1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Sac County, Iowa
Sac County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,350; the county seat is Sac City. Both were named for the Sauk people, Native Americans who controlled this region before the European Americans. In February 2007, in its third annual list of the “Best Places to Live in Rural America”, Progressive Farmer magazine placed Sac County as #7 in the overall rankings. In 2009, the magazine ranked Sac County as the tenth "Best Place" in the Midwest Region. On January 13, 1846, the legislative body of the Indiana Territory authorized creation of twelve counties in the Iowa Territory, with general descriptions of their boundaries; this brought the number of counties in the Iowa Territory to 22. By the end of 1846, the Iowa portion of the Indiana Territory had been accepted into the Union as the State of Iowa. By 1851, the new state had grown to the extent that the original 22 counties needed to be divided into smaller, more accessible units. Accordingly, on January 15, 1851, the Iowa General Assembly enacted an omnibus bill which created 43 new counties by reducing the previous counties.
Sac County was named at that time called the Sac Indians. It took some time for the new organization to function. Sac City was designated the county seat in 1856, construction of the first county courthouse was complete in 1862. By 1873 the burgeoning population had outgrown that structure and a larger building was authorized to replace it; the new courthouse, complete with impressive bell tower, was placed in service in January 1874, was used until 1888 when it burned. To replace that structure, the present courthouse was built, it was remodeled in the 1980s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 578 square miles, of which 575 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. US Highway 20 – runs east–west through the northern part of the county, through Early and north of Sac City. US Highway 71 – from its intersection with US 20, runs south, turns 4 miles east to Auburn continues south into Carroll County. Iowa Highway 39 – from its intersection with Iowa 175 at Odebolt, runs south into Crawford County.
Iowa Highway 110 – from its intersection with US 20, runs north into Buena Vista County. Iowa Highway 175 – enters west side of county at Odebolt, runs east to intersection with US 71, east of Lake View. Buena Vista County – north Calhoun County – east Carroll County – south and southeast Cherokee County – northwest Crawford County – south and southwest Ida County – west Pocahontas County - northeast The 2010 census recorded a population of 10,350 in the county, with a population density of 17.974/sq mi. There were 5,429 housing units, of which 4,482 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 11,529 people, 4,746 households, 3,198 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 5,460 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.53% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races.
0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,746 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 29.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 23.50% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 22.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,874, the median income for a family was $40,504. Males had a median income of $26,183 versus $19,753 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,902.
About 6.80% of families and 9.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 8.20% of those age 65 or over. Three public school districts are based in Sac County: East Sac County School District is the largest school district in Sac County, with the Schaller-Crestland School District serving the northwestern portion of the county and Odebolt-Arthur School District serving the southwest part. Successful completion of the curriculum of these schools leads to graduation from East Sac County High School, OA-BCIG High School, or Ridge View High School respectively. Only ESC HS is located with OA-BCIG HS in Ida Grove and Ridge View in Holstein. Residents outside the three Sac County-based districts are within either the South Central Calhoun School District in areas around Lytton. A small part of northwestern Sac County is within the Galva-Holstein School District, which shares Ridge View High School with Schaller-Crestland SD. Sac County is a rich area for geocaching.
The county was "put on the map" when geocachers hid a series of caches a mile wide and 8 miles high to spell "SAC" along rural roads between Sac City and Lytton in August 2011. The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Sac County.† county seat Sac County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Sac County, Iowa Sac County government's website
Iowa's 4th congressional district
Iowa's 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Iowa that covers its northwestern part. The district includes Sioux City, Mason City, Fort Dodge and Carroll. Since the 1880s, there have been major changes in the location or nature of Iowa's 4th Congressional District. From 1886 until 1941, the district was made up of rural counties in northeastern Iowa, including the easternmost five counties in the northernmost two rows. During that era, the district included areas from Mason City east to the Mississippi River. In 1941, Iowa's 5th Congressional District was renumbered as Iowa's 4th Congressional District, counties in the old 4th District were placed in the 3rd District and the 2nd District.. From 1941 until 1960 the 4th Congressional District included the central five counties of each of the two southernmost tiers, plus four counties between Des Moines and Iowa City. 5th District incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Karl M. LeCompte was reelected in the reconfigured 4th District in 1942, was reelected in the next seven races.
In 1958, when LeCompte did not run for reelection, Democrat Steven V. Carter defeated Republican John Kyl. A recurrence of cancer would claim Carter's life before the end of his only term, Kyl won the special election and next general election. In 1961 the 4th Congressional District was expanded to include five central Iowa counties - Warren, Marshall and Benton - but retained its rural character. Kyl held this seat until he was swept out in the massive Democratic landslide of 1964. However, he regained his old seat in 1966, was reelected two more times; the rural character of the district was changed when most of its territory was merged with the Des Moines-based 5th District of Democratic incumbent Neal Smith after the 1970 census. Polk County was added. Smith defeated Kyl in the 1972 congressional election; the district became less rural in 1981, when Story County was added, other rural counties were taken out. The district was altered after the 1990 census, when it was reconfigured to take in the southwest quadrant of the state from Des Moines to Council Bluffs.
Smith defeated in 1994 by Republican Greg Ganske. The 2001 remap made the 4th district a north-central Iowa district, it could not be said to be the successor of any of the previous districts. It was a rural district, though it included Ames and Mason City, it did not include any of the state's nine largest cities, only four of the twenty largest Iowa cities. The plan went into effect in 2003 for the 108th U. S. Congress; the 5th's incumbent congressman, Tom Latham, had his home in Alexander drawn into the 4th, was elected from this district five times. For the 2012 elections, the Iowa Legislature passed a plan that went into effect in 2013 for the 113th U. S. Congress; the district now covers the northwest corner of the state, merged the northern half of the old 5th District with the western third of the old 4th. The new map placed Latham and 5th District incumbent Steve King in the same district. Although the new 4th was geographically more Latham's district, he opted to move to the redrawn 3rd District, leaving King to take the seat.
NOTE: Jim Hennager ran on the Earth Federation Party platform on the ballot. As of May 2015, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Iowa's 4th congressional district are alive. Iowa's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Illinois Central Railroad
The Illinois Central Railroad, sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad in the central United States, with its primary routes connecting Chicago, with New Orleans and Mobile, Alabama. A line connected Chicago with Sioux City, Iowa. There was a significant branch to Omaha, west of Fort Dodge and another branch reaching Sioux Falls, South Dakota, starting from Cherokee, Iowa; the Sioux Falls branch has been abandoned in its entirety. The Canadian National Railway acquired control of the IC in 1998; the IC is one of the early Class I railroads in the US. The company was incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly on January 16, 1836. S. House of Representatives authorizing a land grant to the company to construct a line from the mouth of the Ohio River to Chicago and on to Galena. Federal support, was not approved until 1850, when U. S. President Millard Fillmore signed a land grant for the construction of the railroad, making the Illinois Central the first land-grant railroad in the United States.
The Illinois Central was chartered by the Illinois General Assembly on February 10, 1851. Senator Stephen A. Douglas and President Abraham Lincoln were both Illinois Central men who lobbied for it. Douglas owned land near the terminal in Chicago. Lincoln was a lawyer for the railroad. Illinois legislators appointed Samuel D. Lockwood retired from the Illinois Supreme Court, as a trustee on the new railroad's board to guard the public's interest. Lockwood, who would serve more than two decades until his death, had overseen federal land monies shortly after Illinois' statehood helped oversee early construction of the completed Illinois and Michigan Canal. Upon its completion in 1856 the IC was the longest railroad in the world, its main line went from Cairo, Illinois, at the southern tip of the state, to Galena, in the northwest corner. A branch line went from Centralia, to the growing city of Chicago. In Chicago its tracks were laid along the shore of Lake Michigan and on an offshore causeway downtown, but land-filling and natural deposition have moved the present-day shore to the east.
In 1867 the Illinois Central extended its track into Iowa, during the 1870s and 1880s the IC acquired and expanded railroads in the southern United States. IC lines crisscrossed the state of Mississippi and went as far as New Orleans, Louisiana, to the south and Louisville, Kentucky, in the east. In the 1880s, northern lines were built to Dodgeville, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Omaha, Nebraska. Further expansion continued into the early twentieth century; the Illinois Central, the other "Harriman lines" owned by E. H. Harriman by the 20th century, became the target of the Illinois Central shopmen's strike of 1911. Although marked by violence and sabotage in the south and western states, the strike was over in a few months; the railroads hired replacements and withstood diminishing union pressure. The strike was called off in 1915; the totals above do not include the Waterloo RR, Batesville Southwestern, Peabody Short Line or CofG and its subsidiaries. On December 31, 1925 IC/Y&MV/G&SI operated 6,562 route-miles on 11,030 miles of track.
At the end of 1970 IC operated 11,159 of track. On August 10, 1972, the Illinois Central Railroad merged with the Gulf and Ohio Railroad to form the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad. On October 30 that year the Illinois Central Gulf commuter rail crash, the company's deadliest, occurred. At the end of 1980 ICG operated 8,366 miles of railroad on 13,532 miles of track. In that decade, the railroad spun off most of its east–west lines and many of its redundant north–south lines, including much of the former GM&O. Most of these lines were bought by other railroads, including new railroads such as the Chicago and Western Railway and Louisville Railway, Chicago Central and Pacific Railroad and MidSouth Rail Corporation. In 1988 the railroad's then-parent company IC Industries spun off its remaining rail assets and changed its name to the Whitman Corporation. On February 29, 1988, the newly separated ICG dropped the "Gulf" from its name and again became the Illinois Central Railroad. On February 11, 1998 the IC was purchased for $2.4 billion in cash and shares by Canadian National Railway.
Integration of operations began July 1, 1999. The Illinois Central was a major carrier of passengers on its Chicago to New Orleans mainline and between Chicago and St. Louis. IC ran passengers on its Chicago to Omaha line, though it was never among the top performers on this route. Illinois Central's largest passenger terminal, Central Station, stood at 12th Street east of Michigan Avenue in Chicago. Due to the railroad's north-south route from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes, Illinois Central passenger trains were one means of transport during the African American Great Migration of the 1920s. Illinois Central's most famous train was the Panama Limited, a premier all-Pullman car service between Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans. In 1967, due to losses incurred by the operation of the train, the Illinois Central combined the Panama Limited with a coach-only train called the Magnolia Star. On May 1, 1971 Amtrak took over the oper
Greene County, Iowa
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,336; the county seat is Jefferson. The county is named in honor of General Nathanael Greene. Greene County was formed from 1854, self-governed, it was named after a hero in the Revolutionary War. The first settler was Truman Davis, he settled on the Raccoon River. The first courthouse was built in 1856 from wood. Court was held in a log cabin southeast of Jefferson; the second courthouse, of red brick, was built in 1870. The present Greene County Courthouse used today was built in 1917. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 570 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. U. S. Route 30 Iowa Highway 4 Iowa Highway 25 Iowa Highway 144 Calhoun County Webster County Boone County Dallas County Guthrie County Carroll County The 2010 census recorded a population of 9,336 in the county, with a population density of 16.4248/sq mi. There were 4,546 housing units, of which 3,996 were occupied.
As of the census of 2000, there were 10,366 people, 4,205 households, 2,859 families residing in the county. The population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 4,623 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.16% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. 1.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 0.001% of the population was Extraterrestrial. There were 4,205 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families. 29.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 21.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,883, the median income for a family was $41,230. Males had a median income of $29,076 versus $21,657 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,866. About 4.80% of families and 8.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 7.80% of those age 65 or over. Cooper The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Greene County.† county seat George Horace Gallup, Former resident, American statistician, invented the Gallup poll, a successful statistical method of survey sampling for measuring public opinion. Loren Shriver, Former resident, American astronaut, retired United States Air Force Colonel. Doreen Wilber, Former resident, American archer, Olympic gold medalist. Warren Allen Smith, Former resident, American homosexual activist and Humanist.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Iowa Raccoon River Valley Trail County website
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif