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Calendar era

A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era. In antiquity, regnal years were counted from the accession of a monarch; this makes the Chronology of the ancient Near East difficult to reconstruct, based on disparate and scattered king lists, such as the Sumerian King List and the Babylonian Canon of Kings. In East Asia, reckoning by era names chosen by ruling monarchs ceased in the 20th century except for Japan, where they are still used. For over a thousand years, ancient Assyria used a system of eponyms to identify each year; each year at the Akitu festival, one of a small group of high officials would be chosen by lot to serve as the limmu for the year, which meant that he would preside over the Akitu festival and the year would bear his name. The earliest attested limmu eponyms are from the Assyrian trading colony at Karum Kanesh in Anatolia, dating to the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, they continued in use until the end of the Neo-Assyrian Period, ca. 612 BC.

Assyrian scribes compiled limmu lists, including an unbroken sequence of 250 eponyms from the early 1st millennium BC. This is an invaluable chronological aid, because a solar eclipse was recorded as having taken place in the limmu of Bur-Sagale, governor of Guzana. Astronomers have identified this eclipse as one that took place on 15 June 763 BC, which has allowed absolute dates of 892 to 648 BC to be assigned to that sequence of eponyms; this list of absolute dates has allowed many of the events of the Neo-Assyrian Period to be dated to a specific year, avoiding the chronological debates that characterize earlier periods of Mesopotamian history. Among the ancient Greek historians and scholars, a common method of indicating the passage of years was based on the Olympic Games, first held in 776 BC; the Olympic Games provided the various independent city-states with a mutually recognizable system of dates. Olympiad dating was not used in everyday life; this system was in use from the 3rd century BC.

The modern Olympic Games do not continue the four year periods from ancient Greece: the 669th Olympiad would have begun in the summer of 1897, but the modern Olympics were first held in 1896. Another common system was the indiction cycle. Documents and events began to be dated by the year of the cycle in the 4th century, this system was used long after the tax ceased to be collected, it was used in Gaul, in Egypt until the Islamic conquest, in the Eastern Roman Empire until its conquest in 1453. The rule for computing the indiction from the AD year number, which he had just invented, was stated by Dionysius Exiguus: add 3 and divide by 15, thus 2001 was the ninth indiction. The beginning of the year for the indiction varied; the Seleucid era was used in much of the Middle East from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD, continued until the 10th century AD among Oriental Christians. The era is computed from the epoch 312 BC: in August of that year Seleucus I Nicator captured Babylon and began his reign over the Asian portions of Alexander the Great's empire.

Thus depending on whether the calendar year is taken as starting on 1 Tishri or on 1 Nisan the Seleucid era begins either in 311 BC or in 312 BC. An early and common practice was Roman'consular' dating; this involved naming both consules ordinarii who had taken up this office on 1 January of the relevant civil year. Sometimes one or both consuls might not be appointed until November or December of the previous year, news of the appointment may not have reached parts of the Roman empire for several months into the current year; the use of consular dating ended in AD 541 when the emperor Justinian I discontinued appointing consuls. The last consul nominated was Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius. Soon afterwards, imperial regnal dating was adopted in its place. Another method of dating used, was anno urbis conditae. Several epochs were in use by Roman historians. Modern historians adopt the epoch of Varro, which we place in 753 BC; the system was introduced by Marcus Terentius Varro in the 1st century BC.

The first day of its year was Founder's Day, although most modern historians assume that it coincides with the modern historical year. It was used in the Roman calendar and in the early Julian calendar – naming the two consuls that held office in a particular year was dominant. AD 2020 is thus the same as AUC 2773. About AD 400, the Iberian historian Orosius used the AUC era. Pope Boniface IV may have been the first to use both the Anno Domini era. Another system, less found than might be thought was the use of the regnal year of the Roman emperor. At first, Augustus indicated the year of his reign by counting how many times he had held the

Aussie Racing Cars

Aussie Racing Cars is an Australian motor racing category. A motorcycle powered Silhouette racing car class, it was created by former touring car racer Phil Ward, influenced by the American Legends category. Ward sold the category in 2012 to Keltic Motorsport, a motorsport company owned by Queensland based father-son team of Tony and Klark Quinn with Bathurst 1000 winner Jason Bargwanna acting as commercial director; the category contests an annual Aussie Racing Car Series, approved by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport as a National Series. In 2009 the series made the transition from running at V8 Supercar events to run on the Shannons Nationals Motor Racing Championships program; the series has since reverted to having most of the rounds alongside V8 Supercar events. The most successful drivers in the category are Paul Kemal who has won the series title three times, James Duckworth and Mike Russell twice, while Phil Ward's two sons James and Brad have won titles; the Hampton Downs round of the 2016 season hosted the inaugural Trans-Tasman Woman's Challenge.

Charlotte Poynting was chosen to represent Team Australian up against Alyssa Clapperton representing Team New Zealand. In Race 3 Poynting who started 9th on the grid, raced through the field to win by 2.5 seconds, becoming the first woman to win a race in the Aussie Racing Cars category. Two time Series winner James Duckworth is the only driver since Mike Russell to win consecutive Drivers championships; the Aussie Racing Car combines current racing technology and performance in a one-design class where all cars are mechanically identical with strict rules in place to maintain that position. Various body styles are permitted. Only 1940 Ford Coupé and Holden FJ body styles were available, with Ford AU Falcon and Holden VY Commodore styles which replicate V8 Supercars made available. A Toyota Aurion body shape was launched in 2008, followed by a Holden Cruze in 2012 and a Merecedes-Benz inspired "Euro GT" in 2013. Nissan Altima, Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro were added in 2014. Hyundai Elantra debuted during the 2015 series.

Cars are constructed on a purpose built steel tubular space frame chassis with integral roll cage construction designed and approved to stringent engineering specifications. The lightweight composite body is a faithfully designed caricature of its full size counterpart featuring opening doors and lift off front section. Powered by a 1.3 litre 125 bhp twin cam 16 valve engine sourced second-hand from used Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycles that revs to 11500 rpm. The 515 kg all up weight provides a high power-to-weight ratio that allows the car to reach speeds in excess of 200 km/h. Lap times achieved at Oran Park Raceway are within six seconds of a V8 Supercar, they feature adjustable suspension geometry, huge brakes and controlled competition tyres that produce high grip levels. All cars are hand supplied ready to race; the cockpit layout is purpose fitted with a five point racing harness. The steering requires only one turn lock to minimal steering movement during racing; the sequential gear lever is close to the steering wheel and the carbon fibre dash displays the necessary instrumentation.

The chassis design incorporates simplicity in suspension adjustment to cater for all drivers likings including castor/camber, sway bar, roll centre and ride height etc. Brakes have simple front to rear bias adjustment; the class has proven attractive to karting racers without the budget to progress to Formula Ford. Aussie Racing Cars is by far the most cost effective 1st tier category in Australia and New Zealand with options to lease a chassis for $15k or buy a new car outright for $59k. Yamaha 1.3 litre twin-cam water/air cooled four cylinder Four valves per cylinder 125 bhp, 11500 rpm PWR radiator and oil cooler Integral 5-speed dog engagement Sequential manual gearbox Electronic dash programmed to ARC spec. Shift light, water-temp and lap-timer Tubular space-frame and cockpit with integral driver roll-cage Momo race seat with five point harness Momo quick-release steering wheel Front – Coil over shocks adjustable rose jointed wishbones Ultra fast rack and pinion Rear – Live axle, optional long and short track ratios Coil over shocks, parallel trailing arms, panhard rod Four wheel disc with - Full bias adjustment with balance bar, braided lines 13 x 5.5 various styles available Yokohama A048R treaded race spec tyres Chevrolet Camaro Euro GT Ford Falcon AU Ford Mustang Holden Commodore VY Holden Cruze Nissan Altima Toyota Aurion Length: 3.0 m Width: 1.35 m Height: 1.05 m Weight: 515 kg Top Speed: 230km/h 0-100: 4.9 seconds 0-400m: 11.9 seconds Official Site

The Reaping (audio drama)

The Reaping is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. Peri and the Sixth Doctor travel to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1984, four months after Peri left her stepfather and her mother in Lanzarote, Spain; as she tries to explain to her mother where she has been, the Doctor discovers an old enemy has laid a trap for him… The Doctor — Colin Baker Peri BrownNicola Bryant CybermenNicholas Briggs Mrs Van Gysegham — Denise Bryer Janine Foster — Claudia Christian Natalie Hamilton — Allison Karayanes Anthony Chambers — Stuart Milligan Nate Chambers — Jeremy Lindsay Taylor Kathy Chambers — Jane Perry Daniel Woods — Vincent Pirillo Lt Doyle — John Schwab Big Finish Productions – The Reaping