Guadalupe County, Texas
Guadalupe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 131,533; the county seat is Seguin. The county is named after Guadalupe River. Guadalupe County is part of the San Antonio, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indigenous paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers were the first inhabitants of the area, thousands of years before European colonization. Historic Indian tribes settled in the area, including Tonkawa, Kickapoo, Lipan Apache, Comanche. In 1689, Alonso de Leon named the Guadalupe River for Spain in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe. In 1806, French army officer José de la Baume, who joined the Spanish army, was rewarded for his services to Spain with title to 27,000 acres of Texas land, the original El Capote Ranch; the grant was reaffirmed by the Republic of Mexico. Following Mexico's independence from Spain, Anglo-Americans from the United States settled in Texas in 1821 and claimed Mexican citizenship. In 1825, Guadalupe County was part of Green DeWitt's petition for a land grant to establish a colony in Texas, approved by the Mexican government.
From 1827 to 1835, twenty-two families settled the area as part of DeWitt's colony. Following Texas' gaining independence from Mexico, 33 Gonzales Rangers and Republic veterans established Seguin. Founded as Walnut Springs in 1838, the settlement's name was changed to Seguin the next year to honor Juan Nepomuceno Seguín, who had fought for independence. In 1840, the Virginian Michael Erskine acquired the El Capote Ranch for use as a cattle ranch. In 1842, the Republic of Texas organized Guadalupe County as a judicial county; the Texas Supreme Court declared judicial counties to be unconstitutional. In 1845, Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels secured title to 1,265 acres of the Veramendi grant in the northern part of the former judicial county. Following the annexation of Texas by the United States, the Prussian immigrant August Wilhelm Schumann arrived on the Texas coast aboard the SS Franziska in 1846 and purchased 188 acres in Guadalupe County. Shortly thereafter, the state legislature established the present county from parts of Bexar and Gonzales counties.
In 1846, during the war between the United States and Mexico, a wagon train of German immigrant settlers bought Guadalupe land from August Schumann. The following year the town of Schumannsville was established by German immigrants and named after him. Numerous German immigrants entered Texas at Galveston following the revolutions of 1848 in German states, settling in Guadalupe County and central Texas. After their own struggles, they tended to oppose slavery; the last Indian raid into the area was made by the Kickapoo in 1855. By 1860, there were 1,748 slaves of African descent in the county brought in from the South by slaveholder migrants. In 1861, the people of the county voted 314–22 in favor of secession from the Union. Guadalupe County sent several troops to fight for the Confederate States Army. Following the end of the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves, a Freedmen's Bureau office opened in 1866 in Seguin to supervise work contracts between former slaves and area farmers. Together, German Americans and African Americans joined the Republican Party, leading Guadalupe County to be a reliably Republican one into the 20th century after the state disfranchisement of African Americans in 1901 by imposition of a poll tax.
By 1876, the Galveston and San Antonio Railway reached Seguin. It was completed as far as San Antonio the following year. By 1880, ethnic Germans accounted for 40 percent of the county population. Tenant farming and sharecropping accounted for the operation of 25 percent of the county's farms. By 1910, immigrants from Mexico accounted for 11½ percent of the country’s population. In 1929, oil was discovered at the Darst Creek oilfield. By 1930, tenant farming and sharecropping comprised 64 percent of the county's farms. Over the next five decades, the economy changed markedly as the area became more urbanized and less dependent on agriculture. By 1982, professional and related services and wholesale and retail trade involved nearly 60 percent of the work force in the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 715 square miles, of which 711 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. Interstate 10 Interstate 35 U. S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 90 Alternate State Highway 46 State Highway 123 State Highway 130 Hays County Caldwell County Gonzales County Wilson County Bexar County Comal County As of the census of 2000, there were 89,023 people, 30,900 households, 23,823 families residing in the county.
The population density was 125 people per square mile. There were 33,585 housing units at an average density of 47 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.65% White, 5.01% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 12.76% from other races, 3.07% from two or more races. 33.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 30,900 households out of which 38.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.90% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65
Caldwell County Courthouse (Texas)
The Caldwell County Courthouse is a historic courthouse located in Lockhart, United States. The courthouse was built in 1894 to replace the existing courthouse, too small for the growing county; the courthouse was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1976 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a contributing property of the Caldwell County Courthouse Historic District on January 3, 1978. The courthouse was built in the Second Empire architectural style, with the design attributed to Alfred Giles. M. Guidon, who became partners with Giles; the courthouse is nearly identical to the courthouse in Goliad County, Texas, as it was built from the same Guidon plans. The exterior of the three-story courthouse is built with red sandstone; the central clock tower houses a 900-pound bell. The mansard roof of the courthouse is characteristic of Second Empire design. National Register of Historic Places listings in Caldwell County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Caldwell County List of county courthouses in Texas Media related to Caldwell County Courthouse at Wikimedia Commons
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
San Marcos, Texas
San Marcos is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, within the Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos metropolitan area. It is the seat of Hays County, its limits extend into Guadalupe counties, as well. Its population was 44,894 at the 2010 census and was an estimated 61,980 in 2016. Founded on the banks of the San Marcos River, the area is thought to be among the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the Americas. San Marcos is home to Texas State University and the Meadows Center for the Environment. In 2010, San Marcos was listed in Business Week's fourth annual survey of the "Best Places to Raise your Kids". In 2013 and 2014, the United States Census Bureau named it the fastest-growing city in the United States. In December 2013, it was named #9 on Business Insider's list of the "10 Most Exciting Small Cities In America". San Marcos is in Central Texas, it is 30 miles southwest of Austin and 51 miles northeast of San Antonio. According to the United States Census Bureau, in 2010, it had a total area of 30.3 square miles, of which 30.2 square miles was land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.44%, was covered by water.
Interstate 35 is the main highway through it, with access from Exits 199 through 208. It is situated on the Balcones Fault, the boundary between the Hill Country to the west and the Coastal Plains to the east. Along the fault, many springs emerge, such as San Marcos Springs, which forms Spring Lake and is the source of the San Marcos River; the eastern part is blackland prairie. The western part consists of forested or grassy rolling hills marked with cacti; the San Marcos River and the Blanco River, part of the Guadalupe watershed, flow through the city, along with Cottonwood Creek, Purgatory Creek, Sink Creek, Willow Springs Creek. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters, with some winter frost at night. Annual precipitation is about 34 inches. According to the Köppen climate classification system, San Marcos has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. For primary and secondary education, San Marcos is served by the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District.
San Marcos High School is the district's sole high school. San Marcos Baptist Academy, a private high school, is in the city. Doris Miller Middle School and Owen Goodnight Middle School are the two middle schools located in San Marcos. San Marcos is home to six elementary schools; the city houses a Pre-Kindergarten School, named Bonham Pre-K. As per higher education, San Marcos is home to Texas State University, a public research university, established in 1899. Further, the Austin Community College District has an independent campus in the nearby city of Kyle, Texas; the Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State is one of the four extant body farms in the United States and the largest such forensics research facility in the world. San Marcos is home to Aquarena Center, the Meadows Center for Water and the Environment, the San Marcos National Fish Hatchery and Aquatic Resource Center, the A. E. Wood Texas Fish Hatchery, the San Marcos Nature Center, the Centro Cultural Hispano de San Marcos, the Indigenous Cultures Institute.
Capital Area Rural Transportation System San Marcos Municipal Airport San Marcos Station is served by Amtrak's Texas Eagle San Marcos' central location along IH-35 and strong infrastructure makes it ideal for industry. It includes business incentives, a high quality of life, regional airports and proximity to major international airports, access to major roadways such as IH-35, SH-130, US-183, IH-10, networking opportunities and support for small businesses and entrepreneurs, a healthy tax structure, a diverse and talented workforce. Along with its easy access to air travel, San Marcos has ready access to several freight routes and IH-35 and IH-10, which run north/south and east/west through the region; the access points of the area provide an easy route to major cities in Texas such as Austin, San Antonio and Houston. The region has several institutions of higher education that provide a continual source of talent for the region's workforce; these institutions include the fourth-largest university in Texas State University.
The area's quality of life is highlighted by the San Marcos River, fed by the San Marcos Springs. Many other lakes and rivers dot the local landscape, the region's location within the Texas Hill Country provides easy access to the many outdoor amenities. In June 2006, The View named the San Marcos Outlet Malls as the third-best place to shop in the world. About six million people visit them annually; the San Marcos and Blanco Rivers flow through the city, along with Cottonwood Creek, Purgatory Creek, Sink Creek, Willow Springs Creek. Each of these rivers and creeks has parks or nature preserves with hiking trails along it; the San Marcos River rises from the San Marcos Springs. The springs are home to several threatened or endangered species, including the Texas blind salamander, fountain darter, San Marcos gambusia, Texas wild rice; the river begins at San Marcos Springs. The upper river flows through Texas State University and San Marcos and is a popular recreational area, it is joined by the Blanco River after four miles, passes through Luling and near Gonzales, flows into the Guadalupe River after 75 miles.
The Karankawa were a Native American people concentrated in southern Texas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. They consisted of several independent seasonal nomadic groups who shared the same language and much of the same culture; the tribe included the groups called the Cujanes, Cocos and Copanes. Some of the village names survived to modern day and are the Ebahamo, Kouyam, Quara and the Toyal villages. After establishing relations with the Spanish empire in the sixteenth century, the Karankawa played an important role in the goals of the Spanish empire, relations between the French and English empires, the Texan-Mexican War. In 1825, Stephen Austin commissioned a captain to lead volunteers to expel the Karankawa from the Austin land grant. In subsequent years, the Karankawa were attacked by Texan colonists, who drove them out of their native territories. By the 1840s, the Karankawa split into two groups, one of which settled on Padre Island while the other fled into the Mexican state of Tamaulipas.
In 1858, Juan Nepomuceno Cortina led a group of Texan colonists against the Karankawa's last refuge and killed the remaining members of the tribe. By 1891, the Karankawa as an organized tribe was believed to be extinct. Historical research of the Karankawa is hindered because the documents concerning them were overwhelmingly written by open enemies of the tribe; the Karankawa name's origins are disputed. Early speculation centered around the names. Karankawa was theorized to originate from related peoples living nearby who called the dog the term "klam" or "glam", to love, to like, to be fond of, "kawa." Thus Karankawa could mean dog-raisers. Meanwhile, the Tonkawa called them due to the Karankawas' skill in the art, they alternatively called them the barefooted or those without moccasins, but this name was applied to other groups with which the Tonkawe were acquainted. The Lipan-Apache called the Karankawa the people who walk in the water referring to their mode of fishing and catching turtles.
Notably, the Karankawa called themselves "Karankawa" as well. Speculation placed the Karankawa language in the Cariban linguistic stock. Linguistic data suggests that the Karankawa name originated from the old Spanish Main, "Kalina," and a suffix from a Northern Carib tribe, "kxura,"meaning "people, but this theory is disputed and the origins of the name "Karankawa" remain unknown. According to some contemporary sources, former migrations of their ancestors were unknown to the Karankawa of the early nineteenth century. However, the linguist Herbert Landar argues that based on linguistic evidence, the Karankawa language and people originated from a Carib subgroup; the Carib subgroup to which the Karankawa people belong remains to be discovered. Their exact migratory path northward is indistinct. Migration northward is theorized to have occurred in the late fifteenth century; the route north was from the original land north of the Amazon river toward Tamaulipas and Texas, was finished over a long period of time in short bursts of migration.
Scholars have speculated that the Karankawa were descended from a group of Carib Indians who arrived by sea from the Caribbean basin. This is based on the similarity of their physical appearance to Caribbean Natives. However, no ethnographic or archaeological evidence has been found to support this speculation. Recent archaeological records that used radiocarbon dating for artifacts indicated that these native groups had been in the area as early as the 5th millennium BCE; the Karankawa voyaged from place to place on a seasonal basis in their dugouts, made from large trees with the bark left intact. They remained in each place about four weeks. After European contact, canoes were of two kinds, both being called "awa'n": the original dugout and old skiffs obtained from the whites. Neither were used for fishing but for transportation only, their travels were limited to the waters close to the land; the women and possessions travelled in the hold while the men stood on the stern and poled the canoe.
Upon landing at their next destination, the women set up wigwams and the men hauled the boats on the shore. Their campsites were always close to the shoreline of the nearby body of water, their wigwams consisted of willow branches arranged in a circle, with the tops of the branches bent toward the center and interlocked in wickerwork. This wickerwork was fastened with deerskin. Upon this framework, the Karankawa lay deer, panther or bear skins, again fastened with deerskin thongs; the next step was to make a fire. After European contact, the Karankawa begged for tinderboxes from settlers; the fire was always kept burning day and night. They used animal skins to sleep on within their dwellings, their household goods and utensils included wooden spoons, some clay vessels, fishbone needles, fine deer sinew. The primary food sources of the Karankawa were venison, birds, fish and turtles, they supplemented their hunting with gathering food such as berries, wild grapes, sea-bird eggs, nuts. Their food was always boiled in earthen pots or roasted.
Although there were a lot of salt deposits nearby, the Karankawa used chile for seasoning their food. After European contact, the Karankawa would mix flour with
Smithville is a city in Bastrop County, United States, near the Colorado River. The population was 3,817 at the 2010 census. Smithville is part of the Greater Austin metropolitan area. Dr. Thomas Jefferson Gazley arrived in 1827 and set the pace of development for Smithville by building the first house and establishing the first store, which served incoming settlers and the friendly Lipan and Tonkawa Indians, he served in the Mexican government and helped write the Texas Declaration of Independence and the first Constitution, became a true Texas hero. William Smith’s family arrived several years after Dr. Gazley, they owned a store and were early influences on the area, including the naming of Smithville where about seventeen families lived on the south bank of the Colorado River. Local businessman, Murray Burleson, persuaded the approaching railroad to erect a Terminus here and the TB&H steamed through in 1887; the Missouri, Kansas & Texas took over the Taylor and Houston Railroad in 1891. In 1894, the MK&T established central shops in Smithville, giving rise to growth which resulted in Smithville becoming the largest town in Bastrop County for nearly fifty years.
This population created markets for homes and other necessities as it grew from a frontier village to a town. The Hill family established the first bank; the need for infrastructure systems attracted the Buescher brothers to come and create the first utilities. Partnerships of prominent, able men involved in land-based activities united the Bueschers, Cooks, Turneys, Rabbs and others to establish cotton gins, general stores, drugstores and brick yards and to develop numerous churches and fraternal organizations such as the Masons and the Oddfellows and to provide medical care for this now flourishing community. In 1895, this thriving town was incorporated into the City of Smithville; the city fathers recognized the importance of education by creating the Smithville School District. Smithville is located in southeastern Bastrop County at 30°00′26″N 97°09′18″W, it is 12 miles southeast of Bastrop and 42 miles southeast of Austin. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,901 people, 1,491 households, 990 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,112.7 people per square mile. There were 1,672 housing units at an average density of 476.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.01% White, 14.53% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 5.10% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.43% of the population. There were 1,491 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,586, the median income for a family was $45,163. Males had a median income of $33,500 versus $23,409 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,282. About 12.1% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over. Smithville is served by the Smithville Independent School District and home to the Smithville High School Tigers; the James H. Long Railroad Museum, located at the intersection of First and Main streets in Smithville, contains exhibits and relics from Smithville's railroad history; the Smithville post office contains an oil on canvas mural, The Law, Texas Rangers, painted in 1939 by Minette Teichmueller. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department; the WPA was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing individuals to carry out public works projects.
Bettye Caldwell, educator Thomas Carter and Emmy Award-winning director Hannibal Lokumbe, jazz trumpeter and composer Balor Moore, major league baseball pitcher born in Smithville Sonny Rhodes, blues singer and lap steel guitar player DJ Screw, hip hop artist. Smithville has its own music and film commission and continues to promote itself as a Film Friendly Community, a designation it received from the Texas Film Commission in 2008. Following is a list of productions that had filming locations in Smithville. Hope Floats starring Sandra Bullock and Harry Connick, Jr. was set and filmed in Smithville, was released at theaters across the nation on May 29, 1998. The Tree of Life starring Brad Pitt, Sean Penn and Jessica Chastain was filmed in Smithville, was released in May 2011; the film, directed by Terrence Malick, won the Palme d'Or
Texas in the American Civil War
The U. S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. As with those of other States, the Declaration was not recognized by the United States government at Washington; some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, but Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers and horses for Confederate forces. Texas' supply role lasted until mid-1863, after which time Union gunboats controlled the Mississippi River, making large transfers of men, horses or cattle impossible; some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Union naval blockade of Galveston and other ports. In the late winter of 1860, Texan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession; the convention adopted an "Ordinance of Secession" by a vote of 166 to 8, ratified by a popular referendum on February 23.
Separately from the Ordinance of Secession, considered a legal document, Texas issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for declaring secession. The document specifies several reasons for secession, including its solidarity with its "sister slave-holding States," the U. S. government's inability to prevent Indian attacks, slave-stealing raids, other border-crossing acts of banditry. It accuses northern abolitionists of committing a variety of outrages upon Texans; the bulk of the document offers justifications for slavery saying that remaining a part of the United States would jeopardize the security of the two. The declaration includes this extract praising slavery, in which the Union itself is referred to as the "confederacy": We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, of the confederacy itself, were established by the white race, for themselves and their posterity. At this time, African Americans comprised around 30 percent of the state's population, they were overwhelmingly enslaved.
According to one Texan, keeping them enslaved was the primary goal of the state in joining the Confederacy: Independence without slavery, would be valueless... The South without slavery would not be worth a mess of pottage. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, public opinion in the cotton states of the Lower South swung in favor of secession. By February 1861, the other six states of the sub-region had separately passed ordinances of secession. However, events in Texas were delayed due to the resistance of Southern Unionist governor, Sam Houston. Unlike the other "cotton states"' chief executives, who took the initiative in secessionist efforts, Houston refused to call the Texas Legislature into special session to consider the question, relenting only when it became apparent citizens were prepared to act without him. In early December 1860, before South Carolina seceded, a group of State officials published via newspaper a call for a statewide election of convention delegates on January 8, 1861.
This election was irregular for the standards of the day. It relied on voice vote at public meetings, although "viva voce" voting for popular elections had been used since at least March 1846, less than three months after statehood. Unionists were discouraged from attending or chose not to participate; this resulted in lopsided representation of secessionists delegates. The election call had stipulated for the delegates to assemble in convention on January 28. Houston called the Legislature into session, hoping that the elected body would declare the unauthorized convention illegal. Though he expressed reservations about the election of Abraham Lincoln, he urged the State of Texas to reject secession, citing the horrors of war and a probable defeat of the South; the convention removed Houston from the governorship promoted the Lieutenant Governor, Edward Clark. However, the Texas Legislature voted the delegates' expense money and supplies and—over Houston's veto—made a pledge to uphold the legality of the Convention's actions.
The only stipulation was. With gubernatorial forces routed, the Secession Convention convened on January 28 and, in the first order of business, voted to back the legislature 140–28 in that an ordinance of secession, if adopted, be submitted for statewide consideration; the following day, convention president Oran Roberts introduced a resolution suggesting Texas leave the Union. The ordinance was read on the floor the next day, citing the failures of the federal government to protect the lives and property of Texas citizens and accusing the Northern states of using the same as a weapon to "strike down the interests and prosperity" of the Southern people. After the grievances were listed, the ordinance repealed the one of July 4, 1845, in which Texas approved annexation by the United States and the Constitution of the United States, revoked all powers of, obligations to, allegiance to, the U. S. federal government and the U. S. Constitution. In the interests of historical significance and posterity, the ordinance was written to take effect on March 2, the date of Texas Declaration of Independence.
On February 1, members of the Legislature, a huge crowd of private citizens, packed the House galleries and balcony to watch the final vote on the question of secession. Seventy