Caledonian orogeny

The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain-building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe. The Caledonian orogeny encompasses events that occurred from the Ordovician to Early Devonian 490–390 million years ago, it was caused by the closure of the Iapetus Ocean when the continents and terranes of Laurentia and Avalonia collided. The Caledonian orogeny is named for the Latin name for Scotland; the name was first used in 1885 by Austrian geologist Eduard Suess for an episode of mountain building in northern Europe that predated the Devonian period. Geologists like Émile Haug and Hans Stille saw the Caledonian orogeny as one of several episodic phases of mountain building that had occurred during Earth's history. Current understanding has it that the Caledonian orogeny encompasses a number of tectonic phases that can laterally be diachronous; the name "Caledonian" can therefore not be used for an absolute period of geological time, it applies only to a series of tectonically related events.

The Caledonian orogeny was one of several orogenies that would form the supercontinent Pangaea in the Late Paleozoic era. In the Early Paleozoic the majority of all continental landmasses were united in the paleocontinent of Gondwana, containing the crust of future Africa, South America, southern Eurasia and Antarctica, which lay centered on the South Pole. Between 650 and 550 million years ago the smaller continents of Laurentia and Siberia had separated from Gondwana to move northward towards the equator. In the process, the Iapetus Ocean between Gondwana and Laurentia closed. In the Early Ordovician period the microcontinent Avalonia began to separate from the northern margin of Gondwana; some early phases of deformation and/or metamorphism are recognized in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The first phase, included in the Caledonian orogeny is the Finnmarkian phase at 505 million years ago. Another phase was the Jämtlandian phase at 455 million years ago; these phases are explained by the assumption that the western edge of Baltica collided with an island arc or microcontinent.

In a similar way, the eastern edge of Laurentia collided with an island arc during the Taconic orogeny. During the Ordovician, the small continent of Avalonia moved independently in a northeastern direction towards Baltica; this motion was accommodated by the subduction of the southeastern Iapetus Ocean beneath eastern Avalonia. In the Late Ordovician continental collision started between Baltica; the Tornquist Sea disappeared in the process, the remaining suture is the Tornquist line, which runs under the North Sea, southern Denmark and northern Germany and Poland. The main phase of the Caledonian orogeny is called the Scandian phase in Scandinavia and the Grampian phase in Britain, it was caused by the collision between Baltica. The Iapetus Ocean first closed in the north in the south. Therefore, the collision between Baltica and Laurentia took place a little earlier than that between Avalonia and Laurentia. Continental collision started in the Mid Silurian and mountain building took place in the Early Devonian.

In North America, the collision between Avalonia and Laurentia is called the Acadian orogeny. According to some authors, the Caledonian continental collisions involved another microcontinent, Armorica smaller than Avalonia; this microcontinent did not form one consistent unit, but was instead a series of fragments, of which the current Armorican and Bohemian Massifs are the most important. The ocean between the combined continental mass of Laurentia and Avalonia and Armorica is called the Rheic Ocean; the paleogeographic position of the Armorica crustal fragments between the Ordovician and Carboniferous is disputed though. There are indications that the Bohemian Massif started moving northward from the Ordovician onward, but many authors place the accretion of the Armorican terranes with the southern margin of Laurussia in the Carboniferous Hercynian orogeny; the Rhenohercynian basin, a back-arc basin, formed at the southern margin of Euramerica just after the Caledonian orogeny. According to these authors, a small rim from Euramerica rifted off.

The basin closed when these Caledonian deformed terranes were accreted again to Laurussia during the Hercynian orogeny. Scandinavian Mountains Świętokrzyskie Mountains Geological structure of Great Britain Central Pangean Mountains Iapetus Suture Queen Louise Land Trans-European Suture Zone Cocks, L. R. M. & Torsvik, T. H.. G. & Stephenson, R. A.: European Lithosphere Dynamics, Geological Society of London Memoirs 32, pp. 83–95. Cocks, L. R. M.. S. & Staal, C. R. van. Fossen, H. & Dunlap, J. W..

Helle Klein

Helle Louise Klein is a Swedish journalist and political commentator. Helle Klein was born in Enskede in southern Stockholm, she is the granddaughter of the physicist Oskar Klein and the great granddaughter of the rabbi Gottlieb Klein. Helle Klein served as political editor-in-chief of the newspaper Örebro-Kuriren from 1991 to 1995. In 1995, she started to work as an editorial writer for Aftonbladet, the largest newspaper in Sweden, where she was political editor-in-chief from 2001 to 2007, she was ordained priest in the Church of Sweden in January 2008. Klein is a former member of the board of the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League. Helle Klein's weblog

List of South African Film and Television Award categories

The South African Film and Television Awards known as the Golden Horns, are awards for film and television presented in South Africa and first given out in 2006. They are awarded by the National Video Foundation of South Africa; the categories that are awarded at the jury's discretion are marked by a diesis. Best Wildlife Programme: since 2007 Best Producer in a Wildlife Programme: since 2012 Best Editing in a Wildlife Programme: since 2012 Best Cinematography in a Wildlife Programme: since 2012 Best Directing in a Wildlife Programme: since 2013 Best Music in a Wildlife Programme: since 2015 Best Documentary Feature: since 2006 Best Cinematography in a Documentary Feature: since 2007 Best Directing in a Documentary Feature: since 2014 Best Editing in a Documentary Feature: since 2014 Best Sound in a Documentary Feature: since 2015 Best Animation: since 2007 Best TV Soap: 2006 – 2015 Best Dressed Character: only 2009 Best Comedic Character: only 2009 Best Hero/Heroine Character: only 2009 Best Villain/Villainess Character: only 2009 Best TV Presenter: since 2015 Most Popular TV Soap: since 2015 Lifetime Achievement Award: since 2009 Newcomer Award: since 2009 Outstanding Contributor Award: since 2016 Disability Recognition Award: since 2016 Other special awards may be awarded at the discretion of the SAFTA Executive and Judging Committees.

List of television awards