Phantom OS is an operating system made by Russian programmers. Phantom OS is based on a concept of persistent virtual memory, is managed-code oriented. Phantom OS is one of a few OSes, its primary goal is to achieve simplicity and effectiveness in both the operating system and applications at the same time. Phantom is based on the principle that "Everything is an object", in contrast to the Unix-like approach of "Everything is a file". Managed code: Memory protection on object level, rather than on process level. Global address space: Very effective and inexpensive IPC. Single address space allows transfer of objects from one process to another been done by transferring links to that object. Security is achieved through the absence of pointer arithmetic and the inability of an application to get linked to an object other than by calling a public method. Persistence: Application code does not see OS restarts and could live forever—this makes the concept of a file obsolete and any variable or data structure could be stored forever and at the same time be available directly through a pointer.
Differently from hibernation, done in other OSs, persistence lies in the core principles of the Phantom OS core. It is done transparently for applications. Persistence stays if the computer crashes. Two ways of code migration are offered: Converter from JVM bytecode — will allow import of Java bytecode and other programming languages targeting Java virtual machine. POSIX-subsystem allows port of application code from Unix/Linux — although important features of Phantom OS will not be available; the system exists in alpha version for ia32 processors. Port to ARM architecture is underway and port to MIPS and amd64 has been started. Kernel operation has been demonstrated at the biggest Russian IT-conferences RIT 2011, ADD 2010, CC 2010, 2009; the project is open for contributors to join. EROS Singularity Ted Dziuba.. "Russian rides Phantom to OS immortality". The Register. Retrieved 2011-04-27; the iPhone that never dies "Source codes of Phantom OS". Digital Zone. 2009. Retrieved 2011-04-27. Official website
PTS-DOS is a disk operating system, a DOS clone, developed in Russia by PhysTechSoft and Paragon Technology Systems. PhysTechSoft was formed in 1991 in Moscow, Russia by graduates and members of MIPT, informally known as PhysTech. At the end of 1993, PhysTechSoft released the first commercially available PTS-DOS as PTS-DOS v6.4. The version numbering followed MS-DOS version numbers, as Microsoft released MS-DOS 6.2 in November 1993. In 1995, some programmers founded Paragon Technology Systems, they took source code with them and released their own version named PTS/DOS 6.51CD as well as S/DOS 1.0, a stripped down open-source version. According to official PhysTechSoft announcements, these programmers violated both copyright laws and Russian military laws, as PTS-DOS was developed in close relationship with Russia's military and thus may be subject to military secrets law. PhysTechSoft continued development on their own and released PTS-DOS v6.6 somewhere between and presented PTS-DOS v6.65 at the CeBIT exhibition in 1997.
The next version from PhysTechSoft, formally PTS/DOS Extended Version 6.70 was labeled PTS-DOS 2000 and is still being distributed as a last 16-bit PTS-DOS system, as of 2007. Paragon continued their PTS-DOS line and released Paragon DOS Pro 2000. According to Paragon, this was the last version and all development since ceased. Moreover, this release contained bundled source code of older PTS-DOS v6.51. PhysTechSoft continued developing PTS-DOS and released PTS-DOS 32, formally known as PTS-DOS v7.0, which added support for the FAT32 file system. PTS-DOS is certified by the Russian Ministry of Defense; the following list of commands are supported by PTS-DOS 2000 Pro. Intel 80286 CPU or better 512 KB RAM or more Comparison of DOS operating systems АДОС, unrelated to Russian MS-DOS Russian MS-DOS "PTS-DOS 2000 Pro User Manual". Buggingen, Germany: Paragon Technology GmbH. 1999. Archived from the original on 2018-05-12. Retrieved 2018-05-12. Official website Unofficial PTS-DOS FAQ Paragon GmbH homepage
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
A live CD is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive. A Live CD allows users to run an operating system for any purpose without installing it or making any changes to the computer's configuration. Live CDs can run on a computer without secondary storage, such as a hard disk drive, or with a corrupted hard disk drive or file system, allowing data recovery; as CD and DVD drives have been phased-out, live CDs have become less popular, being replaced by live USBs, which are equivalent systems written onto USB flash drives, which have the added benefit of having write-able storage. The functionality of a live CD is available with a bootable live USB flash drive, or an external hard disk drive connected by USB. Many live CDs offer the option of persistence by writing files to USB flash drive. Many Linux distributions make ISO images available for burning to CD or DVD.
While open source Operating Systems can be used for free, some commercial software, such as Windows To Go requires a license to use. Many Live CDs are used for data recovery, computer forensics, disk imaging, system recovery and malware removal; the Tails operating system is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity of its users, allowing them to work with sensitive documents without leaving a record on a computer's hard drive. All except the earliest digital computers are built with some form of minimal built-in loader, which loads a program or succession of programs from a storage medium, which operate the computer. A read-only medium such as punched tape or punched cards was used for initial program load. With the introduction of inexpensive read-write storage, read-write floppy disks and hard disks were used as boot media. After the introduction of the audio compact disc, it was adapted for use as a medium for storing and distributing large amounts of computer data; this data may include application and operating-system software, sometimes packaged and archived in compressed formats.
It was seen to be convenient and useful to boot the computer directly from compact disc with a minimal working system to install a full system onto a hard drive. While there are read-write optical discs, either mass-produced read-only discs or write-once discs were used for this purpose; the first Compact Disc drives on personal computers were much too slow to run complex operating systems. When operating systems came to be distributed on compact discs, either a boot floppy or the CD itself would boot and only, to install onto a hard drive; the world's first and oldest non-Linux live CD was the FM Towns OS first released in 1989, before the release of Macintosh System 7 in 1991 and Yggdrasil Linux in 1992. Although early developers and users of distributions built on top of the Linux kernel so it could take advantage of cheap optical disks and declining prices of CD drives for personal computers, the Linux distribution CDs or "distros" were treated as a collection of installation packages that must first be permanently installed to hard disks on the target machine.
However, in the case of these distributions built on top of the Linux kernel, the free operating system was meeting resistance in the consumer market because of the perceived difficulty and risk involved in installing an additional partition on the hard disk, in parallel with an existing operating system installation. The term "live CD" was coined because, after typical PC RAM was large enough and 52x speed CD drives and CD burners were widespread among PC owners, it became convenient and practical to boot the kernel and run X11, a window manager and GUI applications directly from a CD without disturbing the OS on the hard disk; this was a new and different situation for Linux than other operating systems, because the updates/upgrades were being released so different distributions and versions were being offered online, because users were burning their own CDs. The first Linux-based'Live CD' was Yggdrasil Linux first released in beta form 1992~1993, though in practice its functionality was hampered due to the low throughput of contemporary CD-ROM drives.
DemoLinux, released in 1998, was the first Linux distribution specially designed as a live CD. The Linuxcare bootable business card, first released in 1999, was the first Live CD to focus on system administration, the first to be distributed in the bootable business card form factor; as of 2015, Finnix is the oldest Live CD still in production. Knoppix, a Debian-derived Linux distribution, was released in 2003, found popularity as both a rescue disk system and as a primary distribution in its own right. Since 2003, the popularity of live CDs has increased partly due to Linux Live scripts and remastersys, which made it easy to build customized live systems. Most of the popular Linux distributions now include a live CD variant, which in some cases is the preferred installation medium. Live CDs are made for many different uses; some are designed to "test drive" a particular operating system. Software can be run for a particular single use, without interfering with system setup. Data on a system, not functioning due to operating system and software issues can be made available.
A Linux distribution is an operating system made from a software collection, based upon the Linux kernel and a package management system. Linux users obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices and personal computers to powerful supercomputers. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system, a window manager, a desktop environment. Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers. A Linux distribution may be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software, packaged together with the Linux kernel in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.
The software is adapted to the distribution and packaged into software packages by the distribution's maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations distributed around the world. Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers or the package management systems, there are only few packages that are written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution. Six hundred Linux distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development; because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, laptops, mobile phones and tablets, as well as minimal environments for use in embedded systems. There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu, community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions are distributed in source code form and compiled locally during installation.
Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991. Linux was distributed as source code only, as a pair of downloadable floppy disk images – one bootable and containing the Linux kernel itself, the other with a set of GNU utilities and tools for setting up a file system. Since the installation procedure was complicated in the face of growing amounts of available software, distributions sprang up to simplify this. Early distributions included the following: H. J. Lu's "Boot-root", the aforementioned disk image pair with the kernel and the absolute minimal tools to get started, in late 1991 MCC Interim Linux, made available to the public for download in February 1992 Softlanding Linux System, released in 1992, was the most comprehensive distribution for a short time, including the X Window System Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, a commercial distribution first released in December 1992The two oldest and still active distribution projects started in 1993; the SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.
Dissatisfied with SLS, Ian Murdock set to create a free distribution by founding Debian, which had its first release in December 1993. Users were attracted to Linux distributions as alternatives to the DOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems on IBM PC compatible computers, Mac OS on the Apple Macintosh, proprietary versions of Unix. Most early adopters were familiar with Unix from school, they embraced Linux distributions for their low cost, availability of the source code for most or all of the software included. The distributions were a convenience, offering a free alternative to proprietary versions of Unix but they became the usual choice for Unix or Linux experts. To date, Linux has become more popular in server and embedded devices markets than in the desktop market. For example, Linux is used on over 50% of web servers, whereas its desktop market share is about 3.7%. Many Linux distributions provide an installation system akin to that provided with other modern operating systems. On the other hand, some distributions, including Gentoo Linux, provide only the binaries of a basic kernel, compilation tools, an installer.
Distributions are segmented into packages. Each package contains service. Examples of packages are a library for handling the PNG image format, a collection of fonts or a web browser; the package is provided as compiled code, with installation and removal of packages handled by a package management system rather than a simple file archiver. Each package intended for such a PMS contains meta-information such as a package description, "dependencies"; the package management system can evaluate this meta-information to allow package searches, to perform an automatic upgrade to a newer version, to check that all dependencies of a package are fulfilled, and/or to fulfill them automatically. Alth
Baget RTOS is a real-time operating system developed by the Scientific Research Institute of System Development of the Russian Academy of Sciences for a MIPS and Intel BSPs. Baget is intended for software execution in a hard real-time embedded systems. X Window System was ported to Baget, it has ethernet support, VFAT and a tar file systems, FDD and HDD driver support. A number of supported network cards are limited by some Realtek PCI cards; the development process is based on the following principles: international standards compliance portability scalability microkernel object-oriented programming cross-platform development POSIX 1003.1, portable operating systems standard, C standard and libraries. Comparison of real-time operating systems NIISI RAS Baget RTOS NIISI RAS MCST-R500 1 GHz CPU for Baget RTOS
A package manager or package-management system is a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner. A package manager deals with distributions of software and data in archive files. Packages contain metadata, such as the software's name, description of its purpose, version number, checksum, a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database. Package managers maintain a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites, they work with software repositories, binary repository managers, app stores. Package managers are designed to eliminate the need for manual updates; this can be useful for large enterprises whose operating systems are based on Linux and other Unix-like systems consisting of hundreds or tens of thousands of distinct software packages.
A software package is an archive file containing a computer program as well as necessary metadata for its deployment. The computer program can be in source code that has to be built first. Package metadata include package description, package version, dependencies. Package managers are charged with the task of finding, maintaining or uninstalling software packages upon the user's command. Typical functions of a package management system include: Working with file archivers to extract package archives Ensuring the integrity and authenticity of the package by verifying their digital certificates and checksums Looking up, installing or updating existing software from a software repository or app store Grouping packages by function to reduce user confusion Managing dependencies to ensure a package is installed with all packages it requires, thus avoiding "dependency hell" Computer systems that rely on dynamic library linking, instead of static library linking, share executable libraries of machine instructions across packages and applications.
In these systems, complex relationships between different packages requiring different versions of libraries results in a challenge colloquially known as "dependency hell". On Microsoft Windows systems, this is called "DLL hell" when working with dynamically linked libraries. Good package management is vital on these systems; the Framework system from OPENSTEP was an attempt at solving this issue, by allowing multiple versions of libraries to be installed and for software packages to specify which version they were linked against. System administrators may install and maintain software using tools other than package management software. For example, a local administrator may download unpackaged source code, compile it, install it; this may cause the state of the local system to fall out of synchronization with the state of the package manager's database. The local administrator will be required to take additional measures, such as manually managing some dependencies or integrating the changes into the package manager.
There are tools available to ensure that locally compiled packages are integrated with the package management. For distributions based on.deb and.rpm files as well as Slackware Linux, there is CheckInstall, for recipe-based systems such as Gentoo Linux and hybrid systems such as Arch Linux, it is possible to write a recipe first, which ensures that the package fits into the local package database. Troublesome with software upgrades are upgrades of configuration files. Since package managers, at least on Unix systems, originated as extensions of file archiving utilities, they can only either overwrite or retain configuration files, rather than applying rules to them. There are exceptions to this that apply to kernel configuration. Problems can be caused; some package managers, such as Debian's dpkg, allow configuration during installation. In other situations, it is desirable to install packages with the default configuration and overwrite this configuration, for instance, in headless installations to a large number of computers.
This kind of pre-configured installation is supported by dpkg. To give users more control over the kinds of software that they are allowing to be installed on their system, software is downloaded from a number of software repositories; when a user interacts with the package management software to bring about an upgrade, it is customary to present the user with the list of actions to be executed, allow the user to either accept the upgrade in bulk, or select individual packages for upgrades. Many package managers can be configured to never upgrade certain packages, or to upgrade them only when critical vulnerabilities or instabilities are found in the previous version, as defined by the packager of the software; this process is sometimes called version pinning. For instance: yum supports this with the syntax exclude=openoffice* pacman with IgnorePkg = openoffice dpkg and dselect support this through the hold flag in package selections APT extends the hold flag through the complex "pinning" mechanismUsers can blacklist a package aptitude has "hold" and "forbid" flags portage s