The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Georgia State Route 234
State Route 234 is a 28.3-mile-long east–west state highway located in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It travels through portions of Dougherty counties. SR 234 begins at an intersection with SR 45 northeast of Morgan in Calhoun County; the route runs east, passing Calhoun County Road 45, Calhoun CR 136, Calhoun CR 119, before it reaches an intersection with SR 55, northeast of Leary. Shortly after SR 55, the route crosses into Dougherty County. Farther to the east, SR 234 intersects Tallahassee Road. Just before entering Albany, the road passes Live Oak Elementary School. In downtown Albany, it passes Darton State College. Farther in, it has a brief concurrency with US 19 Business/US 82 Business/SR 520 Business, it passes Albany Technical College just before intersections with SR 62 and SR 91. SR 91 leads to Southwest Georgia Regional Airport. Just before ending, it crosses over the Flint River. On the eastern edge of Albany it meets its eastern terminus, an interchange with US 19/SR 3/SR 133/SR 300.
Here, US 19/SR 3/SR 300, as well as SR 133 north, are known as Liberty Expressway, while SR 133 south continues the roadway of SR 234 along Moultrie Road. No section of SR 234 is part of the National Highway System. SR 234 was established, paved, in 1946 along the same alignment as it runs today. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 234 at Wikimedia Commons
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Clay County, Georgia
Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,183, making it the fifth-least populous county in Georgia; the county seat is Fort Gaines. This area was occupied by the Creek Indians until Indian Removal in the 1830s. European Americans pushed them out and developed the land for cotton, bringing in thousands of African slaves to work the land; the county is named in honor of Henry Clay, famous American statesman, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky and United States Secretary of State in the 19th century. Part of what became the Black Belt of Georgia, prior to the American Civil War the county's chief commodity crop was cotton and processed by farmers and African-American slaves. After the war, the economy continued to be agricultural, but timber was harvested. Clay was created by a February 16, 1854, act of the Georgia General Assembly, organized from portions of Early and Randolph counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 217 square miles, of which 195 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water.
The central and southwestern portions of Clay County, from west of Bluffton to northwest of Coleman, are located in the Lower Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. The county's northwestern corner, bisected by State Route 39 running north from Fort Gaines, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. Just the southeastern corner of Clay County is located in the Spring Creek sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin. U. S. Route 27 State Route 1 State Route 37 State Route 39 State Route 266 Quitman County - north Randolph County - northeast Calhoun County - east Early County - south Henry County, Alabama - west Barbour County, Alabama - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,183 people, 1,331 households, 869 families residing in the county; the population density was 16.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,102 housing units at an average density of 10.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.4% black or African American, 37.6% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 3.3% were American. Of the 1,331 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 22.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 45.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $26,250 and the median income for a family was $31,354. Males had a median income of $29,440 versus $23,816 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,353. About 25.5% of families and 34.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 56.7% of those under age 18 and 16.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,357 people, 1,347 households, 928 families residing in the county; the population density was 17 people per square mile.
There were 1,925 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.47% Black or African American, 38.43% White, 0.12% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,347 households out of which 25.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.70% were married couples living together, 23.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.10% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 21.00% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 83.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $21,448, the median income for a family was $27,837. Males had a median income of $26,557 versus $17,083 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,819. About 28.10% of families and 31.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.40% of those under age 18 and 23.90% of those age 65 or over. Bluffton Fort Gaines Oketeyeconne National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, Georgia Georgia Snapshots - Clay County GeorgiaInfo Clay County Courthouse history Official Website of Clay County Georgia Clay County historical marker New Lowell United Methodist Church historical marker
Terrell County, Georgia
Terrell County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,315; the county seat is Dawson. Terrell County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Formed from portions of Randolph and Lee counties on February 16, 1856, by an act of the Georgia General Assembly, Terrell County is named for Dr. William Terrell of Sparta, who served in the Georgia General Assembly and the United States House of Representatives. During the American Civil War, after Atlanta's capture by Union forces, a refugee settlement was established in Terrell County for civilians forced to flee the city; the Fosterville settlement, named after Georgia Quartermaster General Ira Roe Foster, was according to author Mary Elizabeth Massey in her 2001 history, the "most ambitious refugee project approved by the Georgia General Assembly". On March 11, 1865, the Georgia General Assembly authorized General Foster to "continue to provide for maintenance of said exiles, or such of them as are unable by their labor to support themselves, or their families for the balance of the present year."During the civil rights era of the 1960s, the local white minority resisted change, sometimes violently.
In September 1962, an African-American church was burned down after it was used for voter registration meetings. That month Prathia Hall delivered a speech at the site of the ruins, using the repeated phrase "I have a dream." Rev. Martin Luther King attended her speech. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 338 square miles, of which 335 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. The western and southern two-thirds of Terrell County is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the county's northeastern third is located in the Kinchafoonee-Muckalee sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin. Webster County - north Sumter County - northeast Lee County - east Dougherty County - southeast Calhoun County - southwest Randolph County - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,315 people, 3,519 households, 2,450 families residing in the county; the population density was 27.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,080 housing units at an average density of 12.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 61.2% black or African American, 36.6% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.7% were American, 5.7% were English, 5.0% were Irish. Of the 3,519 households, 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 24.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families, 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 39.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,909 and the median income for a family was $35,663. Males had a median income of $36,641 versus $25,461 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,553. About 28.2% of families and 31.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.4% of those under age 18 and 24.6% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2000, there were 10,970 people, 4,002 households, 2,913 families residing in the county. The population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 4,460 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.69% Black or African American, 37.95% White, 0.20% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 1.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,002 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.10% were married couples living together, 24.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,969, the median income for a family was $31,693. Males had a median income of $27,320 versus $19,895 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,894. About 22.70% of families and 28.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.50% of those under age 18 and 22.00% of those age 65 or over. Bronwood Dawson Parrott Sasser Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. Harvard Law School graduate and elected to New York City Council. Defended Angelo Herndon in Georgia against insurrection charges for organizing a union, resulting in a US Supreme Court case that ruled against Georgia's insurrection law as unconstitutional. Walter Washington and politician, elected as the first black mayor
Edison is a city in Calhoun County, United States. The population was 1,531 at the 2010 census; the Edison Commercial Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Georgia General Assembly incorporated the place in 1902 as the "Town of Edison"; the community was named after American inventor. Edison is located in northwestern Calhoun County at 31°33′39″N 84°44′17″W, it is 40 miles west of Albany and 20 miles east of the Alabama line at Fort Gaines. According to the United States Census Bureau, Edison has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,340 people, 512 households, 334 families residing in the city. The population density was 575.9 people per square mile. There were 584 housing units at an average density of 251.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 31.94% White, 67.69% African American, 0.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.27% of the population. There were 512 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.2% were married couples living together, 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families.
32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 22.3% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 74.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 62.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $19,191, the median income for a family was $23,839. Males had a median income of $22,500 versus $15,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,409. About 31.2% of families and 34.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.9% of those under age 18 and 24.4% of those age 65 or over. The Calhoun County School System includes Calhoun County High School-Middle School, which serves Calhoun County and some students from the cities of Arlington, Edison and Morgan.
Calhoun County Elementary School is in Arlington. Bobby Dews, former infielder and former coach in Major League Baseball Rodney Dent retired NBA player for the Orlando Magic’s Martha Hoover Dozier, Against Oblivion: History of Calhoun County