Group-Office is a PHP based dual license commercial/open source groupware and CRM and DMS product developed by the Dutch company Intermesh. The open source version, Group-Office Community, is licensed under the AGPL, is available via SourceForge. GroupOffice Professional is a commercial product and offers additionally mobile synchronisation, project management and time tracking; the online suite puts independent office applications onto a central server, making them accessible through a web browser. The suite includes file management, calendar, email notes and website content management modules; the email client has IMAP and S/MIME support, the calendar supports iCalendar import, it can be synchronised with personal digital assistants, mobile phones, Microsoft Outlook. In the Professional version, it is possible to create templates to export to Open Document Format or Microsoft Word. Files can be managed in an inbuilt file manager, accessed through WebDAV. Users may be managed in an LDAP system.
A LAMP environment is recommended on the server, an OSNews.com review describes the installation process as "straightforward". Linux is recommended as the system software, but it runs on other Unix systems, including BSD Unix, Mac OS X. From version 2.17 and up, Microsoft Windows is supported as the system software. In March 2010 Group-Office was compared to other collaborative software in the German c't magazine. A special version was included for the bundled DVD; as of November 2012, the project has had over 420,000 downloads from SourceForge since its public appearance in March 2003. Sourceforge made a blog post about Group-Office in 2010. Group-Office has had a stall and presentations at Linux Wochen 2005 in Vienna, and OSC2005 in Tokyo. The software has been translated into 27 locale with local communities in Austria. Version 2.13 of the software was included in the Dutch The Open CD. Mid 2012, Group-Office 4.0 was released. The PHP framework was rewritten using the Model View Controller design pattern.
Version 4 was reviewed by PC World The software packages are maintained by a small team at Intermesh and has a small developer community, contributing features. The headquarters are located in's - The Netherlands. List of collaborative software Comparison of time-tracking software Sourceforge.net blog post about Group-Office comparison of the Professional and the Community versions A video about Group-Office by an italian WebTv channel, called ICTv
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia, it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of 868. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine.
Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around 1400, the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints produced in large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.
These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460. Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by 1298 had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters".
Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty. Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth – the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around 1436, in partnership with Andreas Dritzeh
A personal organizer, day planner, personal analog assistant, personal planner, year planner, or agenda, is a small book or binder, designed to be portable. It contains a diary, address book, blank paper, other sections; the organizer is a personal tool and may include pages with useful information, such as maps and telephone codes. It is related to the separate desktop stationery items that have one or more of the same functions, such as appointment calendars, rolodexes and almanacs. By the end of the 20th century, paper-and-binder personal organizers started to be replaced by electronic devices such as personal digital assistants, personal information manager software, online organizers; this process has accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century with the advent of smartphones, tablet computers, smartwatches and a variety of mobile apps. Calendaring software Circa Notebook Filofax Franklin Planner Getting Things Done Hipster PDA Outline Personal information manager Plaxo Revo Journal Task list Time management
Electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is the Internet; some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously. An ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been standardized, but as of 2017 it has not been adopted; the history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards for encoding email messages published as early as 1973.
An email message sent in the early 1970s looks similar to a basic email sent today. Email had an important role in creating the Internet, the conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current services; the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission; as a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. Electronic mail has been most called email or e-mail since around 1993, but variations of the spelling have been used: email is the most common form used online, is required by IETF Requests for Comments and working groups and by style guides; this spelling appears in most dictionaries. E-mail is the format that sometimes appears in edited, published American English and British English writing as reflected in the Corpus of Contemporary American English data, but is falling out of favor in some style guides.
Mail was the form used in the original protocol standard, RFC 524. The service is referred to as mail, a single piece of electronic mail is called a message. EMail is a traditional form, used in RFCs for the "Author's Address" and is expressly required "for historical reasons". E-mail is sometimes used, capitalizing the initial E as in similar abbreviations like E-piano, E-guitar, A-bomb, H-bomb. An Internet e-mail consists of an content. Computer-based mail and messaging became possible with the advent of time-sharing computers in the early 1960s, informal methods of using shared files to pass messages were soon expanded into the first mail systems. Most developers of early mainframes and minicomputers developed similar, but incompatible, mail applications. Over time, a complex web of gateways and routing systems linked many of them. Many US universities were part of the ARPANET, which aimed at software portability between its systems; that portability helped make the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol influential.
For a time in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it seemed that either a proprietary commercial system or the X.400 email system, part of the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile, would predominate. However, once the final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic over the Internet ended in 1995, a combination of factors made the current Internet suite of SMTP, POP3 and IMAP email protocols the standard; the diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events that takes place when sender Alice transmits a message using a mail user agent addressed to the email address of the recipient. The MUA formats the message in email format and uses the submission protocol, a profile of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, to send the message content to the local mail submission agent, in this case smtp.a.org. The MSA determines the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol, in this case email@example.com, a qualified domain address. The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address the username of the recipient, the part after the @ sign is a domain name.
The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the qualified domain name of the mail server in the Domain Name System. The DNS server for the domain b.org responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a message transfer agent server run by the recipient's ISP. smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP. This server may need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message reaches the final message delivery agent; the MDA delivers it to the mailbox of user bob. Bob's MUA picks up the message using either the Post Office Protocol or the Internet Message Access Protocol. In addition to this example and complications exist in the email system: Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate email system, such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange; these systems have their own internal email format and their clients communicate with the email server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives email via the Internet through the product's Internet mail gateway which does any necessary reformatt
Outlook.com is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts and calendaring services from Microsoft. One of the world's first webmail services, it was founded in 1996 as Hotmail by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith in Mountain View and headquartered in Sunnyvale. Microsoft acquired Hotmail in 1997 for an estimated $400 million and launched it as MSN Hotmail rebranded to Windows Live Hotmail as part of the Windows Live suite of products. Microsoft released the final version of Hotmail in October 2011 and it was replaced by Outlook.com in 2013. Hotmail service was founded by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith, was one of the first webmail services on the Internet along with Four11's RocketMail, it was commercially launched on July 4, 1996, symbolizing "freedom" from ISP-based email and the ability to access a user's inbox from anywhere in the world. The name "Hotmail" was chosen out of many possibilities ending in "-mail" as it included the letters HTML, the markup language used to create web pages; the limit for free storage was 2 MB.
Hotmail was backed by venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. By December 1997, it reported more than 8.5 million subscribers. Hotmail ran under Solaris for mail services and Apache on FreeBSD for web services, before being converted to Microsoft products, using Windows Services for UNIX in the migration path. Hotmail was sold to Microsoft in December 1997 for a reported $400 million, it joined the MSN group of services. Hotmail gained in popularity as it was localized for different markets around the globe, became the world's largest webmail service with more than 30 million active members reported by February 1999. Hotmail ran on a mixture of FreeBSD and Solaris operating systems. A project was started to move Hotmail to Windows 2000. In June 2001, Microsoft claimed. In 2002 Hotmail still ran its infrastructure on UNIX servers, with only the front-end converted to Windows 2000. Development saw the service tied with Microsoft's web authentication scheme, Microsoft Passport, integration with Microsoft's instant messaging and social networking programs, MSN Messenger and MSN Spaces.
In 1999, hackers revealed a security flaw in Hotmail that permitted anybody to log in to any Hotmail account using the password'eh'. At the time it was called "the most widespread security incident in the history of the Web". In 2001, the Hotmail service was compromised again by computer hackers who discovered that anyone could log in to their Hotmail account and pull messages from any other Hotmail account by crafting a URL with the second account's username and a valid message number, it was such a simple attack that by the time the patch was made, dozens of newspapers and hundreds of web sites published exact descriptions allowing tens of thousands of hackers to run rampant across Hotmail. The exploitable vulnerability exposed millions of accounts to tampering between August 7, 2001 and August 31, 2001. In 2004, Google announced Gmail. Featuring greater storage space and interface flexibility, this new competitor spurred a wave of innovation in webmail; the main industry heavyweights – Hotmail and Yahoo!
Mail – introduced upgraded versions of their email services with greater speed and advanced features. Microsoft's new email system was announced on November 1, 2005, under the codename "Kahuna", a beta version was released to a few thousand testers. Other webmail enthusiasts wanting to try the beta version could request an invitation granting access; the new service was built from scratch and emphasized three main concepts of being "faster and safer". New versions of the beta service were rolled out over the development period, by the end of 2006 the number of beta testers had reached the millions; the Hotmail brand was planned to be phased-out when Microsoft announced that the new mail system would be called Windows Live Mail, but the developers soon backtracked after beta-testers were confused with the name change and preferred the well-known Hotmail name, decided on Windows Live Hotmail. After a period of beta testing, it was released to new and existing users in the Netherlands on November 9, 2006, as a pilot market.
Development of the beta was finished in April 2007, Windows Live Hotmail was released to new registrations on May 7, 2007, as the 260 million MSN Hotmail accounts worldwide gained access to the new system. The old MSN Hotmail interface was accessible only by users who registered before the Windows Live Hotmail release date and had not chosen to update to the new service; the roll-out to all existing users was completed in October 2007. Windows Live Hotmail was awarded PC Magazine's Editor's Choice Award in February 2007, March 2007, February 2011. In 2008 it was announced that the service would be updated with focus on improving the speed, increasing the storage space, better user experience and usability features, that sign-in and email access speeds would be up to 70 percent faster; the classic and full versions of Windows Live Hotmail were combined in the new release. As a result of user feedback, Hotmail was updated so that scrolling works for users who have the reading pane turned off, it was expected that Hotmail team would be moving the advertisement from the top of page to the side, adding more themes, increasing the number of messages on each page and adding the ability to send instant messages from the user's inbox in future release
Personal digital assistant
A personal digital assistant known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs were discontinued in the early 2010s after the widespread adoption of capable smartphones, in particular those based on iOS and Android. Nearly all PDAs have the ability to connect to the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display. Most models have audio capabilities, allowing usage as a portable media player, enabling most of them to be used as telephones. Most PDAs can access intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi or Wireless Wide Area Networks. Sometimes, instead of buttons, PDAs employ touchscreen technology; the technology industry has recycled the term personal digital assistance. The term is more used for software that identifies a user's voice to reply to the queries; the first PDA, the Organizer, was released in 1984 by Psion, followed by Psion's Series 3, in 1991. The latter began to resemble the more familiar PDA style, including a full keyboard; the term PDA was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, referring to the Apple Newton.
In 1994, IBM introduced the first PDA with full telephone functionality, the IBM Simon, which can be considered the first smartphone. In 1996, Nokia introduced a PDA with telephone functionality, the 9000 Communicator, which became the world's best-selling PDA. Another early entrant in this market was Palm, with a line of PDA products which began in March 1996. A typical PDA has a touchscreen for navigation, a memory card slot for data storage, IrDA, Bluetooth and/or Wi-Fi. However, some PDAs may not have a touchscreen, using softkeys, a directional pad, a numeric keypad or a thumb keyboard for input. To have the functions expected of a PDA, a device's software includes an appointment calendar, a to-do list, an address book for contacts, a calculator, some sort of memo program. PDAs with wireless data connections typically include an email client and a Web browser, may or may not include telephony functionality. Many of the original PDAs, such as the Apple Newton and Palm Pilot, featured a touchscreen for user interaction, having only a few buttons—usually reserved for shortcuts to often-used programs.
Some touchscreen PDAs, including Windows Mobile devices, had a detachable stylus to facilitate making selections. The user interacts with the device by tapping the screen to select buttons or issue commands, or by dragging a finger on the screen to make selections or scroll. Typical methods of entering text on touchscreen PDAs include: A virtual keyboard, where a keyboard is shown on the touchscreen. Text is entered by tapping the on-screen keyboard with stylus. An external keyboard connected via Infrared port, or Bluetooth; some users may choose a chorded keyboard for one-handed use. Handwriting recognition, where letters or words are written on the touchscreen with a stylus, the PDA converts the input to text. Recognition and computation of handwritten horizontal and vertical formulas, such as "1 + 2 =", may be a feature. Stroke recognition allows the user to make a predefined set of strokes on the touchscreen, sometimes in a special input area, representing the various characters to be input.
The strokes are simplified character shapes, making them easier for the device to recognize. One known stroke recognition system is Palm's Graffiti. Despite research and development projects, end-users experience mixed results with handwriting recognition systems; some find it frustrating and inaccurate, while others are satisfied with the quality of the recognition. Touchscreen PDAs intended for business use, such as the BlackBerry and Palm Treo also offer full keyboards and scroll wheels or thumbwheels to facilitate data entry and navigation. Many touchscreen PDAs support some form of external keyboard as well. Specialized folding keyboards, which offer a full-sized keyboard but collapse into a compact size for transport, are available for many models. External keyboards may attach to the PDA directly, using a cable, or may use wireless technology such as infrared or Bluetooth to connect to the PDA. Newer PDAs, such as the HTC HD2, Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch, Palm Pre, Palm Pre Plus, Palm Pixi, Palm Pixi Plus, Google Android include more advanced forms of touchscreen that can register multiple touches simultaneously.
These "multi-touch" displays allow for more sophisticated interfaces using various gestures entered with one or more fingers. Although many early PDAs did not have memory card slots, now most have either some form of Secure Digital slot, a CompactFlash slot or a combination of the two. Although designed for memory, Secure Digital Input/Output and CompactFlash cards are available that provide accessories like Wi-Fi or digital cameras, if the device can support them; some PDAs have a USB port for USB flash drives. Some PDAs use microSD cards, which are electronically compatible with SD cards, but have a much smaller physical size. While early PDAs connected to a user's personal computer via serial ports or another proprietary connection, many today connect via a USB cable. Older PDAs were unable to connect to each other via USB, as their implementations of USB didn't support acting as the "host"; some early PDAs were able to connect to the Internet indirectly by means of an external modem connected via the PDA's serial port or "sync" connector, or directly by using an expansion card that provided an Ethernet port.
Most modern PDAs have a popular wireless protocol for mobile devices. Bluetooth can be used to connect keyboards, headsets, GPS receiver
Portable data terminal
A portable data terminal, or shortly PDT, is an electronic device, used to enter or retrieve data via wireless transmission. They have recently weighed down by ANS been called enterprise digital assistants, data capture mobile devices, batch terminals or just portables, they can serve as barcode readers, they are used in large stores, hospitals or information the field, to access a database from a remote location. Others have a touch screen, IrDA, Bluetooth, a memory card slot, or one or more data capture devices. PDT's run wireless device management software that allows them to interact with a database or software application hosted on a server or mainframe computer. Boundaries among PDA, smartphone and ERA can be blurred when comparing the wide array of common features and functions. EDAs attempt to distinguish themselves with a pre-defined requirement for long term constant daily operation, they seek a higher than normal impact rating / drop test rating and an ingress protection rating of no less than IP54, Most have at least one Data Collection function i.e. a Barcode or RFID Reader etc.
Automated identification and data capture Mobile computer Mobile data terminal (