Paso Robles, California
Paso Robles is a city in San Luis Obispo County, United States. Located on the Salinas River north of San Luis Obispo, the city is known for its hot springs, its abundance of wineries, its production of olive oil, almond orchards, for playing host to the California Mid-State Fair; this area of the Central Coast, known as the City of El Paso De Robles, Paso Robles, or "Paso", is known for its thermal springs. Native Americans lived in the area thousands of years before the mission era, they knew this area as the “Springs” or the “Hot Springs.”Paso Robles is located on the Rancho Paso de Robles Mexican land grant, purchased by James and Daniel Blackburn in 1857. Their partner was Drury James of Kentucky, a veteran of the Mexican War and uncle of the outlaw Jesse James; the land was a rest-stop for travelers of the Camino Real trail, was known for its mineral hot springs. In fact, Franciscan priests from neighboring Mission San Miguel constructed the first mineral baths in the area. During this period, Paso Robles began to attract the pioneer settlers who would become the founding members of the community.
They would establish cattle ranches and almond orchards, dairy farms, vineyards. In 1864, the first El Paso de Robles Hotel was constructed and featured a hot mineral springs bath house. Today, only three locations are left that offer the healing mineral bath hot spring experience which brought people like Ignacy Jan Paderewski to Paso Robles. James and Daniel Blackburn donated two blocks to the city for a public park to be used for the pleasure of its citizens and visitors. By original deed, the land was to revert to the donors if used for any other purpose than a public park. Two exceptions were made: allowing the building of the Carnegie Library, the conversion of the library to a museum; the grounds were laid out by a Mr. Redington and a planting day was held when each citizen set out his own donation; the whole park was hedged in by a fence of cactus, in 1890 a bandstand was built with money raised by private theatricals. In 1886, after the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad, work began on laying out a town site, with the resort as the nucleus.
Two weeks after the first train arrived on October 31, 1886, a three-day celebration was held including a special train from San Francisco bringing prospective buyers, who toured the area and enjoyed the daily barbecues. On November 17, the "Grand Auction" was held; the local agent for the SPR when it arrived in Paso Robles was R. M. "Dick" Shackelford, a Kentucky native who had come to California in 1853 to dig for gold. Shackelford had a varied career, going from gold mining to hauling freight by ox team, to lumbering, which took him to Nevada, where he served one term as a delegate in the state's first legislature for Washoe County. By 1886 Shackelford had returned to California and was living in Paso Robles, where he began buying up extensive property, building warehouses and starting lumber yards along the railroad's route. Shackelford established the Southern Pacific Milling Company, which had a virtual monopoly on local milling until local farmers, in an effort to break Shackelford's strangehold, themselves organized their own milling cooperative, the Farmers' Alliance Flour Mill.
In 1889, the same year that Paso Robles incorporated as a city, construction began on a magnificent new hotel. The hotel required over one-million bricks and cost a princely $160,000; the new El Paso de Robles Hotel opened for business in 1891. The new hotel was three stories tall and built of solid masonry, set off by sandstone arches; this ensured the hotel was fireproof. The hotel featured a seven-acre garden and nine-hole golf course. Inside there was a library, a beauty salon, a barber shop, various billiard and lounging rooms; the new hotel offered an improved hot springs plunge bath as well as 32 individual bath rooms. The 20 by 40-foot plunge bath was considered one of the finest and most complete of its time in the United States. On January 17, 1914, one of the world's most well-known concert pianists and composers came to the hotel: Ignace Paderewski. After three weeks of treatments at the hotel's mineral hot springs for his arthritis, he resumed his concert tour, he returned to live at the hotel and bought two ranches west of Paso Robles.
During the next 30 years, the hotel was visited by other notables: Boxing champion Jack Dempsey, President Theodore Roosevelt, Adela Rogers St. Johns, Phoebe Apperson Hearst, actors Douglas Fairbanks, Boris Karloff, Bob Hope, Clark Gable all stayed at the El Paso de Robles Hotel, and when Major League baseball teams used Paso Robles as a spring training home, the Pittsburgh Pirates and Chicago White Sox stayed at the hotel and soaked in the mineral hot springs to soothe tired muscles. For a time, Paso Robles was known as the “Almond City” because the local almond growers created the largest concentration of almond orchards in the world; the ranchers in the outlying areas were important to the Paso Robles area. On these ranches were cattle and horses, grain crops, garden produce and fruit and nut orchards. Many of these ranch lands and orchards have become vineyards for the many wineries which draw tourists to the area. To show their appreciation to the ranchers, in October 1931 the business people established Pioneer Day, still an annual celebration.
Pioneer Day is celebrated most years on the Saturday prior to October 12
Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from California. She took office on November 4, 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Feinstein was Mayor of San Francisco from 1978 to 1988. Born in San Francisco, Feinstein graduated from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. In the 1960s, she worked in city government, she was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1969, she served as the board's first female president in 1978, during which time the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk drew national attention. Feinstein succeeded Moscone as Mayor of San Francisco and became the first woman to assume the position. During her tenure, she led the renovation of the city's cable car system, oversaw the 1984 Democratic National Convention. After losing a race for governor in 1990, Feinstein won a 1992 special election to the U. S. Senate. Feinstein was first elected on the same ballot as her peer Barbara Boxer, the two women became California's first female U.
S. Senators. Feinstein has been re-elected five times since and in the 2012 election, she received 7.75 million votes--the most popular votes in any U. S. Senate election in history. Feinstein was the author of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban which expired in 2004. In 2013, she introduced a new assault weapons bill. Feinstein is the first and only woman to have chaired the Senate Rules Committee and the Select Committee on Intelligence. To date, she is the only woman to have presided over a U. S. presidential inauguration. At the age of 85, Feinstein is the oldest sitting U. S. Senator. Upon the retirement of Barbara Mikulski in January 2017, Feinstein became the longest-tenured female U. S. Senator serving in the Senate. Having won reelection in 2018 to a six-year term expiring in January 2025, Feinstein will become the longest serving woman Senator in history should she serve her full term. Feinstein was born Dianne Emiel Goldman in San Francisco, to Betty, a former model, Leon Goldman, a surgeon.
Feinstein's paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants from Poland. Her maternal grandparents, the Rosenburg family, were from Russia. While they were of German-Jewish ancestry, they practiced the Russian Orthodox faith, as was required for Jews residing in Saint Petersburg. Feinstein graduated from Convent of the Sacred Heart High School, San Francisco in 1951 and from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. Prior to elected service, Feinstein was appointed by then-California Governor Pat Brown to serve as a member of the California Women's Parole Board. Feinstein served as a fellow at the Coro Foundation in San Francisco. In 1969, Feinstein was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, she remained on the Board for nine years. During her tenure on the Board of Supervisors, she unsuccessfully ran for mayor of San Francisco twice, in 1971 against mayor Joseph Alioto, in 1975, when she lost the contest for a runoff slot by one percentage point, to supervisor John Barbagelata.
Because of her position, Feinstein became a target of the New World Liberation Front, an anti-capitalist and terrorist group which carried out bombings in California in the 1970s. The NWLF placed a bomb on the windowsill of the Feinstein home, they shot out the windows of a beach house she owned. She was elected president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1978 with initial opposition from Quentin Kopp. On November 27, 1978, Moscone and supervisor Harvey Milk were assassinated by a rival politician, Dan White, who had resigned from the Board of Supervisors two weeks earlier. Feinstein was in City Hall at the time of the shootings and discovered Milk's body after hearing the shots; that day Feinstein announced the assassinations had occurred. As President of the Board of Supervisors upon the death of Moscone, Feinstein succeeded to the mayoralty on December 4, 1978. Feinstein served out the remainder of Moscone's term and was elected in her own right in 1979, she served a full second term.
One of Feinstein's first challenges as mayor was the state of the San Francisco cable car system, shut down for emergency repairs in 1979. Feinstein helped win federal funding for the bulk of the work; the system closed for rebuilding in 1982 and the work was completed just in time for the 1984 Democratic National Convention. Feinstein oversaw planning policies to increase the number of high-rise buildings in San Francisco. Feinstein was seen as a moderate Democrat in one of the country's most liberal cities; as a supervisor, she was considered part of the centrist bloc that included Dan White and was opposed to Moscone. As mayor, Feinstein angered the city's large gay community by refusing to march in a gay rights parade and by vetoing domestic partner legislation in 1982. In the 1980 presidential election, while a majority of Bay Area Democrats continued to support Senator Ted Kennedy's primary challenge to President Jimmy Carter after it was clear Kennedy could not win, Feinstein was a strong supporter of the Carter–Mondale ticket.
She was given a high-profile speaking role on the opening night of the August Democratic National Convention, urging delegates to reject the Kennedy delegates' proposal to "open" the convention, thereby allowing delegates to ignore their states' popular vote, a proposal, soundly defeated. In the run-up to the 1984 Democratic National Convention, there was considerable media and public specu
2012 United States presidential election in California
The 2012 United States presidential election in California took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 general election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. California voters chose 55 electors, the most out of any state, to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. According to Secretary of State Debra Bowen's website, the President won the popular vote with 60.24%, with Mitt Romney in second place at 37.12%, Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson in third place at 1.10%. The Democrats have won the state in every presidential election after Republican George H. W. Bush won the state in 1988. There was no primary in 2012 for the Democratic party; the California Republican 2012 primary took place on June 5, 2012. 169 delegates were chosen, for a total of 172 delegates at the national.
As noted in the Green Papers for California, "159 district delegates are to be bound to presidential contenders based on the primary results in each of the 53 congressional districts: each congressional district is assigned 3 National Convention delegates and the presidential contender receiving the greatest number of votes in that district will receive all 3 of that district's National Convention delegates. 10 at-large delegates are to be bound to the presidential contender receiving the greatest number of votes in the primary statewide. In addition, 3 party leaders, the National Committeeman, the National Committeewoman, the chairman of the California's Republican Party, will attend the convention as unpledged delegates by virtue of their position." Candidate Ballot Access: Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan, Republican Barack Obama/Joseph Biden, Democratic Gary Johnson/James P. Gray, Libertarian Jill Stein/Cheri Honkala, Green Tom Hoefling/Robert Ornelas, Independent Roseanne Barr/Cindy Sheehan and FreedomWrite-In Candidate Access: Virgil Goode/Jim Clymer, Constitution Rocky Anderson/Luis J. Rodriguez, Justice James Harris/Maura DeLuca, Socialist Workers Stewart Alexander/Alejandro Mendoza, Socialist Jerry White/Phyllis Scherrer, Socialist Equality Stephen Durham/Christina Lopez, Freedom Socialist Ron Paul/Andrew Napolitano United States presidential election, 2012 timeline Republican Party presidential debates, 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012 Results of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries California Republican Party The Green Papers: for California The Green Papers: Major state elections in chronological order
Santa Cruz County, California
Santa Cruz County, California the County of Santa Cruz, is a county on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,382; the county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz–Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; the county is on the California Central Coast, south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast. Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of "Branciforte" after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797. A major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months on April 5, 1850, the name was changed to "Santa Cruz". Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles, of which 445 square miles is land and 162 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in California by land third-smallest by total area. Of California's counties, only San Francisco is physically smaller; the county is situated on a wide coastline with over 29 miles of beaches. It is a strip of about 10 miles wide between the coast and the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains at the northern end of the Monterey Bay, it can be divided into four regions: the rugged "north coast". Agriculture is concentrated in the coastal lowlands of the county's southern ends. Most of the coastline is flanked by cliffs. Santa Cruz County is home to the following threatened or endangered species: California clapper rail – endangered California red-legged frog – threatened California tiger salamander – Central California DPS, threatened Coho salmon – Central California Coast ESU is endangered Marbled murrelet – threatened Mount Hermon June beetle – endangered Ohlone tiger beetle – endangered San Francisco garter snake – endangered Santa Cruz long-toed salamander – endangered Santa Cruz tarweed – threatened Smith's blue butterfly – endangered Southern sea otter – threatened Steelhead – Central California Coast DPS is threatened Tidewater goby – endangered Western snowy plover – threatened Yellow-billed cuckoo – threatened Zayante band-winged grasshopper – endangered Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area, Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area and Natural Bridges State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas off the coast of Santa Cruz County.
Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. The county of Santa Cruz has experienced demographic fluctuations in recent history. Between 1990 and 2000, population increased 11.3%. This is not because of immigration or migration, but because of new births. In 1980, Santa Cruz county was 21% Latino, which rose to 28% in 1990 and 39% in 2000; the area between Watsonville in south Santa Cruz County and Salinas Valley of northern Monterey County is Latino. The 2010 United States Census reported Santa Cruz County had a population of 262,382; the racial makeup of Santa Cruz County was 190,208 White, 2,766 African American, 2,253 Native American, 11,112 Asian, 349 Pacific Islander, 43,376 from other races, 12,318 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84,092 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 255,602 people, 91,139 households, 57,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 574 people per square mile.
There were 98,873 housing units at an average density of 222 per square mile. There were 91,139 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $53,998, the median income for a family was $61,941. Males had a median income of $46,291 versus $33,514 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,396.
About 6.7% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over. Santa Cruz county residents tend to be well-educated. 38.3% of residents age 25 and older hold a bachelor's degree at least higher than the national average of 27.2% and the state average of 29.5%. Santa Cruz County was a Republican stronghold for most of the 20th centuries.
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruz's population at 62,864. Situated on the northern edge of Monterey Bay, about 32 mi south of San Jose and 75 mi south of San Francisco, the city is part of the 12-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area. Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, natural environment, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, liberal leanings, it is home to the University of California, Santa Cruz, a premier research institution and educational hub, as well as the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, an oceanfront amusement park operating continuously since 1907. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz and the pueblo of Branciforte; the City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876. Important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture.
Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a beach resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, Santa Cruz County was home to the Awaswas Natives; the misnomer Ohlone, while used to describe the native people of the Santa Cruz area, is a generalized name for the many diverse groups that lived in the region stretching from San Francisco to the Monterey Bay. The diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan; the term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature. Awaswa was one of the eight Costanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, stretching north of Davenport to Rio Del Mar; the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their spoken language are three local place names: Aptos and Zayante.
The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, lived in small villages scattered around the Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay regions. Within fifty years of the Spaniards' arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had disappeared in the Bay area. Today, two of the Coastanoan tribes, the Awaswa people'missionized' in Santa Cruz and the Mutsun people'missionized' at San Juan Bautista, have joined together as the Amah Mutsan Tribal Band in an effort to protect and maintain the authentic and distinct cultural history and practices; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà, passed through the area on its way north, still searching for the "port of Monterey" described by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17, 1769. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, "This river was named San Lorenzo.".
Next morning, the expedition set out again, Crespi noted that, "Five hundred steps after we started we crossed a good arroyo of running water which descends from some high hills where it rises. It was named "El Arroyo de la Santisima Cruz, which translates as "The Stream of the Most Holy Cross"). In 1791, Father Fermín Lasuén continued the use of Crespi's name when he declared the establishment of La Misión de la Exaltación de la Santa Cruz for the conversion of the Awaswas of Chatu-Mu and surrounding Ohlone villages. Santa Cruz was the twelfth mission to be founded in California; the creek, however lost the name, is known today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the main feeder of Neary Lagoon. In 1797, Governor Diego de Borica, by order of the Viceroy of New Spain, Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, established the Villa de Branciforte, a town named in honor of the Viceroy. One of only three civilian towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River, less than a mile from the Mission.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue. Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area. Following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the government attempted to rename the community that had grown up around the Mission, to Pueblo de Figueroa; the pueblo designation was never made official, however. The new name didn't catch on and Santa Cruz remained Santa Cruz. Mission farming and grazing lands, which once extended from the San Lorenzo River north along the coast to today's Santa Cruz County border, were taken away and broken up into large land grants called ranchos; the grants were made by several different governors between 1834 and 1845. Only two ranchos were within the boundaries of today's city of Santa Cruz. Rancho Potrero Y Rincon de San Pedro Regalado consisted of flat, river-bottom pasture land north of Mission Hill. Rancho Tres Ojos de Agua was on the west side.
Three other rancho boundaries became part of the modern city limits: Rancho Refugio on the west. Rancho Carbonera on the north, Rancho Arroyo del Rodeo on the east. After secularization put most California land into private hands, immigran
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U. S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding; the United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U. S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race.
Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white; the largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans, Italian Americans, French Americans, Polish Americans, Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Dutch Americans, Norwegian Americans and Swedish Americans. However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as "Americans", due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution; the vast majority of white Americans have ancestry from multiple countries. Definitions of, "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States; the term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria.
The 2000 U. S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows: "White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa, it includes people who indicated their race as "White" or reported entries such as German, Lebanese, Moroccan, or Caucasian. In U. S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity and independent of race.
Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country. The characterization of Middle Eastern and North African Americans as white has been a matter of controversy. In the early 20th century, peoples of Arab descent were sometimes denied entry into the United States because they were characterized as nonwhite. In 1944, the law changed, Middle Eastern and North African peoples were granted white status; the U. S. Census is revisiting the issue, considering creating a separate racial category for Middle Eastern and North African Americans in the 2020 Census. In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U. S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White; the US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.
In the contemporary United States anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, may not be perceived to be, White; the definition of White has changed over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Spaniards, Swedes and Russians. Early on in the United States, membership in the white race was limited to those of British, Germanic, or Nordic ancestry. David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves; the process of being defined as white by law came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth and judicial neutrality, by critical theory.
Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards
Scotts Valley, California
Scotts Valley is a small city in Santa Cruz County, United States, about thirty miles south of downtown San Jose and six miles north of the city of Santa Cruz, in the upland slope of the Santa Cruz Mountains. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,580. Principal access to the city is supplied by State Route 17 that connects Santa Cruz; the city was incorporated in 1966. Scotts Valley is named for John Scott. Ten thousand years ago there was a lake in the lowest elevation of Scotts Valley, Paleo Indians lived near its shores; the lake receded to form a peat bog. Around 2000 BC, Ohlone people occupied areas along the remaining creeks and seep areas, along with permanent and seasonal drainages, on flat ridges and terraces. Therefore, areas along watercourses are considered locations for prehistoric cultural resources. Several watercourses, including portions of Carbonera Creek, Bean Creek, MacKenzie Creek and the San Lorenzo River, are within the city. Permanent villages were placed on elevations above seasonal flood levels.
Surrounding areas were used for hunting and seed and grass gathering. Scotts Valley was named after Hiram Daniel Scott, who purchased Rancho San Agustin, including the valley, in 1850 from Joseph Ladd Majors. Before Majors, the property was owned by José Bolcoff. Bolcoff was the original settler and first European to claim title and live in what was to be Scotts Valley, he was born Osip Volkov around 1794 in Siberia. Working as a fur trader around 1815, Bolcoff jumped ship on the Monterey Bay shoreline assimilated into the Spanish culture, was well received by the Spanish authorities. Volkov had his Russian Orthodox baptism validated in Mission Soledad in 1817, was given the Spanish name José Antonio Bolcoff. Bolcoff lived with and traveled with Alta California's governor Pablo Vicente de Solá, acting as an interpreter. Becoming a Mexican citizen in 1833, Bolcoff moved his family to his 4,400-acre land grant building, an adobe casa historians speculate was located near present-day Kings Village Shopping Center.
Bolcoff relinquished his interest in the Rancho San Augustin and accepting $400 from Joseph Ladd Majors known as Don Juan José Mechacas. July 7, 1846, marked the shift of power in the region from Mexico to the United States. Hiram Scott built the Greek revival style Scott House in 1853. Situated behind City Hall, it is a Santa Cruz County Historical Trust Landmark and is on the National Register of Historic Places; the house stood on Scotts Valley Drive, near where a Bank of America branch is now located. From the 1840s, money-making activity in Scotts Valley centered on several industries: lumber, the milling of grain, most the tanning of hides and working of leather. Beginning in the 1930s, peat moss was removed from Scotts Valley and taken to San Francisco to supply soil for difficult indoor plants such as gardenias; when the peat ran out and gravel were quarried and sold. The area was the site of Santa's Village, a Christmas-themed amusement park which opened on May 30, 1957, on a 25-acre site, Lawridge Farm, part of the former Rancho San Augustin.
"Residents" of the park included Santa, Mrs. Santa, elves and gnomes who operated the rides and sold tickets. There was a petting zoo, a bobsled ride, a whirling Christmas tree ride, a train ride, as well as a Fairy Tale Land; the park was sold in 1966 but continued to be operated under lease by the Santa's Village Corporation. When that corporation went bankrupt in 1977; the owner considered launching a Knott's Berry Farm type of complex but was denied a permit by the city of Scotts Valley, the park closed for good in 1979. Scotts Valley's most famous resident was film director Alfred Hitchcock, who lived in a mountaintop estate above the Vine Hill area from 1940 to 1972. Florence Owens Thompson, made famous by Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother photograph, died in Scotts Valley in 1983. From its early years as a stop on the stage route across the mountains, the Scotts Valley area has provided services to travelers. With the growing popularity of the automobile in the early 20th century, the area became commercialized and tourism developed as a local industry.
In the early 1920s, Edward Evers established Camp Evers at the junction of the State Highway and Mt. Hermon Road. Camp Evers consisted of a small store, gas pumps, dance hall and tents, becoming a resort and rest stop for travelers; the Beverly Gardens were established in the 1930s and featured a collection of exotic birds and animals, a restaurant, cabins. Axel Erlandson opened The Tree Circus in 1947, featuring trees grafted and trained in strange and unusual shapes. Bright "life size" painted dinosaurs overlooking Highway 17 were added to the Tree Circus in 1964 when it changed its name to The Lost World. Surviving trees have since been moved to Gilroy Gardens. Santa's Village, one of three locations in America's first theme park chain, was established in 1956, it was the most popular of the many attractions, attracting millions of visitors to Scotts Valley for over twenty years, it was the last of Scotts Valley's theme parks to close its doors, in 1979. H. Glenn Holland, who had developed a Santa's Village elsewhere the previous year, leased 25 acres at the former Lawridge Farm, a portion of the former Rancho San Augustin for the Scotts Valley location of Santa's Village.
The park maintained a correct team of Mexican burros that lived on the back 20-acre field. Four reindeer from Unalakleet, pulled Santa's sleigh. All the buildings were designed to look like log chalet-type structures, replete