episcopal de Córdoba at Wikimedia Commons
Basílica del Juramento de San Rafael
Basílica del Juramento de San Rafael is a minor basilica in Córdoba, Spain. It stands on the site where it is believed that the Raphael the Archangel appeared to Father Roeles in 1578, vowing to guard the city. Financing to build the church occurred the late 18th century, with construction completed in 1806, it is a Bien de Interés Cultural monument. The structure combines a longitudinal space with a circular facade representing the latest neoclassical style of the city; the interior is divided by three naves with bent arches. The crossing is crowned with a barrel vault. On the main altar, a baldachin houses the titular image, which dates to 1735. There are works of the painter and Cordoban biographer Antonio Cordoba Acisclus Palomino which date to the 18th century. Media related to Iglesia del Juramento de San Rafael de Córdoba, Spain at Wikimedia Commons Page at Cordobapedia Page at Turismo de Córdoba