North British Locomotive Company
The North British Locomotive Company was created in 1903 through the merger of three Glasgow locomotive manufacturing companies. Its main factories were located at the neighbouring Atlas and Hyde Park Works in central Springburn, as well as the Queens Park Works in Polmadie. A new central Administration and Drawing Office for the combined company was completed across the road from the Hyde Park Works on Flemington Street by James Miller in 1909 sold to Glasgow Corporation in 1961 to become the main campus of North Glasgow College; the two other Railway works in Springburn were St. Rollox railway works, owned by the Caledonian Railway and Cowlairs railway works, owned by the North British Railway. Latterly both works were operated by British Rail Engineering Limited after rail nationalisation in 1948. In 1918 NBL produced the first prototype of the Anglo-American Mark VIII battlefield tank for the Allied armies, but with the Armistice it did not go into production. NBL built steam locomotives for countries all over the world.
This included North America, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa. The New South Wales Government Railways purchased numerous North British locomotives, as did the Victorian Railways as late as 1951; the Western Australian Government Railways purchased many North British Locomotives, such as the P class. Between 1903 and 1959 NB supplied many locomotives of various classes to Egyptian State Railways, they included 40 of the 545 class 2-6-0 in 1928. Between 1921 and 1925, NBL supplied New Zealand Government Railways with 85 NZR AB class locomotives; the whole fleet of AB class engines numbered 143, as built. Two were lost at sea. In 1935 NB supplied six Palestine Railways P class 4-6-0 locomotives to haul main line trains between Haifa and the Suez Canal. In 1939 NB supplied 40 4-8-2 locomotives to the New Zealand Railways Department. In 1951 NB supplied another 16 JA class, though these did not have the American-style streamlining of the J class. Together with the NB predecessor firms, North British supplied about a quarter of the steam locomotives used by the NZR.
In 1949 South African Railways bought more than 100 2-8-4 locomotives from NBL and these became the Class 24. Additionally South Africa purchased some of its Class 25, 4-8-4 engines from the company between 1953–55; these successful engines with various in-service modifications survived until the end of steam in South Africa in 1992. NB introduced the Modified Fairlie locomotive in 1924. In total South Africa purchased over 2,000 locomotives from the North British Locomotive Company; as of January 2010, Umgeni Steam Railway operates SAR Class 3BR engine 1486, now named "Maureen", on the line between Kloof and Inchanga, a distance of about 23.5 kilometres. She hauls vintage sightseeing trains some coaches of which date back to 1908. In 1953, RENFE in Spain acquired 25 2-8-2 locomotives from the North British Locomotive Company. One example, 141F 2111 is preserved in working order. Locomotives made for railways in Britain and Ireland included the Barry Railway. After 1923, customers included the Great Western Railway.
In 1922 the New Zealand Railways Department ordered a batch of its successful AB class Pacifics from NBL, to be built and shipped as soon as possible. The trio 22878, 22879 and 22880 were built amidst this batch. 22878 and 22879 were loaded aboard SS Wiltshire and she sailed for Auckland, New Zealand, but she got into difficulty at Rosalie Bay, on the east coast of Great Barrier Island and sank. Remnants of both locomotives, the Wiltshire can be seen on the sea floor. 22880 was dispatched on a subsequent sailing and was put into service in New Zealand as AB class number 745. This locomotive was in service for more than 30 years but hit a washout near Hawera, it was left in the mud for nearly 50 years but
Caledonian Railway 0-4-4T
Caledonian Railway 0-4-4T steam locomotives were built for the Caledonian Railway, in Scotland, over many years. Most survived into London and Scottish Railway ownership in 1923 and some into British Railways ownership in 1948. Designers included John Lambie, John F. McIntosh and William Pickersgill. A development of the Pickersgill design was introduced by the LMS in 1925. 171 Class, 24 built 1884–1891LMS numbers 15100–15114 19 Class, 10 built 1895CR numbers 19–28 LMS numbers 15115–15124 BR numbers 55119 and 55121–55124 92 Class, 12 built 1897CR numbers 13–18, 98–103 LMS numbers 15125–15136 BR numbers 55125–55127, 55129, 55130, 55132–55136 104 Balerno Class, 12 built 1889CR numbers 104–111, 167–170 LMS numbers 15147–15158.879 Class, 10 built 1900CR numbers 879–886, 437–438 LMS numbers 15137–15146 BR numbers 55138–55146 439 Class, 68 built 1900–1914CR numbers 439–455, 151, 423, 473, 112, 125, 424, 463–466, 660, 666, 158, 419, 422, 429, 470, 126–127, 420–421, 427–428, 456, 467–469, 155, 160, 459, 461, 152–154, 156, 460, 462, 157, 164, 457–458, 228–231, 222–227.
LMS numbers 15159–15226 BR numbers 55159–55226 159 Class, 10 built 1915-1922CR numbers 159, 161–163, 418, 425–426, 430, 435–436 LMS numbers 15227-15236 BR numbers 55227-55236431 Class, 4 built 1922CR numbers 431–434 LMS numbers 15237–15240 BR numbers 55237–55240 Class 2P, 10 built 1925LMS numbers 15260–15269 BR numbers 55260–55269 NoteThe weight figures differ by up to 3 cwt between sources. This may reflect the amount of fuel and water on board; the 19 and 92 Classes were fitted with condensing apparatus for use on Glasgow Central Low Level lines. Caledonian Railway 439 Class Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway Casserley, H. C. & Johnston, Stuart W.. Locomotives at the Grouping 3: London and Scottish Railway. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan. Pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-7110-0554-0. Ian Allan ABC of British Railways Locomotives, 1948, part 3, pp. 45–46 Rail UK data page, 19 and 92 Classes Rail UK data page, 439 Class Rail UK data page, 431 Class Rail UK data page, LMS 2P Class
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
Caledonian Railway Single
Caledonian Railway Single No. 123 is a preserved Scottish steam locomotive. The unique 4-2-2 was built by Neilson and Company in 1886, works No. 3553, as an exhibition locomotive. In 1914 it was placed on the Caledonian Railway duplicate list, renumbered 1123, it entered London and Scottish Railway service in 1923 and the LMS renumbered it 14010 and gave it the power classification 1P. During the 1920s it was allocated to working the directors' saloon, but it was returned to ordinary service in 1930; the locomotive was withdrawn in 1935, by which time it was the last single-wheeled express engine running in Britain, set aside for preservation. Restored to steam by British Railways in 1958, it ran railtours and enthusiast specials until the end of steam in Scotland. No. 123 was designed by the Caledonian Railway's chief locomotive engineer Dugald Drummond in partnership with Neilson and Company which built the locomotive. The engine was a one-off design intended to represent both the railway and the builder at the International Exhibition of Industry and Art held in Edinburgh rather than to fulfill any specific need for such a locomotive by the Caledonian.
At the time single-driver locomotives were out of favour with railway companies due to their limited grip, poor acceleration, limited hill-climbing ability and low tractive effort with increasingly-heavy trains. The few that remained in service were restricted to long runs on flat terrain with lightweight carriages. Drummond adapted No. 123's design from his recently-introduced 66 Class 4-4-0 design. As locomotive superintendent of the Caledonian and designer of the 66 Class, protocol of the time dictated that Drummond was credited with the design of No. 123. However it is believed that William Weir and Edward Snowball carried out the actual adaptation and design of the new Single. Drummond and the Caledonian co-operated with another major Scottish locomotive builder, Dübs and Company, to produce a second engine for the same Exhibition; this resulted in Caledonian No. 124, a 4-4-0 which was, in essence, a more powerful 66 Class. Both engines were awarded gold medals for their respective builders.
The'Exhibition Engine' used the same boiler and front bogie as the 66 Class but an enlarged single driving wheel of seven feet diameter and a single trailing axle. Drummond had designed a sanding system for the 66 Class. Sand was stored in sandboxes incorporated into the splasher for each front driving wheel and sprayed onto the track ahead of the driving wheels by compressed air supplied from the main air reservoir for the locomotive's Westinghouse air brake system; this was more efficient and reliable than the previous sanding systems which relied purely on gravity and allowed the driver to apply sand to the rails to improve adhesion in difficult conditions. Such a system would overcome the primary drawback of the traditional'single' locomotive - its poor adhesion when starting away from rest with heavier trains - while retaining its ability to cover long distances at high speeds; the same system was therefore incorporated into No. 123. The year of the Caledonian Single's construction saw the invention of the steam sander by Francis Holt of the Midland Railway which in turn led to the introduction of the Midland's own'Spinner' singles.
The effectiveness of the sanding gear fitted to No. 123 and the Caledonian engine's strong performance coupled to the invention of Holt's steam sanding gear led to a revival in the use of the'single' for express passenger work in the late 19th century. Following its appearance at the Exhibition the locomotive was retained for special duties by the Caledonian, being used for double heading express trains over Beattock Summit and working inspectors' and directors' trains with only one or two saloon carriages, she was the Caledonian's favoured engine to act as pilot to theRoyal Train which used the Caledonian Main Line when transporting the royal family to and from Balmoral Castle. The Royal Train pilot ran light-engine 15 minutes ahead of the Royal Train itself, to warn of the train's approach and as a safety measure to ensure the line was clear and safe. Requiring high speeds and with no load, the Single was ideal for these duties. No. 123 became nationally famous during the Race to the North of August 1888 when the companies on the east- and west-coast main lines between London and Edinburgh competed to have the fastest times.
During the month of the'races', No. 123 was employed to work West Coast expresses on the Caledonian's section of the route between Carlisle and Edinburgh - a distance of 100 miles including the climbs to Beattock Summit and Shotts Summit. With special trains consisting of only two or three carriages and with signalling paths cleared in advance No. 123 averaged more than 50 mph over the route and on one occasion completed the journey non-stop in 101 minutes - an average speed of 59 mph which confirmed the locomotive's performance abilities. As the only Caledonian engine capable of maintaining such speeds and the only one of her type, No. 123 was used throughout the month of the Races, being used on the fast northbound express every day for four weeks, which proved the locomotive's reliability. Tri-Ang released a model of No. 123 in Caledonian livery and labelling. This model shared its chassis with the model of the Dean Single released at the same time, was powered by its sing
John F. McIntosh
John Farquharson McIntosh was a Scottish engineer. He was Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Caledonian Railway from 1895-1914, he was succeeded by William Pickersgill. Born in Farnell, Scotland, in February 1846, MacIntosh would be famous for working at St. Rollox railway works, in Springburn, in Glasgow. John F. McIntosh became an apprentice with the Scottish North Eastern Railway, at the Arbroath workshops, at the age of 14. In 1865 he passed out as a fireman and in 1867 he qualified as a driver and moved to Montrose. By this time he was employed by the Caledonian Railway which had taken over the SNER in 1866, he lost his right hand in an accident in 1876 or 1877. At about the same time he became Locomotive Inspector for the northern section of the CR, he was given responsibility for all locations north of Greenhill. By 1881 he was living in Perth. Several appointments followed - Locomotive Foreman at Aberdeen and Polmadie. Lambie died on 1 February 1895 and McIntosh replaced him as Chief Mechanical Engineer.
McIntosh's most famous design is the Dunalastair Class 4-4-0. Other designs include: Caledonian Railway 19, 92 and 439 classes 0-4-4T Caledonian Railway 29 & 782 classes 0-6-0T Caledonian Railway 498 Class 0-6-0T Caledonian Railway 652 and 812 classes 0-6-0 PreservationTwo McIntosh locomotives are preserved: 439 Class, humber 419 at the Bo'ness and Kinneil Railway 812 Class, number 828 at the Strathspey Railway He obtained patents for a spark arrestor and a gauge glass protector. List of patentsGB189823849, published 31 May 1899, Improvements in or relating to railway wagon brakes GB190004019, published 16 February 1901, Improvements in or relating to railway wagon brakes GB190207009, published 22 April 1903, Improvements in and connected with engine valve gear GB190822998, published 28 October 1909, Improvements in or relating to the smoke boxes of locomotive boilers He married Jeanie Fleming Logan, a close relative to author Ian Fleming, they had 3 sons and 4 daughters. McIntosh died while working at St. Rollox railway works, on 6 February 1918, 22 days before his 72nd birthday.
The cause of death was never confirmed. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway Locomotives of the London and Scottish Railway
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a