Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time. Most concretes used are lime-based concretes such as Portland cement concrete or concretes made with other hydraulic cements, when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Often, additives are included in the mixture to improve the properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, famous concrete structures include the Hoover Dam, the Panama Canal, and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of technology were the ancient Romans. The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete, and the dome of the Pantheon is the worlds largest unreinforced concrete dome.
Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century, concrete is the most widely used man-made material. The word concrete comes from the Latin word concretus, the passive participle of concrescere, from con-. Perhaps the earliest known occurrence of cement was twelve years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located adjacent to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes and these ancient deposits were investigated in the 1960s and 1970s. On a human timescale, small usages of concrete go back for thousands of years and they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC. They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of houses, concrete floors. The cisterns were kept secret and were one of the reasons the Nabataea were able to thrive in the desert, some of these structures survive to this day.
In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, it was re-discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater, the Romans knew that adding horse hair made concrete less liable to crack while it hardened, and adding blood made it more frost-resistant. Crystallization of strätlingite and the introduction of pyroclastic clays creates further fracture resistance, german archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates roughly to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC, the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat. Zinc chloride and calcium chloride, as well as potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, are so hygroscopic that they readily dissolve in the water they absorb, not only is sulfuric acid hygroscopic in concentrated form but its solutions are hygroscopic down to concentrations of 10 Vol-% or below. A hygroscopic material will tend to damp and cakey when exposed to moist air. Because of their affinity for moisture, hygroscopic materials might require storage in sealed containers. When added to foods or other materials for the purpose of maintaining moisture content. Materials and compounds exhibit different hygroscopic properties, and this difference can lead to detrimental effects, differences in hygroscopy can be observed in plastic-laminated paperback book covers—often, in a suddenly moist environment, the book cover will curl away from the rest of the book.
The unlaminated side of the cover absorbs more moisture than the side and increases in area. This is similar to the function of a thermostats bi-metallic strip, inexpensive dial-type hygrometers make use of this principle using a coiled strip. Deliquescence, the process by which a substance absorbs moisture from the atmosphere until it dissolves in the absorbed water, deliquescence occurs when the vapour pressure of the solution that is formed is less than the partial pressure of water vapour in the air. While some similar forces are at work here, it is different from capillary attraction, a process where glass or other solid substances attract water, the similar-sounding but unrelated word hydroscopic is sometimes used in error for hygroscopic. A hydroscope is a device used for making observations deep under water. The amount of moisture held by hygroscopic materials is proportional to the relative humidity. Tables containing this information can be found in engineering handbooks and is available from suppliers of various materials and chemicals.
Hygroscopy plays an important role in the engineering of plastic materials, some plastics are hygroscopic while others are not. The seeds of grasses have hygroscopic extensions that bend with changes in humidity. An example is Needle-and-Thread, Hesperostipa comata, each seed has an awn that twists several turns when the seed is released. Increased moisture causes it to untwist, upon drying, to twist again, thorny dragons collect moisture in the dry desert via nighttime condensation of dew that forms on their skin and is channeled to their mouths in hygroscopic grooves between the spines of their skin
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure. The solubility of a substance is a different property from the rate of solution. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a substance or a mixture. One may speak of solid solution, but rarely of solution in a gas, the extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is often applied to poorly or very poorly soluble compounds, a common threshold to describe something as insoluble is less than 0.1 g per 100 mL of solvent. Under certain conditions, the solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution. Metastability of crystals can lead to apparent differences in the amount of a chemical that dissolves depending on its form or particle size. A supersaturated solution generally crystallises when seed crystals are introduced and rapid equilibration occurs, phenylsalicylate is one such simple observable substance when fully melted and cooled below its fusion point.
Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to dissolve a substance, for example, zinc dissolves in hydrochloric acid as a result of a chemical reaction releasing hydrogen gas in a displacement reaction. The zinc ions are soluble in the acid, the smaller a particle is, the faster it dissolves although there are many factors to add to this generalization. Crucially solubility applies to all areas of chemistry, inorganic, organic, in all cases it will depend on the physical conditions and the enthalpy and entropy directly relating to the solvents and solutes concerned. By far the most common solvent in chemistry is water which is a solvent for most ionic compounds as well as a range of organic substances. This is a factor in acidity/alkalinity and much environmental and geochemical work. According to the IUPAC definition, solubility is the composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent. Solubility may be stated in units of concentration such as molarity, mole fraction, mole ratio, mass per volume.
Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution, the solubility equilibrium occurs when the two processes proceed at a constant rate. The term solubility is used in some fields where the solute is altered by solvolysis
Water of crystallization
In chemistry, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water that occurs inside crystals. Water is often incorporated in the formation of crystals from aqueous solutions, in some contexts, water of crystallization is the total weight of water in a substance at a given temperature and is mostly present in a definite ratio. Classically, water of crystallization refers to water that is found in the framework of a metal complex or a salt. Upon crystallization from water or moist solvents, many compounds incorporate water molecules in their crystalline frameworks, water of crystallization can generally be removed by heating a sample but the crystalline properties are often lost. For example, in the case of chloride, the dihydrate is unstable at room temperature. Compared to inorganic salts, proteins crystallize with large amounts of water in the crystal lattice, the water content of 50% is not uncommon for proteins. For example Calcium chloride, CaCl2·2H2O hydrated compoundn A hydrate with coordinated water, for example Zinc chloride, ZnCl24 Both notations can be combined as for example in copper sulfate, SO4·H2O A salt with associated water of crystallization is known as a hydrate.
The structure of hydrates can be elaborate, because of the existence of hydrogen bonds that define polymeric structures. Historically, the structures of many hydrates were unknown, and the dot in the formula of a hydrate was employed to specify the composition without indicating how the water is bound, for example, an aqueous solution prepared from CuSO4•5H2O and anhydrous CuSO4 behave identically. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of hydration is important only for determining the equivalent weight, in some cases, the degree of hydration can be critical to the resulting chemical properties. For example, anhydrous RhCl3 is not soluble in water and is useless in organometallic chemistry whereas RhCl3•3H2O is versatile. Similarly, hydrated AlCl3 is a poor Lewis acid and thus inactive as a catalyst for Friedel-Crafts reactions, samples of AlCl3 must therefore be protected from atmospheric moisture to preclude the formation of hydrates. Crystals of the aforementioned hydrated copper sulfate consist of 2+ centers linked to SO42− ions, copper is surrounded by six oxygen atoms, provided by two different sulfate groups and four molecules of water.
A fifth water resides elsewhere in the framework but does not bind directly to copper, the cobalt chloride mentioned above occurs as 2+ and Cl−. In tin chloride, each Sn center is pyramidal being bound to two chloride ions and one water, the second water in the formula unit is hydrogen-bonded to the chloride and to the coordinated water molecule. Water of crystallization is stabilized by electrostatic attractions, consequently hydrates are common for salts that contain +2, in some cases, the majority of the weight of a compound arises from water. Glaubers salt, Na2SO410, is a crystalline solid with greater than 50% water by weight. Consider the case of nickel chloride hexahydrate and this species has the formula NiCl26
Barium nitrate with chemical formula Ba2 is a salt composed of barium and the nitrate ion. Barium nitrate exists as a solid at room temperature. It is soluble in water, and like other soluble compounds, is toxic. It occurs naturally as the rare mineral nitrobarite. Barium nitrates properties make it suitable for use in military applications, including thermite grenades. Barium nitrate is manufactured by one of two processes, the first involves dissolving small chunks of barium carbonate in nitric acid, allowing any iron impurities to precipitate, filtered and crystallized. The second requires combining barium chloride with a solution of sodium nitrate. Reactions with soluble metal sulfates or sulfuric acid yield barium sulfate, many insoluble barium salts, such as the carbonate and phosphate of the metal, are precipitated by similar double decomposition reactions. Barium nitrate is an oxidizer and reacts vigorously with reducing agents. The solid powder, when mixed with other metals such as aluminium or zinc in their finely divided form, or combined with alloys such as aluminium-magnesium.
Baratol is a composed of barium nitrate, TNT and binder. Barium nitrate mixed with aluminium powder, a formula for flash powder, is highly explosive and it is mixed with thermite to form Thermate-TH3, used in military thermite grenades. It is used in the process of barium oxide. Like all soluble barium compounds, barium nitrate is toxic by ingestion or inhalation, symptoms of poisoning include tightness of muscles, diarrhea, abdominal pain, muscular tremors, weakness, labored breathing, cardiac irregularity, and convulsions. Death may result from cardiac or respiratory failure, and usually occurs a few hours to a few days following exposure to the compound, barium nitrate may cause kidney damage. Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom salts or sodium sulfate may be given as first aid for barium poisoning, inhalation may cause irritation to the respiratory tract. While skin or eye contact is less harmful than ingestion or inhalation, it can result in irritation, redness
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
Magnesium nitrate is a hygroscopic salt with the formula Mg2. In air, it forms the hexahydrate with the formula Mg2·6H2O. It is very soluble in water and ethanol. Magnesium nitrate occurs in mines and caverns as nitromagnesite and this form is not common, although it may be present where guano contacts magnesium-rich rock. It is used in the ceramics, printing and agriculture industries and its fertilizer grade has 10. 5% nitrogen and 9. 4% magnesium, so it is listed as 10. 5-0-0 +9. 4% Mg. Fertilizer blends containing magnesium nitrate usually have ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and micronutrients, the magnesium nitrate used in commerce is a man-made product. It can be synthesized in a variety of ways, the reaction between nitric acid and magnesium metal 2 10HNO3 + 4Mg = 4Mg2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O or magnesium oxide 2 HNO3 + MgO → Mg2 + H2O results in magnesium nitrate. Magnesium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate react to form magnesium nitrate as ammonia is released as a by-product.
Mg2 +2 NH4NO3 → Mg2 +2 NH3 +2 H2O Magnesium nitrate reacts with alkali metal hydroxide to form the corresponding nitrate, the absorption of these nitrogen oxides in water is one possible route to synthesize nitric acid. Although inefficient, this method does not require the use of any strong acid, anhydrous magnesium nitrate is used to increase the concentration of nitric acid past its azeotrope of approximately 68% nitric acid and 32% water. It is used as a desiccant. International Chemical Safety Card 1041 Liquid Chemistry Nitromagnesite Mineral Data Magnesium Nitrate MSDS
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral and these component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride, or organic, such as acetate, and can be monatomic, such as fluoride, or polyatomic, such as sulfate. There are several varieties of salts, salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are alkali salts, whilst those that hydrolyze to produce hydronium ions in water are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic, zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites, usually, non-dissolved salts at standard conditions for temperature and pressure are solid, but there are exceptions. Molten salts and solutions containing dissolved salts are called electrolytes, as they are able to conduct electricity.
As observed in the cytoplasm of cells, in blood, plant saps and mineral waters, their salt content is given for the respective ions. Salts can appear to be clear and transparent and even metallic, in many cases, the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the boundaries, larger crystals tend to be transparent. The color of the salt is due to the electronic structure in the d-orbitals of transition elements or in the conjugated organic dye framework. Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e. g. salty, sour and umami or savory. Salts of strong acids and strong bases are non-volatile and odorless and that slow, partial decomposition is usually accelerated by the presence of water, since hydrolysis is the other half of the reversible reaction equation of formation of weak salts. Many ionic compounds can be dissolved in water or other similar solvents, the exact combination of ions involved makes each compound have a unique solubility in any solvent.
The solubility is dependent on how well each ion interacts with the solvent, for example, all salts of sodium and ammonium are soluble in water, as are all nitrates and many sulfates – barium sulfate, calcium sulfate and lead sulfate are examples of exceptions. However, ions that bind tightly to each other and form highly stable lattices are less soluble, for example, most carbonate salts are not soluble in water, such as lead carbonate and barium carbonate. Some soluble carbonate salts are, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, solid salts do not conduct electricity. Moreover, solutions of salts conduct electricity, the name of a salt starts with the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. Salts are often referred to only by the name of the cation or by the name of the anion. g
Notodden is a city and municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the region of Øst-Telemark. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Notodden, Notodden was separated from the municipality of Heddal in 1913 to become a separate city and municipality. On 1 January 1964, the municipalities of Heddal and Gransherad were merged into Notodden to form a new enlarged municipality. Notodden is on the shore of Heddalsvatnet lake, and the Tinn River runs through the town into the lake, norways biggest stave church, Heddal stave church, can be seen a few kilometres from the city centre. Notodden Airport, Tuven, is located west of the city centre, Norsk Hydro was founded in this town. Notodden is well known for the annual Notodden Blues Festival, which is considered one of the best blues festivals in Europe and it has a well-known metal festival called Motstøy Festivalen. The football club Notodden FK is headquartered here, the first element of the name is not which means to fish using a seine and the last element is the finite form of odde meaning headland.
Thus the general meaning of the name is the fishing place, the coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 11 August 1939, the arms show a silver-colored river and four lightning strikes. One of the first hydroelectric stations in Norway was established in the late 19th century at the Tinnfoss waterfall on the Tinn River. In 2008, Notodden city council decided to end the twin city agreements with Ilisalmi, Nyköping, at the same time Suwałki was approved as a new twin city. Composer Klaus Egge, born 1906 in Gransherad, lived in Notodden, olympic gold medalist Ådne Søndrål was born in Notodden. American blues musician Seasick Steve, who is achieving fame in the United Kingdom, Norwegian blues musician Margit Bakken and painter and author Tor-Arne Moen live in Notodden. One of the most influential Norwegian black metal bands, came from Notodden, as does Mortiis, Star of ash, emperors singer, still resides in Notodden. Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway Notodden travel guide from Wikivoyage Notodden on Flickr 1908 in Notodden, Of course the workers must have houses, from Norsk Hydro
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium, the melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the change from liquid to solid. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. For most substances and freezing points are approximately equal, for example, the melting point and freezing point of mercury is 234.32 kelvins. However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures, for example, agar melts at 85 °C and solidifies from 31 °C to 40 °C, such direction dependence is known as hysteresis. The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is close to 0 °C. In the presence of nucleating substances the freezing point of water is the same as the melting point, the chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3687 K, this property makes tungsten excellent for use as filaments in light bulbs.
Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points, a Kofler bench is a metal strip with a temperature gradient. Any substance can be placed on a section of the strip revealing its thermal behaviour at the temperature at that point, differential scanning calorimetry gives information on melting point together with its enthalpy of fusion. A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window, the several grains of a solid are placed in a thin glass tube and partially immersed in the oil bath. The oil bath is heated and with the aid of the melting of the individual crystals at a certain temperature can be observed. In large/small devices, the sample is placed in a heating block, the measurement can be made continuously with an operating process. For instance, oil refineries measure the point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process. This allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected, for refractory materials the extremely high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer.
For the highest melting materials, this may require extrapolation by several hundred degrees, the spectral radiance from an incandescent body is known to be a function of its temperature. An optical pyrometer matches the radiance of a body under study to the radiance of a source that has been previously calibrated as a function of temperature, in this way, the measurement of the absolute magnitude of the intensity of radiation is unnecessary. However, known temperatures must be used to determine the calibration of the pyrometer, for temperatures above the calibration range of the source, an extrapolation technique must be employed
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is a salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−. It occurs as a mineral niter and is a solid source of nitrogen. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre, major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks. It is one of the constituents of gunpowder and has been used since the Middle Ages as a food preservative. Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names, by the 15th century, Europeans referred to it as saltpeter and as nitrate of potash, as the chemistry of the compound was more fully understood. The Arabs called it Chinese snow and it was called Chinese salt by the Iranians/Persians or salt from Chinese salt marshes. Potassium nitrate has a crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C. Potassium nitrate is soluble in water, but its solubility increases with temperature.
The aqueous solution is almost neutral, exhibiting pH6.2 at 14 °C for a 10% solution of commercial powder and it is not very hygroscopic, absorbing about 0. 03% water in 80% relative humidity over 50 days. It is insoluble in alcohol and is not poisonous, it can react explosively with reducing agents and this was used for the manufacture of gunpowder and explosive devices. The terminology used by al-Rammah indicated a Chinese origin for the gunpowder weapons about which he wrote, at least as far back as 1845, Chilean saltpeter deposits were exploited in Chile and California, USA. A major natural source of nitrate was the deposits crystallizing from cave walls. Extraction is accomplished by immersing the guano in water for a day, traditionally, guano was the source used in Laos for the manufacture of gunpowder for Bang Fai rockets. Perhaps the most exhaustive discussion of the production of material is the 1862 LeConte text. He was writing with the purpose of increasing production in the Confederate States to support their needs during the American Civil War.
Since he was calling for the assistance of rural farming communities and he details the French Method, along with several variations, as well as a Swiss method. Many references have been made to a method using only straw and urine, LeConte describes a process using only urine and not dung, referring to it as the Swiss method
The flash point is the lowest temperature at which vapours of a volatile material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, the fire point is the lowest temperature at which the vapor will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed. The fire point is higher than the point, because at the flash point the vapor may be reliably expected to cease burning when the ignition source is removed. The flash point is a characteristic that is used to distinguish between flammable liquids, such as petrol, and combustible liquids, such as diesel. It is used to characterize the fire hazards of liquids, all liquids have a specific vapor pressure, which is a function of that liquids temperature and is subject to Boyles Law. As temperature increases, vapor pressure increases, as vapor pressure increases, the concentration of vapor of a flammable or combustible liquid in the air increases. Hence, temperature determines the concentration of vapor of the liquid in the air.
The flash point is the lowest temperature at which there will be enough flammable vapor to induce ignition when a source is applied. There are two types of flash point measurement, open cup and closed cup. In open cup devices, the sample is contained in a cup which is heated and, at intervals. The measured flash point will vary with the height of the flame above the liquid surface and, at sufficient height. The best-known example is the Cleveland open cup, in both these types, the cups are sealed with a lid through which the ignition source can be introduced. Closed cup testers normally give lower values for the point than open cup and are a better approximation to the temperature at which the vapour pressure reaches the lower flammable limit. The flash point is an empirical measurement rather than a physical parameter. The measured value will vary with equipment and test protocol variations, including temperature ramp rate, time allowed for the sample to equilibrate, sample volume, methods for determining the flash point of a liquid are specified in many standards.
For example, testing by the Pensky-Martens closed cup method is detailed in ASTM D93, IP34, ISO2719, DIN51758, JIS K2265 and AFNOR M07-019. Determination of flash point by the Small Scale closed cup method is detailed in ASTM D3828 and D3278, EN ISO3679 and 3680, cEN/TR15138 Guide to Flash Point Testing and ISO TR29662 Guidance for Flash Point Testing cover the key aspects of flash point testing. Gasoline is a used in a spark-ignition engine