Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is identified as one of the richest people in history, he became a leading philanthropist in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away about $350 million to charities and universities – 90 percent of his fortune, his 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1848. Carnegie started work as a telegrapher, by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars and oil derricks, he accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000, it became the U. S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.
Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall in New York, NY, the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University, the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others. Andrew Carnegie was born to Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William Carnegie in Dunfermline, Scotland in 1835, in a typical weaver's cottage with only one main room, consisting of half the ground floor, shared with the neighboring weaver's family; the main room served as a living room, dining bedroom. He was named after his legal grandfather. In 1836, the family moved to a larger house in Edgar Street, following the demand for more heavy damask, from which his father benefited, he was educated at the Free School in Dunfermline, a gift to the town by the philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask.
Carnegie's uncle, George Lauder, Sr. a Scottish political leader influenced him as a boy by introducing him to the writings of Robert Burns and historical Scottish heroes such as Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, Rob Roy. Lauder's son named George Lauder, grew up with Carnegie and would become his business partner; when Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on hard times as a handloom weaver. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother, by selling potted meats at her "sweetie shop", leaving her as the primary breadwinner. Struggling to make ends meet, the Carnegies decided to borrow money from George Lauder, Sr. and move to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1848 for the prospect of a better life. Carnegie's migration to America would be his second journey outside Dunfermline – the first being an outing to Edinburgh to see Queen Victoria. In September 1848, Carnegie arrived with his family at their new prosperous home. Allegheny was populating in the 1840s, growing from around 10,000 to 21,262 residents.
The city was industrial and produced many products including wool and cotton cloth. The "Made in Allegheny" label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. For his father, the promising circumstances still did not provide him any good fortune. Dealers were not interested in selling his product, he himself struggled to sell it on his own; the father and son both received job offers at the same Scottish-owned cotton mill, Anchor Cotton Mills. Carnegie's first job in 1848 was as a bobbin boy, changing spools of thread in a cotton mill 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in a Pittsburgh cotton factory, his starting wage was $1.20 per week. His father quit his position at the cotton mill soon after, returning to his loom and removing him as breadwinner once again, but Carnegie attracted the attention of John Hay, a Scottish manufacturer of bobbins, who offered him a job for $2.00 per week. In his autobiography, Carnegie speaks of his past hardships. Soon after this Mr. John Hay, a fellow Scotch manufacturer of bobbins in Allegheny City, needed a boy, asked whether I would not go into his service.
I went, received two dollars per week. I had to fire the boiler in the cellar of the bobbin factory, it was too much for me. I found myself night after night, sitting up in bed trying the steam gauges, fearing at one time that the steam was too low and that the workers above would complain that they had not power enough, at another time that the steam was too high and that the boiler might burst. In 1849, Carnegie became a telegraph messenger boy in the Pittsburgh Office of the Ohio Telegraph Company, at $2.50 per week following the recommendation of his uncle. He was a hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburgh's businesses and the faces of important men, he made many connections this way. He paid close attention to his work, learned to distinguish the differing sounds the incoming telegraph signals produced, he developed the ability to translate signals by ear, withou
Downtown East Village, Calgary
Downtown East Village more known as East Village, is a mixed-use neighbourhood within the eastern portions of downtown Calgary, Canada. It is contained within the city's Rivers District. Containing the earliest-settled land in the Calgary area - Fort Calgary - East Village was for years a mixture of high-rise residential and industrial development. Much of the parkland surrounding Fort Calgary was industrial as as the 1960s. Construction of the city's light rail transit Blue Line, coupled with the closure of 8th Avenue at Macleod Trail in the early 1980s by construction of the massive Calgary Municipal Building, resulted in East Village being "cut off," figuratively speaking, from the rest of downtown; as a result, it became home to many rundown properties and vacant lots over the years, a severe crime problem. Plans to reshape this neighbourhood were approved by Calgary City Council in March, 2005. In Spring 2007, Calgary City Council approved the formation of a wholly owned subsidiary known as Calgary Municipal Land Corporation with the mandate to revitalize and redevelop the Rivers District, which includes the East Village.
Construction began in earnest within the Rivers District by the new corporation in 2007 with the undertaking of a rare downtown Calgary stormwater treatment pond in the NW corner of Fort Calgary. Many of the dilapidated buildings were torn down, to be replaced by modern structures, the Jack and Jean Leslie RiverWalk along the south bank of the Bow River was completed in the summer of 2012; as of January 2017, several luxury condominium towers have been completed, along with two new hotels, while construction is underway on several more condominium towers, retail buildings, with additional commercial and residential development planned. So far, the neighbourhood has attracted $2.7 billion worth of investment. In the City of Calgary's 2016 municipal census, Downtown East Village had a population of 3,242 living in 1,897 dwellings, a 14.2% increase from its 2015 population of 2,838. With a land area of 0.5 km2, it had a population density of 6,500/km2 in 2016. Residents in this community had a median household income of $17,253 in 2005.
As a reference, in 2005 the median household income for the whole city of Calgary was $67,238. In 2005 there were 53.1% low income residents living in the neighbourhood. As of 2006, 31.9% of the residents were immigrants. A proportion of 94.7% of the buildings were condominiums or apartments, 83.8% of the housing was used for renting, this being the highest renting/owning rate in the city. In the spring and summer of 2008, archeologists made several rare discoveries in East Village: two historic dumps from the early 20th century, as well as a native stone circle and fire hearths dating back over 3,300 years. Calgary archeologist Brian Vivian says it's the first pre-contact site archeologists have discovered in inner-city Calgary. In 2007, Calgary Municipal Land Corporation invested $357 million in infrastructure upgrades to the neighbourhood; these upgrades included elevating the roads above the flood-plain of the nearby Bow and Elbow rivers, paving the new roads and sidewalks with stone bricks, building the award-winning Jack and Jean Leslie RiverWalk, major utility upgrades, the construction of plazas, much more.
These infrastructure upgrades were completed in 2015, with the completion of Celebration Square located along Riverfront Lane, between 6th and 7th Avenues SE. Since 2012, the East Village has seen the construction of several residential buildings, which have increased the population of the neighbourhood substantially; the first building to be completed under the guise of CMLC was Fuse in 2015. Fuse is the shorter of two towers; as of January 2017, there are six residential buildings under construction in the East Village. N3 is the city's first parking-free condominium. East Village is home of the National Music Centre, the first national cultural institution dedicated to celebrating music in Canada in all of its forms; the $191 million building houses the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, the Canadian Country Music Hall of Fame, broadcast facilities, a museum of impressive musical artefacts such as the Rolling Stones Mobile Recording Studio, a 300 seat performance hall. The new National Music Centre building has incorporated the 120-year-old King Edward Hotel building into its structure.
The King Edward Hotel was, for a long time, a famous jazz and blues venue, thus continuing the tradition of this site as a centre for musical development in Canada. The village is home to the New Central Library of the Calgary Public Library, which opened on November 1, 2018; the library houses children's books, performance venues and activity rooms on its lower floors, together with an extensive fiction section and reading room on its upper floor. CMLC held a design competition for the new library. American-Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta and Canadian firm DIALOG won the competition to design the 240,000 square feet building; the $245 million structure will house 600,000 titles, a reading room, a cafe, a 340 seat theatre, conference rooms, as well as many activity centres and reading areas. Much of the East Village redevelopment consists of mixed-use buildings, housing both residential and retail uses; this will be most apparent on ‘The Riff’. The Riff will be a pedestrian street bisecting the neighbourhood from the northeast to the southwest, from the George C. King Bridge to 8th Avenue SE.
The Riff will be housing an as yet unknown collection of retailers. In late 2016, RioCan Developments started construction on a major new retail destination known as 5th and Third; this development is an entire city
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Demographics of Calgary
In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 residents, representing 30% of the 3,645,257 residents in all of Alberta, 3% compared to a population of 33,476,688 in all of Canada. The total population of the Calgary census metropolitan area was 1,214,839. Calgary is the largest city in Alberta, the third-largest municipality and fourth-largest metropolitan area in Canada, as of 2016. Section 57 of Alberta's Municipal Government Act enables municipalities to conduct censuses; the City of Calgary first conducted a municipal census, or civic census, in 1931. It has conducted a civic census annually since 1958. Calgary's 2016 civic census counted a population of 1,381,345. From 2011 to 2012, there was a 2.7% increase over its 2011 municipal census population of 1,090,936. The city attributed the 29,289 increase in residents to a natural increase of 9,631 and a net migration of 19,658 since the 2011 civic census; the 2012 civic census recorded a total 459,339 dwellings in the city.
The following is a breakdown of the City of Calgary's 2012 civic census results by community, including residential communities, industrial areas, major parks and residual areas by electoral ward. Between 2006 and 2011, the population of the City of Calgary grew by 10.9%, compared with an increase of 12.6% for the Calgary CMA. During the same period, the growth rates were 5.9 % for Canada. With land areas of 825.29 km2 and 5,107.55 km2 for the city and CMA the population density was 1,329.027/km2 for the city and 237.8516/km2 for the CMA in 2011. In the 2011 census, the median age was 36.4 years for both the City of Calgary and its CMA. Comparatively, the median ages were 40.6 years in Canada. The largest age group was 25 to 29 years for both the city and the CMA; the 2011 census indicated that 50.09% of the population was female and 49.91% was male in the city and 50.05% and 49.95% in the CMA. Based on Calgary's 2016 metropolitan census reporting a population of 1,381,345, English is the mother tongue for 67.8 per cent of inhabitants.
French-speakers make up 1.5 per cent with 20,715 people. Other languages make up 30.7 per cent or 383,320. The top three languages outside English and French in Calgary are Tagalog, Cantonese and Spanish. Demographics of Edmonton Demographics of Alberta List of neighbourhoods in Calgary Alberta Municipal Affairs – Municipal Census & Population Lists City of Calgary Civic Census Results Statistics Canada 2006 Census 2011 Census
Calgary Central Library
The Calgary Central Library known as the Calgary New Central Library, is a public library in Calgary, Alberta and the flagship branch of the Calgary Public Library. It is located in the Downtown East Village neighborhood and opened on November 1, 2018, replacing the existing central branch in Downtown Calgary; the four-storey building cost $245 million to construct and was designed by American-Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta and Canadian firm DIALOG after the two firms' joint bid won a design competition in 2013. Their design features an interior with a large central atrium with a skylight; the building is elevated one floor above street level to accommodate a light rail trackway below as well as a public plaza. Planning for a new library began in 2004 and was finalized in 2011. Construction began in 2013 with the encapsulation of an existing CTrain light rail tunnel portal; the Central Library is located along 3rd Street SE between 7th and 9th avenues in the Downtown East Village neighborhood, adjacent to the Calgary Municipal Building.
The CTrain City Hall station is located to the west of the library's northwest corner. Planning for a new central library branch in Downtown Calgary, to replace an older building used since 1964, began in 2004; the city of Calgary, working with the Calgary Municipal Land Corporation, proposed a site adjacent to the city hall in the Downtown East Village neighborhood. The Calgary City Council approved the project in 2011. Rejected sites included the current library in Downtown, the former headquarters of the Calgary Board of Education, the Olympic Plaza, the former Telus World of Science centre in the Downtown West End. Of the $245 million budgeted for the library project, $175 million was contributed by the city government and $70 million came from the Calgary Municipal Land Corporation, a city-owned real estate developer; the largest private donation for the project, via the Calgary Public Library Foundation, was a $1.5 million contribution from Nexen, a Calgary-based oil company and subsidiary to the Chinese state-run CNOOC, for the naming rights to a high-tech learning centre.
The library's design was unveiled to the public in September 2014 by architects Snøhetta and DIALOG, who won a design competition in 2013. The entire building is oval-shaped and is elevated one floor above street level to cover a CTrain light rail tunnel and an open plaza, included with the intention of connecting Downtown East Village to downtown; the entrance is framed by wood-clad arches inspired by the shape of arched clouds made by Chinook winds in Alberta. Landscaping around the library and adjoining plaza consists of terracing inspired by the foothills of the Canadian Rockies; the exterior is wrapped in a textured façade, with translucent fritted glass panels used to shield private study areas and clear glass to make public areas viewable from the outside. The 240,000-square-foot interior centres around a four-storey central atrium topped by a skylight; the lower floors contain the library's meeting spaces and activity centres, while the upper floors feature book stacks with space for 450,000 titles and a reading room.
At street level, one floor below the main lobby, is a 340-seat theatre, conference rooms, small café. The entire library features several environmentally friendly features, such as triple-pane windows to save energy on climate control and finishings made of low volatile organic compound materials. One notable absence from the new library is a connection to the +15 skybridge system that spans the central business district of Calgary, the nearest location of, inside the Calgary Municipal Building. A connection was considered, but rejected because of conflicts with the city hall's hours of operation as well as low predicted traffic. Calgary Mayor Naheed Nenshi described the library as a "new icon for the city" at the public unveiling of the final design in 2014. Public art for the library will be selected in 2017, with one percent of the project budget dedicated to public art; the first stage of construction was the $25 million encapsulation of a 135-metre long section of light rail used by the CTrain Red Line, which emerges from a tunnel on the proposed site.
The light rail encapsulation began in May 2014 and was completed in September 2015, allowing for vertical construction of the library to begin. The Central Library was opened to the public on November 1, 2018, with astronaut Chris Hadfield dedicating the building. In the first four days that the library was opened to the public, a total of 52,000 people visited as part of the opening ceremonies; the library was praised for its design and its potential impact on Calgary's image amid a planned bid for the 2026 Winter Olympics. Official website Dialog Design
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada; the economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services and television, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, aerospace and wellness, tourism sectors. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.
In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary has been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. Calgary is classed as a Beta global city. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Scotland. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden" used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm"; the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language, the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence.
The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage. There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis. In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.
The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi, îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3; as Mayor Naheed Nenshi describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water, they come here to fish. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police; the NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod; when the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre.
Over a century the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was incorporated as a town in 1884, elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was the North-West Territories; the Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost; as a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. A transportation and distribution hub, Calgary became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.
By the late 19th century, the Hud
Queen's University at Kingston is a public research university in Kingston, Canada. Founded on 16 October 1841, via a royal charter issued by Queen Victoria, the university predates Canada's founding by 26 years. Queen's holds more than 1,400 hectares of land throughout Ontario and owns Herstmonceux Castle in East Sussex, England. Queen's is organized into ten undergraduate and professional faculties and schools; the Church of Scotland established Queen's College in 1841 with a royal charter from Queen Victoria. The first classes, intended to prepare students for the ministry, were held 7 March 1842 with 13 students and two professors. Queen's was the first university west of the maritime provinces to admit women and to form a student government. In 1883, a women's college for medical education affiliated with Queen's University was established. In 1888, Queen's University began offering extension courses, becoming the first Canadian university to do so. In 1912, Queen's ended its affiliation with the Presbyterian Church, adopted its present name.
Queen's is a co-educational university with more than 23,000 students and over 131,000 alumni living worldwide. Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders and 57 Rhodes Scholars. Queen's was a result of an outgrowth of educational initiatives planned by Presbyterians in the 1830s. A draft plan for the university was presented at a synod meeting in Kingston in 1839, with a modified bill introduced through the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada during a session in 1840. On 16 October 1841, a royal charter was issued through Queen Victoria establishing Queen's College at Kingston. Queen's resulted from years of effort by Presbyterians of Upper Canada to found a college for the education of ministers in the growing colony and to instruct youth in various branches of science and literature, they modelled the university after the University of Glasgow. Classes began on 7 March 1842, in a small woodframe house on the edge of the city with two professors and 15 students; the college moved several times during its first eleven years, before settling in its present location.
Prior to Canadian Confederation, the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, the Canadian government, private citizens financially supported the college. After Confederation, the college faced ruin when the federal government withdrew its funding and the Commercial Bank of the Midland District collapsed, a disaster which cost Queen's two-thirds of its endowment; the college was rescued after Principal William Snodgrass and other officials created a fundraising campaign across Canada. The risk of financial ruin worried the administration until the century's final decade, they considered merging with the University of Toronto as late as the 1880s. With the additional funds bequeathed from Queen's first major benefactor, Robert Sutherland, the college staved off financial failure and maintained its independence. Queen's was given university status on 17 May 1881. In 1883, Women's Medical College was founded at Queen's with a class of three. Theological Hall, completed in 1880 served as Queen's main building throughout the late 19th century.
In 1912, Queen's separated from the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and changed its name to Queen's University at Kingston. Queen's Theological College remained in the control of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, until 1925, when it joined the United Church of Canada; the theological college merged with the Queen's department of religious studies and the program closed in 2015. The university faced another financial crisis during World War I from a sharp drop in enrollment due to the military enlistment of students and faculty. A $1,000,000 fundraising drive and the armistice in 1918 saved the university. 1,500 students fought in the war and 187 died. On 18 August 1939, weeks prior to the start of World War II, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Queen's to accept an honorary degree. In a broadcast heard around the world, the President voiced the American policy of mutual alliance and friendship with Canada. During World War II, 2,917 graduates from Queen's served in the armed forces, suffering 164 fatalities.
The Memorial Room in Memorial Hall of the John Deutsch University Centre lists Queen's students who died during the world wars. Queen's grew after the war, propelled by the expanding postwar economy and the demographic boom that peaked in the 1960s. From 1951 to 1961, enrolment increased from just over 2,000 students to more than 3,000; the university embarked on a building program, constructing five student residences in less than ten years. After the reorganization of legal education in Ontario in the mid-1950s, Queen's Faculty of Law opened in 1957 in the new John A. Macdonald Hall. Other construction projects at Queen's in the 1950s included the construction of Richardson Hall to house Queen's administrative offices and Dunning Hall. By the end of the 1960s, like many other Canadian universities, Queen's tripled its enrolment and expanded its faculty and facilities, as a result of the baby boom and generous support from the public sector. By the mid-1970s, the university had 10,000 full-time students.
Among the new facilities were three more residences and separate buildings for the Departments of Mathematics, Physics and Psychology, Social Sciences and the Humanities. During this period, Queen's created the Schools of Music, Public Administration, Rehabilitation Therapy, Urban and Regional Planning were established at Queen's; the establishment of the Faculty of Education in 1968 on land about a kilometre west of the university inaugurated the university's west c