In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue Service
Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the Isle of Wight off the south coast of England. In March 2007, the Isle of Wight Council voted to maintain the independence of the Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue service, instead of a merger with the Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service. In February 2009, plans were announced for a three-year £8 million replacement programme changing part-time stations to full-time; the move would be done in an attempt to reduce response times to 999 alerts. It could see Ryde's fire station change to full-time, Sandown's, but part-time stations would continue to operate as normal in rural areas; the extra investment would minimise chances of a future merger with Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service on the mainland. On a 2009 assessment by a government watchdog, the service was found to be performing well, getting a three star rating out of four, after a poor rating in 2005; the Isle of Wight has a total of ten fire stations, one wholetime/retained, one day crew/retained and eight retained.
Water Rescue Ladder: P1 / P2 /P3 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Incident Command Unit: C1 Heavy Rescue Tender: R1 Water Rescue Unit: R2 Breathing Apparatus Support Unit S1 Foam Salvage Tender: S1 General Purpose Vehicle: S1/S2 Light 4x4 Vehicle: T1/T2 Prime Mover + High Volume Pump: T9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Unit: T8 Co-Responder Vehicle: V1 Water Carrier: W1 Station Officer Vehicle: O1/O2 List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official website
River Caul Bourne
The Caul Bourne is a stream on the Isle of Wight, England. The stream is 3 miles long from source to the start of the Newtown River Estuary just below Shalfleet, its source is in an ornamental lake, near Winkle Street in Calbourne, from which it runs to the north through Newbridge and Shalfleet. It is joined by several tributaries before flowing into the Solent via Newtown estuary, a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the river was subject to flooding in December 1993 when a longer than normal period of precipitation led to four houses in Shalfleet suffering £36,000 of damage between them
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning was an English poet of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime. Born in County Durham, the eldest of 12 children, Elizabeth Barrett wrote poetry from about the age of six, her mother's collection of her poems forms one of the largest extant collections of juvenilia by any English writer. At 15 she became ill, suffering intense spinal pain for the rest of her life. In life she developed lung problems tuberculosis, she took laudanum for the pain from an early age, to have contributed to her frail health. In the 1840s Elizabeth was introduced to literary society through John Kenyon, her first adult collection of poems was published in 1838 and she wrote prolifically between 1841 and 1844, producing poetry and prose. She campaigned for the abolition of slavery and her work helped influence reform in the child labour legislation, her prolific output made her a rival to Tennyson as a candidate for poet laureate on the death of Wordsworth.
Elizabeth's volume Poems brought her great success, attracting the admiration of the writer Robert Browning. Their correspondence and marriage were carried out in secret, for fear of her father's disapproval. Following the wedding she was indeed disinherited by her father; the couple moved to Italy in 1846. They had Robert Wiedeman Barrett Browning, whom they called Pen, she died in Florence in 1861. A collection of her last poems was published by her husband shortly after her death. Elizabeth's work had a major influence on prominent writers of the day, including the American poets Edgar Allan Poe and Emily Dickinson, she is remembered for such poems as "How Do I Love Thee?" and Aurora Leigh. Some of Elizabeth Barrett's family had lived in Jamaica since 1655, their wealth derived from Edward Barrett, owner of 10,000 acres in the estates of Cinnamon Hill, Cornwall and Oxford in northern Jamaica. Elizabeth's maternal grandfather owned sugar plantations, mills and ships that traded between Jamaica and Newcastle.
Biographer Julia Markus states the poet "believed that she had African blood through her grandfather Charles Moulton", but there is no evidence of this – although other branches of her family had African blood through relationships between plantation owners and slaves. What the family believed to be their genealogy in relation to Jamaica is unclear; the family wished to hand down their name, stipulating that Barrett should always be held as a surname. In some cases inheritance was given on condition. Given this strong tradition, Elizabeth used "Elizabeth Barrett Moulton Barrett" on legal documents and before she was married signed herself "Elizabeth Barrett Barrett" or "EBB". Elizabeth's father chose to raise his family in England while his business enterprises remained in Jamaica; the fortune of Elizabeth's mother's line, the Graham Clarke family derived in part from slave labour, was considerable. Elizabeth Barrett Moulton-Barrett was born on 6 March 1806, in Coxhoe Hall, between the villages of Coxhoe and Kelloe in County Durham, England.
Her parents were Mary Graham Clarke. All lived to adulthood except for one girl; the children all had nicknames: Elizabeth was "Ba". She rode her pony, went for family walks and picnics, socialised with other county families, participated in home theatrical productions, but unlike her siblings, she immersed herself in books as as she could get away from the social rituals of her family. She was baptized in 1809 at Kelloe parish church, although she had been baptised by a family friend in her first week of life. In 1809, the family moved to Hope End, a 500-acre estate near the Malvern Hills in Ledbury, Herefordshire, her father converted the Georgian house into stables and built a new mansion of opulent Turkish design, which his wife described as something from the Arabian Nights Entertainments. The interior's brass balustrades, mahogany doors inlaid with mother-of-pearl, finely carved fireplaces were complemented by lavish landscaping: ponds, kiosks, an ice house, a hothouse, a subterranean passage from house to gardens.
Her time at Hope End would inspire her in life to write her most ambitious work, Aurora Leigh, which went through more than 20 editions by 1900, but none between 1905 and 1978. She was tutored by Daniel McSwiney with her oldest brother, she began writing verses at the age of four. During the Hope End period, she was an intensely studious, precocious child, she claimed that at the age of six she was reading novels, at eight entranced by Pope's translations of Homer, studying Greek at ten, at twelve writing her own Homeric epic, The Battle of Marathon: A Poem. In 1820 Mr Barrett published The Battle of Marathon, an epic-style poem, though all copies remained within the family, her mother compiled the child's poetry into collections of "Poems by Elizabeth B. Barrett", her father called her the "Poet Laureate of Hope End" and encouraged her work. The result is one of the largest collections of juvenilia of any English writer. Mary Russell Mitford described the young Elizabeth at this time, as having "a slight, delicate figure, with a shower of dark curls falling on each side of a most expressive face.
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066. Edward was the son of Emma of Normandy, he succeeded Cnut the Great's son – and his own half brother – Harthacnut. He restored the rule of the House of Wessex after the period of Danish rule since Cnut conquered England in 1016; when Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. Edgar the Ætheling, of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks. Historians disagree about Edward's long reign, his nickname reflects the traditional image of him as pious. Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, as opposed to King Edward the Martyr; some portray Edward the Confessor's reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, due to the infighting that began after his heirless death.
Biographers Frank Barlow and Peter Rex, on the other hand, portray Edward as a successful king, one, energetic and sometimes ruthless. However, Richard Mortimer argues that the return of the Godwins from exile in 1052 "meant the effective end of his exercise of power", citing Edward's reduced activity as implying "a withdrawal from affairs". About a century in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the late king. Saint Edward was one of England's national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint in about 1350. Saint Edward's feast day is 13 October, celebrated by both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales. Edward was the seventh son of Æthelred the Unready, the first by his second wife, Emma of Normandy. Edward was born between 1003 and 1005 in Islip, is first recorded as a'witness' to two charters in 1005, he had one full brother, a sister, Godgifu. In charters he was always listed behind his older half-brothers. During his childhood, England was the target of Viking raids and invasions under Sweyn Forkbeard and his son, Cnut.
Following Sweyn's seizure of the throne in 1013, Emma fled to Normandy, followed by Edward and Alfred, by Æthelred. Sweyn died in February 1014, leading Englishmen invited Æthelred back on condition that he promised to rule'more justly' than before. Æthelred agreed. Æthelred died in April 1016, he was succeeded by Edward's older half-brother Edmund Ironside, who carried on the fight against Sweyn's son, Cnut. According to Scandinavian tradition, Edward fought alongside Edmund. Edmund died in November 1016, Cnut became undisputed king. Edward again went into exile with his brother and sister. In the same year Cnut had Edward's last surviving elder half-brother, executed, leaving Edward as the leading Anglo-Saxon claimant to the throne. Edward spent a quarter of a century in exile mainly in Normandy, although there is no evidence of his location until the early 1030s, he received support from his sister Godgifu, who married Drogo of Mantes, count of Vexin in about 1024. In the early 1030s, Edward witnessed four charters in Normandy, signing two of them as king of England.
According to the Norman chronicler, William of Jumièges, Robert I, Duke of Normandy attempted an invasion of England to place Edward on the throne in about 1034, but it was blown off course to Jersey. He received support for his claim to the throne from a number of continental abbots Robert, abbot of the Norman abbey of Jumièges, to become Edward's Archbishop of Canterbury. Edward was said to have developed an intense personal piety during this period, but modern historians regard this as a product of the medieval campaign for his canonisation. In Frank Barlow's view "in his lifestyle would seem to have been that of a typical member of the rustic nobility", he appeared to have a slim prospect of acceding to the English throne during this period, his ambitious mother was more interested in supporting Harthacnut, her son by Cnut. Cnut died in 1035, Harthacnut succeeded him as king of Denmark, it is unclear whether he intended to keep England as well, but he was too busy defending his position in Denmark to come to England to assert his claim to the throne.
It was therefore decided that his elder half-brother Harold Harefoot should act as regent, while Emma held Wessex on Harthacnut's behalf. In 1036 Edward and his brother Alfred separately came to England. Emma claimed that they came in response to a letter forged by Harold inviting them to visit her, but historians believe that she did invite them in an effort to counter Harold's growing popularity. Alfred was captured by Earl of Wessex who turned him over to Harold Harefoot, he had Alfred blinded by forcing red-hot pokers into his eyes to make him unsuitable for kingship, Alfred died soon after as a result of his wounds. The murder is thought to be the source of much of Edward's hatred for the Earl and one of the primary reasons for Godwin's banishment in autumn 1051. Edward is said to have fought a successful skirmish near Southampton, and
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight
Yarmouth is a town and civil parish in the west of the Isle of Wight, off the south coast of England. The town is named for its location at the mouth of the small Western Yar river; the town grew near the river crossing a ferry, replaced with a road bridge in 1863. Yarmouth has been a settlement for over a thousand years, is one of the earliest on the island; the first account of the settlement is in Ethelred the Unready's record of the Danegeld tax of 991, when it was called Eremue, meaning "muddy estuary". The Normans laid out the streets on a plan which can still be seen today, it grew being given its first charter as a town in 1135. The town became a parliamentary borough in the Middle Ages, the Yarmouth constituency was represented by two members of Parliament until 1832; until the castle was built, raids by the French hurt the town. Legend has it that the church bells were carried off to Boulogne. Yarmouth Castle was built in 1547, is now in the care of English Heritage, it is a gun platform, built by Henry VIII to fortify the Solent and protect against any attempted invasion of England.
For many years Yarmouth was the seat of the Governor of the Island. It has a quaint Town Hall, rebuilt in 1763. In St. James's Church there is a monument to the 17th century admiral Sir Robert Holmes, at Yarmouth, he obtained it in a raid on a French ship, when he seized an unfinished statue of Louis XIV of France and forced the sculptor to finish it with his own head rather than the king's. In 1784 most of Yarmouth's ancient charters were lost: A ship's captain, drunk after a court dinner, stole what he thought was a case of wine, as he returned to his ship; when he discovered it was a case of books, he threw it overboard. Yarmouth Pier was opened in 1876, it received Grade 2 listed status in 1975. 685 ft long, it's now 609 ft but is still the longest timber pier in England open to the public, a docking point for the MV Balmoral and PS Waverley. Several Sites of Special Scientific Interest lie close to Yarmouth, including Yar Estuary SSSI & Bouldnor And Hamstead Cliffs SSSI; as a port and market town Yarmouth has had local commercial significance.
It still has some boat yards and chandlery, although small it still supports a number of shops, hotels and restaurants, supported by passing trade from the ferry terminal and visiting boat owners. The Wightlink car ferry sails from Yarmouth to Lymington in Hampshire. Southern Vectis operate bus services from Yarmouth bus station, a small building near the ferry terminal, the main route being route 7 serving Totland, Alum Bay, Freshwater and Shalfleet as well as Yarmouth. To reach Yarmouth, route 7 uses Pixley Hill, which has caused some controversy amongst local residents who do not believe the road is large enough for buses; the controversy was started by former route 11 being extended to serve Yarmouth and using the lane in September 2008. In the spring and summer, Southern Vectis operate an open top bus called "The Needles Tour" that runs through Freshwater Bay to Alum Bay and onto the Needles Battery down a bus and pedestrian-only road along the cliff edge. For the more athletic, Yarmouth is on the Isle of Wight Coastal Path.
The parish was once served with services to Newport. Passenger services ended in 1953, the track has long since been removed. In August 2014 the converted and expanded railway station opened as a restaurant. Yarmouth is one of the smallest towns in the United Kingdom; the 2011 census reported the parish of Yarmouth having 865 usual residents. In 2001 the population was just 791. Yarmouth hosted the popular biannual Old Gaffers festival which included several days of entertainment and shows, but in September 2018 it was announced that the event would no longer be held. Yarmouth marina is the landing point for the Royal Navy's Solent Amphibious Challenge, held in June each year.. Official website of Yarmouth Harbour Commissioners Yarmouth Town Council