The Ambiani were a Belgic people of Celtic language, who were said to be able to muster 10,000 armed men, in 57 BC, the year of Julius Caesars Belgic campaign. Their country lay in the valley of the Samara, and their chief town Samarobriva, afterwards called Ambiani and they were among the people who took part in the great insurrection against the Romans, which is described in the seventh book of Caesars Gallic War. The Ambiani were consummate minters and Ambianic coinage has been throughout the territories of the Belgic tribes. There is some evidence from coins that bear a stag on one side, a few Ambiani coins have been found along the south coast of the West Country possibly as the result of trade across the English channel. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Santones or Santoni or Santii were a tribe of ancient Gaul located in the modern region of Saintonge and around the city of Saintes, city to which they gave their name. The Romans occupied the territory of the Santones from the 1st century BC, descendants of the tribe carry the names Sand, Sante, Santy. Laurence Tranoy, « Mediolanum Santonum, Saintes, de la fondation à l’époque julio-claudienne », la época de la expansión exterior de Roma. Alicante, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes,2007, p 226
It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.
The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved.
One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône river
The Mediomatrici were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae. Julius Caesar shows their position in a way when he says that the Rhine flows along the territories of the Sequani, Triboci or Tribocci. Ptolemy places the Mediomatrici south of the Treviri, divodurum was the capital of the Mediomatrici. Besides Metz, settlements in France include the oppidum of Hérapel, other settlements and oppida in Germany were thought to be Saarbrücken, Speyer and Rodalben, although today the ascription of Speyer, Homburg und Rodalben is hotly disputed. The name Mediomatrici has been explained as the people between the Matrona and the Matra and this agrees with Strabo, who says that the Sequani and Mediomatrici inhabit the Rhine, among whom are settled the Triboci, a Germanic nation which had crossed over from their own country. Elements of the Mediomatrici may have settled near Novara, in northern Italy and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed.
The Osismii were a Gaulish tribe on the western Armorican peninsula. They were first described as the Ostimioi by the Greek geographer and traveller Pytheas in the fourth century BC and he situated them at the end of the peninsula of Kabaïon, which is not clearly identifiable today. Their name means the farthest or those at the end of the world and their territory corresponded broadly to the modern French département of Finistère, whose name reflects the same meaning in Latin Finis Terræ, i. e. end of the earth. Their chief city was Vorgium, modern Carhaix and they survived into Roman times and are found in the texts of Julius Caesar, Pliny the Elder, and Strabo. They submitted to Caesar during the Gallic Wars, in 57 BC, the next year, they revolted along with the Veneti, but were put down. They became a Roman civitas and their identity survived into Late Antiquity and Empire, Brittany and the Carolingians
The Helvetii were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. According to Julius Caesar, the Helvetians were divided into four subgroups or pagi, of these Caesar only names the Verbigeni and the Tigurini, while Posidonius mentions the Tigurini and the Tougeni. They feature prominently in the Commentaries on the Gallic War, with their failed attempt to southwestern Gaul serving as a catalyst for Caesars conquest of Gaul. The endonym Helvetii is mostly derived from a Gaulish elu-, meaning gain, prosperity or mulititude, cognate with Welsh elw and Old Irish prefix il-, meaning many or multiple. The second part of the name has sometimes been interpreted as *etu-, grassland, the earliest attestation of the name is found in a graffito on a vessel from Mantua, dated to c.300 BC. The inscription in Etruscan letters reads eluveitie, which has interpreted as the Etruscan form of the Celtic elu̯eti̯os.
The name of the personification of Switzerland, Helvetia. The star 51 Pegasi was named Helvetios after them and this was the first main-sequence star found to have an exoplanet orbiting it. Of the four Helvetian pagi or sub-tribes, Caesar names only the Verbigeni and the Tigurini, Posidonius the Tigurini, there has been substantial debate in Swiss historiography on whether the Tougeni may or may not be identified with the Teutones mentioned by Titus Livius. According to Caesar, the territory abandoned by the Helvetii had comprised 400 villages and 12 oppida and his tally of the total population taken from captured Helvetian records written in Greek is 263,000 people, including fighting men, old men and children. However, the figures are generally dismissed as too high by modern scholars, like many other tribes, the Helvetii did not have kings at the time of their clash with Rome but instead seem to have been governed by a class of noblemen. When Orgetorix, one of their most prominent and ambitious noblemen, was making plans to himself as their king.
Caesar does not explicitly name the tribal authorities prosecuting the case and gathering men to apprehend Orgetorix, in his Natural History, Pliny provides a foundation myth for the Celtic settlement of Cisalpine Gaul in which a Helvetian named Helico plays the role of culture hero. The Greek historian Posidonius, whose work is preserved only in fragments by other writers, offers the earliest historical record of the Helvetii. Posidonius described the Helvetians of the late 2nd century BC as rich in gold but peaceful and that the Helvetians originally lived in southern Germany is confirmed by the Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemaios, who tells us of an Ἐλουητίων ἔρημος north of the Rhine. Tacitus knows that the Helvetians once settled in the swath between Rhine and the Hercynian forest, at the Vicus Turicum, probably in the first 1st century BC or even much earlier, the Celts settled at the Lindenhof Oppidium. In 1890, so-called Potin lumps were found, whose largest weights 59.2 kilograms at the Prehistoric pile dwelling settlement Alpenquai in Zürich, the pieces consist of a large number of fused Celtic coins, which are mixed with charcoal remnants.
Some of the 18,000 coins originate from the Eastern Gaul, others are of the Zürich type, that were assigned to the local Helvetii, which date to around 100 BC
The Suessiones were a Belgic tribe of western Gallia Belgica in the 1st century BC, inhabiting the region between the Oise and the Marne, around the present-day city of Soissons. They were conquered in 57 BC by Julius Caesar, pliny the Elder apparently gives their name as Suaeuconi. Coinage minted by Belgic Gauls first appeared in Britain in the mid-2nd century BC with the coinage now categorized as the Gallo-Belgic A type, coins associated with King Diviciacus of the Suessiones, issued near or between 90 and 60 BC, have been categorized as Gallo-Belgic C. Finds of this issue of coin extend from Sussex to the Wash, a issue of coin, Gallo-Belgic F, has concentrated finds near Paris, throughout the lands of the Suessiones, and the southern, coastal areas of Britain. These finds lead scholars to suggest that the Suessiones had significant trade and migration into Britain during the 2nd, Caesar mentions that their capital was Noviodunum, the present-day city of Soissons. Soissons was the city of the Merovingian Kingdom of Soissons from 511 to 613.
Soissons was the birthplace of the Frankish Prince Charlemagne in the year 747, son of King Pippin the Short and it is today the capital of the département of the Aisne, in the northern part of Champagne. The region is commonly referred to as the Soissonnais and people of the region are called Soissonaires. List of peoples of Gaul List of Celtic tribes
The Pictones were a tribe inhabiting a region along the Bay of Biscay in what is now western France, along the south bank of the Loire. During the reign of Augustus, the Pictones were included in the province of Gallia Aquitania. They gave their name to the Roman appellation of Poitiers - Limonum Pictonum / Pictavi, the Pictones minted coins from the end of the 2nd century BC. The tribe was first noted in written sources when encountered by Julius Caesar, Caesar depended on their shipbuilding skills for his fleet on the Loire. Their chief town Lemonum, the Celtic name of modern-day Poitiers, is located on the bank of the Liger. Ptolemy mentions a town, Ratiatum. The political organization of the region was modeled on the royal Celtic system, duratios was king of the Pictones during the Roman conquest, but his power waned thanks to the poor skill of his generals. However, the Pictones frequently aided Julius Caesar in naval battles, the Pictones had felt threatened by the migration of the Helvetians toward the territory of the Santones and supported the intervention of Caesar in 58 BC.
Though fiercely independent, they collaborated with Caesar, who noted them as one of the civilized tribes. Nevertheless,8000 men were sent to aid Vercingetorix, the chieftain who led the Gaulish rebellion in 52 BC and this act divided the Pictones and the region was the location of a uprising, especially around Lemonum. This was quelled by legate Gaius Caninius Rebilus and finally by Caesar himself, the Pictones benefited from Roman peace, notably through many urban constructions such as aqueducts and temples. A thick wall built in the 2nd century AD encircles the city of Lemonum and is one of the architectural forms of Gaulish antiquity. However, the Pictones were not Romanized in depth, Lemonum quickly adopted Christianity in the first two centuries AD. The region was known for its resources and occasionally traded with the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul. Additionally, the Pictones traded with the British Isles from the harbor of Ratiatum, Gaul Poitevin Roman Republic Cancik, Schneider, eds.
Aquitania, Brills New Pauly Encyclopedia of the Ancient World, II, Brill Academic Publisher, the Cambridge Ancient History Set, IX, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-85073-8 Hornblower, Spawforth, eds
Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, and Germani. The Eburones played a role in Julius Caesars account of his Gallic Wars, as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae, Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones. In the early medieval church this evolved into the church province of Cologne. This large area included parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel. More generally Caesars description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine.
In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle. This is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, and west of the Eifel. No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel according to Edith Mary Wightman, in contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times. This would certainly account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar and this is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones, possibly between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, and it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could quickly form a military alliance against Caesars forces.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesars forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis, before that battle, information from the Remi, a tribe allied with Rome, stated that the Germani had collectively promised, they thought, about 40,000 men. The whole force was led by Galba, king of the Suessiones, the alliance did not work. The Suessiones and Bellovaci surrendered after the Romans defended the Remi, and after this the Ambiani offered no further resistance and the Nervii, along with the Atrebates and Viromandui, formed the most important force on the day of the battle
The Bresle is a river in the northwest of France that flows into the English Channel at Le Tréport. It crosses the departements of Oise and Seine-Maritime, for a long time, the course of the Bresle has had the role of a natural national frontier, serving as the boundary between powerful and often antagonistic political entities. Today, the half-Norman, half-Picardy verdant, lake-filled valley carries on its traditional quality glass industry that started in the Middle Ages. The presence of small enterprises dotted around the small towns and villages along its banks hasn’t compromised the rich environment. The quality of the water of the Bresle is such that salmon, in his Géographie, Ptolemy called it the Phroudis. Until the 13th century, various names were given to the river, Auvae fluvium, Aucia fluvium, Auga in the 10th century. When the Normans arrived, they called it the Brisela and it has been subsequently noted in various documents as Bresla, Breselle, Brisele, Brisella before the definitive name was agreed at the end of the 17th century.
At Senarpont, it’s joined by the Liger, its main tributary and it takes a turn to the west-northwest, the same direction as most rivers of the Seine-Maritime and the Somme. After having received the waters of the Vimeuse at Gamaches, the splits into several branches at Eu. Between these two last places, the Bresle flows into a grassy valley one kilometre wide, framed by steep edges. This valley shows evidence of the course of the river when it used to meet the sea at Mers-les-Bains up until the Middle Ages. The former estuary forms a part of Eu today, in a known as the Prairie. In the 12th century, the redirecting of the course of the Bresle, rather than digging a canal, the valley of the Bresle forms the northern part of the Paris Basin, made up of chalk of the Cretaceous period. As it is porous, the basin contains natural aquifers, very important in maintaining a supply for both irrigation of crops and drinking water. The valley has a range of plants varying from orchids, sedges and cranberry to trees such as juniper.
Many wildfowl winter in the valley, such as the little grebe, the great crested grebe and coots. The Bresle has plenty of fishing for all kinds of anglers, from sea-trout in the valley and brown trout upstream, to huge carp, roach. All fishing is managed by the ‘Association agréée de pêche et de protection des milieux aquatiques’, museums devoted to the glass industry are open to the public at Eu and at Blangy-sur-Bresle