The Charolais is a breed of taurine beef cattle from the Charolais area surrounding Charolles, in Burgundy, in eastern France. Charolais are raised for meat; the breed was introduced to the southern United States from Mexico in 1934. In 1965 it was introduced in the northern New England states from Canada; the breed tends to be large-muscled, with bulls weighing up to cows up to 900 kg. In England, a bull of this breed has reached a weight of 2 tonnes, they tend to be a skittish breed of cattle. The Charolais is the second-most numerous cattle breed in France after the Holstein and the most common beef breed, ahead of the Limousin. At the end of 2014, France had 4.22 million head of Charolais, including 1.56 million cows, down 0.6% from a year earlier. The Charolais is a world breed: it is reported to DAD-IS by 68 countries, of which 37 report population data; the world population is estimated at about 730,000. The largest populations are reported from Mexico. A cross-breed with Brahmans is recognised as a breed in some countries.
Zebu, which can tolerate extreme heat, were imported into Brazil in the early 20th century and crossbred with Charolais cattle, a European taurine breed. The resulting breed, 63% Charolais and 37% zebu, is called the Canchim, it has a better meat quality than the zebu and better heat resistance than European cattle. The zebu breeds used were Indo-Brazilian with some Nelore and Guzerat. Charolais horse History of the Charolais Breed – Oklahoma State University Charolais Cattle – Cattle.com Official website of the Charolais Society Australia Official website of the American-International Charolais Association Official website of the Canadian Charolais Association Official website of the New Zealand Charolais Cattle Society Inc
Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production. The meat of mature or mature cattle is known as beef. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations and feedlot operations; the production cycle of the animals start at cow-calf operations. From here the calves are backgrounded for a feedlot. Animals grown for the feedlot are known as feeder cattle, the goal of these animals is fattening. Animals not grown for a feedlot are female and are known as replacement heifers. While the principal use of beef cattle is meat production, other uses include leather, beef by-products used in candy, cosmetics and inhalers. Besides breeding to meet the demand for beef production, owners use selective breeding to attain specific traits in their beef cattle. An example of a desired trait could be leaner resistance to illness. Breeds known as dual-purpose are used for beef production; these breeds have been selected for two purposes at once, such as both beef and dairy production, or both beef and draught.
Dual-purpose breeds include many of the Zebu breeds of India such as Ongole Cattle. There are multiple continental breeds; the original Simmental/Fleckvieh from Switzerland is a prime example. Not only are they a dual-purpose breed for beef and dairy, but in the past they were used for draught. However, throughout the generations, the breed has diverged into two groups through selective breeding. Most beef cattle are mated whereby a bull is released into a cowherd 55 days after the calving period, depending on the cows body condition score. If it was her first time calving, she will take longer to re-breed by at least 10 days. However, beef cattle can be bred through artificial insemination, depending on the cow and the size of the herd. Cattle are bred during the summer so that calving may occur the following spring. However, cattle breeding can occur at other times of year. Depending on the operation, calving may occur all year round. Owners can select the breeding time based on a number of factors, including reproductive performance, seasonal cattle pricing and handling facilities.
There are many factors. Some of the most important factors are disease prevention/spread. Buying a bull who hasn't been tested for common diseases is a risk, it would more than transmit to a whole herd. Purchasing genetics that will improve the original herd rather than remaining the same or decreasing; some breed for mothering abilities, some for size, some for meat properties, etc. Breeding Soundness Examination or BSE are essential to the quality of any bull, a general physical exam and inspection of both the genital organs and their productivity. Knowing more information about the animal will help make an educated decision. Cattle handlers are expected to maintain a low stress environment for their herds, involving constant safety, comfort and humane handling. According to the Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council, beef cattle must have access to shelter from extreme weather, safe handling and equipment, veterinary care and humane slaughter. If an animal is infected or suspected to have an illness, it is the responsibility of the owners to report it to a practicing veterinarian for either treatment or euthanasia.
Depending on a multitude of factors and disease can spread through the herd from animal to animal. Owners are expected to monitor their cattle's condition for early detection and treatment, as some cattle illnesses can threaten both cattle and human health as witnessed with Mad cow disease and Tuberculosis. On average, cattle will consume 1.4 to 4% of their body weight daily. There are a range of types of feed available for these animals; the standard text in the United States, Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, has been through eight editions over at least seventy years. The 1996 seventh edition substituted the concept of metabolizeable protein for the sixth edition's crude protein. In the 20th century, Canadian practice followed the American guidance. In 1970, the Food and Drug Administration was regulating pharmaceutical supplements in beef cattle feed such as hormones and prophylactic antibiotics; some animals live on pasture their entire lives and therefore only experience fresh grass, these are cow-calf operations in more tropical climates.
Backgrounded calves and feedlot animals tend to have different diets that contain more grain than the pasture type. Grain is more expensive than pasture but the animals grow faster with the higher protein levels. Since cattle are herbivores and need roughage in their diet, hay and/or haylage are all viable feed options. Despite this 3/4th of the 32 pounds of feed cattle consume. Cattle weighing 1000 lbs. will drink an average of 41 L a day, 82 L in hot weather. They need a constant supply of good quality feed and potable water according to the 5 Freedoms of Animal Welfare. Most Beef cattle are finished in feedlots; the first feedlots were constructed in the early 1950s. Some of these feedlots grew so large they warranted a new designation, "Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation". Most American beef cattle spend the last half of their lives in a CAFO. A steer that weighs 1,000 lb when alive makes a carcass weighing 615 lb, once the blood, feet, skin and guts are removed; the carcass is th
A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation, used in intensive animal farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, but swine, sheep, chickens or ducks, prior to slaughter. Large beef feedlots are called concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States and intensive livestock operations or confined feeding operations in Canada, they may contain thousands of animals in an array of pens. The basic principle of the feedlot is to increase the amount of meat each animal produces as as possible. Most feedlots require some type of governmental permit and must have plans in place to deal with the large amount of waste, generated; the Environmental Protection Agency has authority under the Clean Water Act to regulate all animal feeding operations in the United States. This authority is delegated to individual states in some cases. In Canada, regulation of feedlots is shared between all levels of government, while in Australia this role is handled by the National Feedlot Accreditation Scheme.
Prior to entering a feedlot, cattle spend most of their life grazing on rangeland or on immature fields of grain such as green wheat pasture. Once cattle obtain an entry-level weight, about 650 to 700 pounds at about a year old, they are transferred to a feedlot for the next six to eight months to be fed to gain weight for eventual slaughter, they eat a specialized animal feed which consists of corn, corn byproducts, milo and other grains as well as roughage which may consist of alfalfa, corn stalks, sorghum, or other hay, cottonseed meal, premixes composed of microingredients such as vitamins, chemical preservatives, fermentation products, other essential ingredients that are purchased from premix companies in sacked form, for blending into commercial rations. Because of the availability of these products, a farmer who uses his own grain can formulate his own rations and be assured his animals are getting the recommended levels of minerals and vitamins. In the American northwest and Canada, low grade durum wheat, chick peas and potatoes are used as feed.
In a typical feedlot, a cow's diet is 62% roughage, 31% grain, 5% supplements, 2% premix. High-grain diets lower the pH in the animals' rumen. Due to the stressors of these conditions, due to some illnesses, it may be necessary to give the animals antibiotics on occasion. Feedlot diets are high in protein, to encourage growth of muscle mass and the deposition of some fat; the marbling is desirable to consumers, as it contributes to tenderness. The animal may gain an additional 400 pounds during its approximate 200 days in the feedlot. Once cattle are fattened up to their finished weight, the fed cattle are transported to a slaughterhouse. Increasing numbers of cattle feedlots are utilizing out-wintering pads made of timber residue bedding in their operations. Nutrients are retained in the waste timber and livestock effluent and can be recycled within the farm system after use; the beef industry today is dependent upon technology, but this has not always been true. In the early 20th century, feeder operations were separate from all other related operations and feedlots were non-existent.
They appeared in the 1960s as a result of hybrid grains and irrigation techniques. However, the first known feedlot was designed and built by Gustavus Swift in 1876 on the south side of Chicago, it was possible to feed large numbers of cattle in one location and so, to cut transportation costs, grain farm and feedlot locations merged. Cattle were no longer sent from all across the southern states to places like California, where large slaughter houses were located. In the 1980s, meat packers are now located close by them as well. There are many methods used to sell cattle to meat packers. Spot, or cash, marketing is the traditional and most used method. Prices are determined by live weight or per head. Similar to this is forward contracting, in which prices are determined the same way but are not directly influenced by market demand fluctuations. Forward contracts determine the selling price between the two parties negotiating for a set amount of time. However, this method is the least used because it requires some knowledge of production costs and the willingness of both sides to take a risk in the futures market.
Another method, formula pricing, is becoming the most popular process, as it more represents the value of meat received by the packer. This requires trust between the packers and feedlots though, is under criticism from the feedlots because the amount paid to the feedlots is determined by the packers’ assessment of the meat received. Live- or carcass-weight based formula pricing is most common. Other types include boxed beef pricing; the most controversial marketing method stems from the vertical integration of packer-owned feedlots, which still represents less than 10% of all methods, but has been growing over the years. The practice of feeding cattle in feedlots has been criticized by animal welfare organizations. One concern is. Cattle may have issues such as bloating and digestive discomfort
Weaning is the process of introducing an infant human or mammal to what will be its adult diet while withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk. The process takes place only in mammals; the infant is considered to be weaned once it is no longer fed any breast milk. How and when to wean a human infant is controversial; the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends feeding a baby only breast milk for the first six months of its life. Many mothers find breastfeeding challenging in modern times when many mothers have to return to work soon after the birth of their child; the American Academy of Pediatrics, the World Health Organization, the National Health Service Choices UK, the National Health & Medical Research Council in Australia recommend waiting until 6 months to introduce baby food. However, many baby food companies market their "stage 1" foods to children between 4 and 6 months old with the precaution that the food is meant to be consumed in addition to breast milk or formula and is just for "practice".
These practice foods are soft and runny. Examples include mashed fruit and vegetables. Certain foods are recommended to be avoided; the United Kingdom's NHS recommends withholding foods including those "that contain wheat, nuts, peanut products, liver, fish, cows’ milk and soft or unpasteurised cheese" until a baby is six months old, as they may cause food allergies or make the baby ill. However, recommendations such as these have been called into question by research that suggests early exposure to potential allergens does not increase the likelihood of allergies, in some cases reduces it. In many cultures around the world, weaning progresses with the introduction of feeding the child food, prechewed by the parent along with continued breastfeed, a practice known as premastication; the practice was important throughout human history in that it gave a child a improved protein source in addition to preventing iron deficiency. The prechewing of food gives the baby long-term immunological benefits through factors in the mother's saliva.
However, premasticated food from caregivers of lower socioeconomic status in areas of endemic diseases can result in the passing of the disease to the child. No matter what age baby food is introduced, it is a messy affair, as young children do not have the coordination to eat "neatly". Coordination for using utensils properly and eating with dexterity takes years to develop. Many babies begin using utensils between 10 and 14 months, but most will not be able to feed themselves sufficiently well until about 2 or 3 years of age. At this point, the mother tries to force the infant to cease nursing, while the infant attempts to force the mother to continue. From an evolutionary perspective, weaning conflict may be considered the result of the cost of continued nursing to the mother in terms of reduced ability to raise future offspring, exceeding the benefits to the mother in terms of increased survival of the current infant; this can come about because future offspring will be related to the mother as the current infant, but will share less than 100% of the current infant's genes.
So, from the perspective of the mother's evolutionary fitness, it makes sense for her to cease nursing the current infant as soon as the cost to future offspring exceeds the benefit to the current infant. But, assuming the current infant shares 50% of the future offspring's genes, from the perspective of the infant's own evolutionary fitness, it makes sense for the infant to continue nursing until the cost to future offspring exceeds twice the benefit to itself. Weaning conflict has been studied for a variety including primates and canines. There are significant cultural variations in regards to weaning. Scientifically, one can ask various questions. At what age do various societies normatively choose to wean? In comparison with other animals similar primates, by various measures; as there are significant ranges and skew in these numbers, looking at the median is more useful than looking at the average. Considering biological measures of maturity, notably investigated by Katherine Ann Dettwyler, yields a range of ages from 2 1/2 years to 7 years as the weaning age analogous to other primates – the "natural age of weaning".
This depends on the measure, for example: weaning in non-human primates is associated with eruption of permanent molars. Other studies are possible, as in psychological factors. For example, Barbara Rogoff has noted, citing a 1953 study by Whiting & Child, that the most distressing time to wean a child is at 13–18 months. After this peak, weaning becomes progressively easier and less distressing for the child, with "older children wean themselves." In science, mice are used in laboratory experiments. When breeding laboratory mice in a controlled environment, the weaning is defined as the moment when the pups are transferred out of the mothers' cage. Weaning is recommended at 3 to 4 weeks after parturition. For pet carnivores such as do
The liver of mammals and fish is eaten as food by humans. Domestic pig, ox, calf, chicken and cod livers are available from butchers and supermarkets. Animal livers are rich in iron, the B vitamins and preformed vitamin A. 100 g cod liver contains 5 mg of vitamin A and 100 µg of vitamin D. Liver can be baked, broiled, stir-fried, or eaten raw. In many preparations, pieces of liver are combined with pieces of meat or kidneys, like in the various forms of Middle Eastern mixed grill. Spreads or pâtés made from liver have various names, including liver pâté, pâté de foie gras, chopped liver and Braunschweiger. A traditional South African delicacy, namely skilpadjies, is made of minced lamb's liver wrapped in netvet, grilled over an open fire; some fish livers are valued as food the stingray liver. It is used to prepare delicacies, such as poached skate liver on toast in England, as well as the beignets de foie de raie and foie de raie en croute in French cuisine. Cod liver is a popular spread for toast in several European countries.
In Russia, it is served with potatoes. Cod liver oil is used as a dietary supplement. High doses of vitamin A have the potential to be toxic and can cause hypervitaminosis A, a dangerous disorder. There have been several anecdotal reports and a few scientific studies of vitamin A poisoning due to the consumption of the livers of polar bears, bearded seals and huskies; the livers of these animals can contain high levels of vitamin A. The Inuit will not eat the liver of bearded seals, it has been estimated that consumption of 500 grams of polar bear liver would result in a toxic dose for a human. Russian sailor Alexander Konrad, who accompanied explorer Valerian Albanov in a tragic ordeal over the Arctic ice in 1912, wrote about the awful effects of consuming polar bear liver. In 1913, Antarctic explorers on the Far Eastern Party Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were believed to have been poisoned, the latter fatally, from eating husky liver, though this has been contested recently. Vitamin A poisoning is less from consuming oil-based vitamin A products and liver than from consuming water-based and solid preparations.
Mercury content in some species can be an issue. The neurotoxin in the liver of the pufferfish contains the highest concentration of the tetrodotoxin, which characterizes the species; as a result, it is not eaten. Pig liver is a traditional food in Hawaii, it used to be eaten on New Year's Eve
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to feed themselves and their families. In subsistence agriculture, farm output is targeted to survival and is for local requirements with little or no surplus trade; the typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, secondarily toward market prices. Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what they eat, build their own houses, live without making purchases in the marketplace." Despite the primacy of self-sufficiency in subsistence farming, today most subsistence farmers participate in trade to some degree, though it is for goods that are not necessary for survival, may include sugar, iron roofing sheets, used clothing, so forth. Most subsistence farmers today reside in developing countries, although their amount of trade as measured in cash is less than that of consumers in countries with modern complex markets, many have important trade contacts and trade items that they can produce because of their special skills or special access to resources valued in the marketplace.
Subsistence agriculture emerged in various areas including Mexico where it was based on maize and in the Andes where it was based on the domestication of the potato. Subsistence agriculture was the dominant mode of production in the world until when market-based capitalism became widespread. Subsistence horticulture may have developed independently in Papua New Guinea. Subsistence agriculture had disappeared in Europe by the beginning of World War I, in North America with the movement of sharecroppers and tenant farmers out of the American South and Midwest during the 1930s and 1940s; as as the 1950s, it was still common on family farms in North America and Europe to grow much of a family's own food and make much of its own clothing, although sales of some of the farm's production earned enough currency to buy certain staples including sugar. Many of the preceding items, as well as occasional services from physicians, veterinarians and others, were bought with barter rather than currency. In Central and Eastern Europe subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture reappeared within the transition economy since about 1990.
Subsistence farming continues today in large parts of rural Africa, parts of Asia and Latin America. In 2015, about 2 billion people in 500 million households living in rural areas of developing nations survive as "smallholder" farmers, working less than 2 hectares of land. In this type of agriculture, a patch of forest land is cleared by a combination of felling and burning, crops are grown. After 2-3 years the fertility of the soil begins to decline, the land is abandoned and the farmer moves to clear a fresh piece of land elsewhere in the forest as the process continues. While the land is left fallow the forest regrows in the cleared area and soil fertility and biomass is restored. After a decade or more, the farmer may return to the first piece of land; this form of agriculture is sustainable at low population densities, but higher population loads require more frequent clearing which prevents soil fertility from recovering, opens up more of the forest canopy, encourages scrub at the expense of large trees resulting in deforestation and land erosion.
Shifting cultivation is called Dredd in India, Ladang in Indonesia, Milpa in Central America and Mexico and Jhumming in North East India. While this'slash-and-burn' technique may describe the method for opening new land the farmers in question have in existence at the same time smaller fields, sometimes gardens, near the homestead there they practice intensive'non-shifting" techniques until shortage of fields where they can employ "slash and burn" to clear land and provide fertilizer; such gardens nearer the homestead regularly receive household refuse, the manure of any household chickens or goats, compost piles where refuse is thrown just to get it out of the way. However, such farmers recognize the value of such compost and apply it to their smaller fields, they may irrigate part of such fields if they are near a source of water. In some areas of tropical Africa, at least, such smaller fields may be ones in which crops are grown on raised beds, thus farmers practicing'slash and burn' agriculture are much more sophisticated agriculturalists than the term "slash and burn" subsistence farmers suggests.
In this type of farming people migrate along with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder for their animals. They rear cattle, goats, camels and/or yaks for milk, skin and wool; this way of life is common in parts of central and western Asia, India and south-west Africa and northern Eurasia. Examples are the nomadic Gujjars of the Himalayas, they carry their belongings, such as tents, etc.. on the backs of donkeys and camels. In mountainous regions, like Tibet and The Andes and Llama are reared. Reindeer are the livestock in sub-arctic areas. Sheep and camels are common animals, cattle and horses are important.. In intensive subsistence agriculture, the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labor. Climat