A log cabin is a dwelling constructed of logs, especially a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure. Log cabins have an ancient history in Europe, and in America are often associated with first generation home building by settlers, construction with logs was described by Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio in his architectural treatise De Architectura. He noted that in Pontus, dwellings were constructed by laying logs horizontally overtop of each other and filling in the gaps with chips, historically log cabin construction has its roots in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Although their origin is uncertain, the first log structures were probably being built in Northern Europe by the Bronze Age. C. A. Weslager describes Europeans as having. accomplished in building several forms of log housing, having different methods of corner timbering, Log saunas or bathhouses of this type are still found in rural Finland. By stacking tree trunks one on top of another and overlapping the logs at the corners and they developed interlocking corners by notching the logs at the ends, resulting in strong structures that were easier to make weather-tight by inserting moss or other soft material into the joints.
As the original coniferous forest extended over the coldest parts of the world, the insulating properties of the solid wood were a great advantage over a timber frame construction covered with animal skins, boards or shingles. Over the decades, increasingly complex joints were developed to ensure more weather tight joints between the logs, but the profiles were still based on the round log. It was common to replace individual logs damaged by dry rot as necessary, the Wood Museum in Trondheim, displays fourteen different traditional profiles, but a basic form of log construction was used all over North Europe and Asia and imported to America. Log construction was especially suited to Scandinavia, where straight, tall tree trunks are readily available, with suitable tools, a log cabin can be erected from scratch in days by a family. As no chemical reaction is involved, such as hardening of mortar, many older towns in Northern Scandinavia have been built exclusively out of log houses, which have been decorated by board paneling and wood cuttings.
Today, construction of log cabins as leisure homes is a fully developed industry in Finland. Modern log cabins often feature fiberglass insulation and are sold as prefabricated kits machined in a factory, Log cabins are mostly constructed without the use of nails and thus derive their stability from simple stacking, with only a few dowel joints for reinforcement. This is because a log cabin tends to compress slightly as it settles, nails would soon be out of alignment and torn out. In the present-day United States, settlers may have first constructed log cabins by 1638, historians believe that the first log cabins built in North America were in the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige in the Delaware River and Brandywine River valleys. Many of its colonists were actually Forest Finns, because Finland was a part of Sweden at that time. New Sweden only briefly existed before it became the Dutch colony of New Netherland, the Swedish-Finnish colonists quick and easy construction techniques not only remained, but spread.
Later German and Ukrainian immigrants used this technique, the Scots and Scots-Irish had no tradition of building with logs, but they quickly adopted the method
Marseille, known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France. Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia, Marseille was the most important trading centre in the region, Marseille is now Frances largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture, together with Košice, Slovakia and it hosted the European Football Championship in 2016, and will be the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to campuses of Aix-Marseille University and part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France. Marseille is the second largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third largest metropolitan area in France after Paris, further east still are the Sainte-Baume, the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the artists colony of lEstaque, further west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion.
The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre, the citys main thoroughfare stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Further out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château dIf, the main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the fountain of Place Castellane. To the south west are the hills of the 7th arrondissement, the railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement, it is linked by the Boulevard dAthènes to the Canebière. Marseille has a Mediterranean climate with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, december and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C during the day and 4 °C at night.
Marseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in France is around 1,950 hours, less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent, over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall, whose name was probably adapted from an existing language related to Ligurian, was the first Greek settlement in France. It was established within modern Marseille around 600 BC by colonists coming from Phocaea on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor. The connection between Massalia and the Phoceans is mentioned in Thucydidess Peloponnesian War, he notes that the Phocaean project was opposed by the Carthaginians, the founding of Massalia has been recorded as a legend. Protis was invited inland to a banquet held by the chief of the local Ligurian tribe for suitors seeking the hand of his daughter Gyptis in marriage, at the end of the banquet, Gyptis presented the ceremonial cup of wine to Protis, indicating her unequivocal choice
Mont Puget, named after the French sculptor Pierre Puget, is a mountain, part of Marseille-Cassis calanques, located south-east of Marseille. Like most Marseille mountains, it is formed from limestone, often neglected by tourists, much interested by the Calanques themselves and by the sea, the Mont Puget can provide for some interesting hiking and climbing. A very good trail leads to the top of the mountain. However, one can climb the mountain directly, which can provide for many interesting experiences. One of them are stone rivers, or collections of small stones flowing from the mountain at angles reaching 45 degrees. The top of the mountain is covered with eroded limestone that sticks out in numerous needle-like spikes, a stylized representation of Mont Puget is displayed on the crest of Luminy Faculty of Sciences, part of the University of the Mediterranean Aix-Marseille II. The Luminy campus is located 1 km northwest of Mont Puget
Cap Canaille is a headland situated in the Bouches-du-Rhône département, in southern France, on the Mediterranean Sea coast between the towns Cassis and La Ciotat. At 394 m, it is the highest sea cliff of France, the rock face of Cap Canaille is called Falaises de Soubeyrannes. The rock consists of layers of ochre-coloured sandstone and limestone from the Turonian age on top of grey marl from the Cenomanian until the Turonian age, the Corniche des Crêtes road runs over the top of the cliff. The name in Provençal is Cap Naio and it has been misunderstood in French and changed into Cap Canaille instead of Cap Naille
A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide, artificial grottoes are used as garden features. The Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes, the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, and Latin crypta. It is related by an accident to the word grotesque. The rooms had sunk underground over time, the Romans who discovered this historical monument found it very strange, a sentiment enhanced by the fact that it was uncovered from an underworld source. This led the Romans to give it the name grottesche, or grotesque, grottoes were very popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollos oracles at Delphi, the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural.
According to tradition, Praenestes sacred spring had a native nymph, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology, perhaps channeling Polyphemus cave in the Odyssey. The numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient, in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated, even farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century, two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes originally housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo, before Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor. The Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a garden building.
It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner, the outside of garden grottoes are often designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, in Kuskovo at the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths, an example of this is at the Palazzo del Te, in the Casino della Grotta, courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola and they were often combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de Medicis château in Paris, there are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family – which together with the tunas, includes the bonitos and Spanish mackerels. Thunnini comprises fifteen species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly, the bluefin averages 2 m, and is believed to live for up to 50 years. Tuna and mackerel sharks are the species of fish that can maintain a body temperature higher than that of the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially, and is popular as a game fish. As a result of over-fishing, stocks of tuna species such as the southern bluefin tuna have been reduced dangerously close to the point of extinction. The term tuna ultimately derives from Thunnus, the Middle Latin form of the Ancient Greek, θύννος tunny-fish – which is in turn derived from θύνω, the following cladogram illustrates the relationship between the tunas and other tribes of the family Scombridae.
The true tunas are those that belong to the genus Thunnus, until recently, it was thought that there were seven Thunnus species, and that Atlantic bluefin tuna and Pacific bluefin tuna were subspecies of a single species. In 1999, Collette established that based on molecular and morphological considerations, they are in fact distinct species. The genus Thunnus is further classified into two subgenera and Thunnus, the Thunnini tribe includes seven additional species of tuna across four genera. They are, The tuna is a sleek and streamlined fish and it has two closely spaced dorsal fins on its back, The first is depressible – it can be laid down, flush, in a groove that runs along its back. Seven to ten yellow finlets run from the fins to the tail. The caudal peduncle, to which the tail is attached, is quite thin, the tunas dorsal side is generally a metallic dark blue, while the ventral side, or underside, is silvery or whitish, for camouflage. Thunnus are widely but sparsely distributed throughout the oceans of the world, generally in tropical, all tunas are able to maintain the temperature of certain parts of their body above the temperature of ambient seawater.
For example, bluefin can maintain a body temperature of 25–33 °C. However, unlike typical endothermic creatures such as mammals and birds, tunas achieve endothermy by conserving the heat generated through normal metabolism. In all tunas, the heart operates at ambient temperature, as it receives cooled blood, unlike most fish, which have white flesh, the muscle tissue of tuna ranges from pink to dark red. The red myotomal muscles derive their color from myoglobin, an oxygen-binding molecule, the oxygen-rich blood further enables energy delivery to their muscles. For powerful swimming animals like dolphins and tuna, cavitation may be detrimental, even if they have the power to swim faster, dolphins may have to restrict their speed, because collapsing cavitation bubbles on their tail are too painful
A calanque is a narrow, steep-walled inlet that is developed in limestone, dolomite, or other carbonate strata and found along the Mediterranean coast. A calanque is a valley formed within karstic regions either by fluvial erosion or the collapse of the roof of a cave that has been subsequently partially submerged by a rise in sea level. The best known examples of formation can be found in the Massif des Calanques in the Bouches-du-Rhône département of France. This range extends for 20 km in length and 4 km in width along the coast between Marseille and Cassis, culminating in Marseilleveyre and Mont Puget, similar calanques can be found on the French riviera near Estérel and on the island of Corsica. The highest point along the calanques are located at Mount Puget, similarities are seen between calanques, and rias, the river mouths formed along the coast of Brittany in Northern France. There are additional calanques in the parc, further east along the coast and these calanques formed in very different rock strata, often in layers of cemented pebble conglomerate.
Calanques are present in the Italian Apennines, in such as the Accona Desert. Modern day calanques along the Mediterranean Sea are steep-sided valleys that the Holocene marine transgression partially submerged to form cliff-edged inlets and these valleys were either incised by rivers or created by cave collapse as karstic dry valleys when sea level was lower than present. Along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, some of the valleys, during this period of time, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean and its sea level dropped at least 1,500 meters below the level of the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, not only did evaporites accumulate on the plains of the Mediterranean Sea. For example, the Rhône River cut a canyon as deep as 576 meters into Cretaceous carbonate strata near its confluence with its tributary the Ardèche. Fluvial erosion by streams and rivers created numerous other deep. Later, during the Pleistocene, these valleys were enlarged and modified by fluvial, karst.
Today, they can be seen as deep, narrow valleys that are submerged by the sea and are made up of limestone or granite. The calanques have an ecosystem, as soil is almost non-existent there. In places where cliffs are less vertical, the vegetation is a classical Mediterranean maquis, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs such as sage and myrtle. It is similar to heath in many aspects, but with taller shrubs, like anywhere on Mediterranean coast, Calanques climate is arid, with moisture during much of the year coming only from evaporation of the sea. This xericity associated with the salt spray conditions the subsistence of an adapted vegetation, the calanques shelter rabbits, large crows and Bonellis eagles, as well as many reptiles and wild boars
Cassis is a commune situated east of Marseille in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southern France. It is a popular tourist destination, famous for its cliffs, the wines of Cassis are white and rosé, and not to be confused with crème de cassis, a specialty of Burgundy which takes its name from blackcurrants, not the commune. The town is situated on the Mediterranean coast, about 20 kilometres east of Marseille, cap Canaille 394 metres, between Cassis and La Ciotat is one of the highest maritime bluffs in Europe, a sailors landmark for millennia. It is east of Marseille and in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, one of its main beach, called Bestouan is made cooler by a karstic source. The site where Cassis now sits was first occupied between 500 and 600 BC by the Ligures, who constructed a fortified habitation at the top of the Baou Redon and these people lived by fishing, and by farming. The current site of Cassis could have been inhabited by the Greeks, during the Roman times, Cassis was part of the maritime route made by the Emperor Antoninus Pius.
It was a village, established mainly around the Arena. The principal livelihood was fishing and maritime trade with North Africa, several archaeological discoveries attest to this. In the fifteenth century, Cassis was ceded to the Counts of Provence, René of Anjou gave the town to the Bishops of Marseille, in the eighteenth century, Cassis started to develop outside the ramparts of the fortified city and around the port. After the Bourbon Restoration, new industries developed here, including the drying of cod, the manufacture of oil and clothing, coral work, wine-making. Stone of Cassis, which was quarried here since antiquity made the town famous and it has been used for the quays of the large Mediterranean ports (Alexandria, Piraeus and Port Said. A claim that it was used for the base of the Statue of Liberty in New York City gained wide circulation but has been proved apocryphal, the stone is used more for domestic purposes such as the construction of sinks and fireplaces. In the twentieth century, as these began to disappear.
Cassis was one of the first three vineyards to profit from the appellation dorigine contrôlée introduced in 1936, Cassis is twinned with, Burnham-on-Sea, United Kingdom Portofino, Italy Jean-Jacques Barthélemy and numismatist, was born in Cassis. Henri Crémieux and film actor, died at his house in Cassis, the Allée Henri Crémieux is named in his honour. Jerome Hill, American filmmaker and philanthropist, René Leriche, distinguished surgeon, died in Cassis. The Avenue du Professeur René Leriche is named in his honour, rudy Ricciotti, architect whose works include the Musée des Civilisations de lEurope et de la Méditerranée and the Jean Cocteau Museum, was resident in Cassis as of 2012. Jean-Pierre Teisseire and retired football player, was the mayor of Cassis from 1995 to 2008