Claremont is a city on the eastern edge of Los Angeles County, United States, 30.3 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is in the Pomona Valley, at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, has a population, as of the 2015 United States Census estimate, of 36,283 people. Claremont is known as the home of the Claremont Colleges and other educational institutions, for its tree-lined streets with numerous historic buildings. In July 2007, it was rated by CNN/Money magazine as the fifth best place to live in the United States, was the highest rated place in California on the list, it was named the best suburb in the West by Sunset Magazine in 2016, which described it as a "small city that blends worldly sophistication with small-town appeal." In 2018, Niche rated Claremont as the 17th best place to live in the Los Angeles area out of 658 communities it evaluated, based on crime, cost of living, job opportunities, local amenities. Due to its large number of trees and residents with doctoral degrees, as well as its proximity to the renowned Claremont Colleges, it is sometimes referred to as "The City of Trees and PhDs."The city is residential, with a significant portion of its commercial activity located in "The Village," a popular collection of street-front small stores, art galleries and restaurants adjacent to and west of the Claremont Colleges.
The Village was expanded in 2007, adding a controversial multi-use development that includes a cinema, a boutique hotel, retail space, a parking structure on the site of an old citrus packing plant west of Indian Hill Boulevard. Claremont has been a winner of the National Arbor Day Association's Tree City USA award for 22 consecutive years; when the city incorporated in 1907, local citizens started what has become the city's tree-planting tradition. Claremont is one of the few remaining places in North America with American Elm trees that have not been exposed to Dutch elm disease; the stately trees line Indian Hill Boulevard in the vicinity of the city's Memorial Park. The Claremont Institute, a conservative think tank, is located in nearby Upland, CA; the city hosts several large retirement communities, among them Pilgrim Place, the Claremont Manor and Mt. San Antonio Gardens; the citrus groves and open space which once dominated the northern portion of the city have been replaced by residential developments of large homes.
Construction of Stone Canyon Preserve, one of the final residential tract developments in the north of the city, commenced in 2003 as part of a complicated agreement between Pomona College and the City of Claremont which resulted in the creation of the 1,740-acre Wilderness Park. The foothill area includes the Padua Hills Theatre, a historic site constructed in 1930 and the Claraboya residential area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.35 square miles, of which 13.3 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Claremont is located at the eastern end of Los Angeles County and borders the cities of Upland and Montclair in San Bernardino County, as well as the cities of Pomona and La Verne in Los Angeles County, it is geographically located in the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont is 24 miles east of Pasadena and 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. Claremont has a Mediterranean climate. In the summer months, temperatures can rise above 100 °F. In the autumn months, Claremont can receive gusty winds known as the "Santa Ana Winds", which can bring fire danger to nearby foothills.
In the winter, most of its annual rainfall occurs. Snow is rare but can be viewed in the nearby San Gabriel Mountains. In early summer, Claremont can receive overcast weather due to its strong onshore flow from the ocean known as "May Gray" or "June Gloom"; the 2010 United States Census reported that Claremont had a population of 34,926. The population density was 2,589.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Claremont was 24,666 White, 1,651 African American, 172 Native American, 4,564 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 2,015 from other races, 1,820 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,919 persons; the Census reported that 29,802 people lived in households, 4,926 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 198 were institutionalized. There were 11,608 households, out of which 3,576 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,305 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,223 had a female householder with no husband present, 397 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 429 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 138 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,957 households were made up of individuals and 1,556 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57. There were 7,925 families; the population was spread out with 6,459 people under the age of 18, 6,778 people aged 18 to 24, 6,940 people aged 25 to 44, 8,979 people aged 45 to 64, 5,770 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males. There were 12,156 housing units at an average density of 901.3 per square mile, of which 7,700 were owner-occupied, 3,908 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%. 21
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. is an American politician who served as the 34th and 39th Governor of California from 1975 to 1983 and from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, Brown served as California Attorney General from 2007 to 2011, he was both the oldest and sixth-youngest Governor of California as a consequence of the 28-year gap between his second and third terms. Jerry Brown was born in San Francisco as the son of Bernice Layne Brown and Pat Brown, who served as the 32nd Governor of California. After graduating from the University of California and Yale University, he began his political career as a member of the Los Angeles Community College District Board of Trustees, he was elected to serve as the 23rd Secretary of State of California from 1971 to 1975. At 36, Brown was elected to his first term as Governor of California in 1974, making him the youngest California Governor in 111 years. In 1978, he won his second term. During and following his first governorship, Brown ran as a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1976, 1980 and 1992.
He declined to pursue a third term in 1982, instead making an unsuccessful run for the United States Senate that same year. After traveling abroad, he returned to California and served as Chairman of the California Democratic Party, attempting to run for the Senate once more in 1992. After six years out of politics, Brown returned to public life, serving as Mayor of Oakland as Attorney General of California, he ran for his third and fourth terms as California Governor in 2010 and 2014, his eligibility to do so having stemmed from California's constitutional grandfather clause. On October 7, 2013, he became the longest-serving chief executive in the history of California, surpassing Earl Warren. Brown was born in San Francisco, the only son of four children born to District Attorney of San Francisco and Governor of California, Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. and his wife, Bernice Layne. Brown's father was of half half German descent, his great-grandfather August Schuckman, a German immigrant, settled in California in 1852 during the California Gold Rush.
Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, where he graduated in 1955. In 1955, Brown entered Santa Clara University for a year and left to attend Sacred Heart Novitiate, a Jesuit novice house in Los Gatos, intent on becoming a Catholic priest. Brown resided at the novitiate from August 1956 to January 1960 before enrolling at the University of California, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1961. With his tuition paid for by the Louis Lurie Foundation, including a $675 scholarship in 1963, Brown went on to Yale Law School and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1964. After law school, Brown worked as a law clerk for California Supreme Court Justice Mathew Tobriner. Returning to California, Brown passed on his second attempt, he settled in Los Angeles and joined the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor. In 1969, Brown ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw community colleges in the city, placed first in a field of 124.
In 1970, Brown was elected California Secretary of State. Brown argued before the California Supreme Court and won cases against Standard Oil of California, International Telephone and Telegraph, Gulf Oil, Mobil for election law violations. In addition, he forced legislators to comply with campaign disclosure laws. Brown drafted and helped to pass the California Political Reform Act of 1974, Proposition 9, passed by 70% of California's voters in June 1974. Among other provisions, it established the California Fair Political Practices Commission. In 1974, Brown ran in a contested Democratic primary for Governor of California against Speaker of the California Assembly Bob Moretti, San Francisco Mayor Joseph L. Alioto, Representative Jerome R. Waldie, others. Brown won the primary with the name recognition of his father, Pat Brown, whom many people admired for his progressive administration. In the General Election on November 5, 1974, Brown was elected Governor of California over California State Controller Houston I.
Flournoy. Brown succeeded Republican Governor Ronald Reagan. After taking office, Brown gained a reputation as a fiscal conservative; the American Conservative noted he was "much more of a fiscal conservative than Governor Reagan". His fiscal restraint resulted in one of the biggest budget surpluses in state history $5 billion. For his personal life, Brown refused many of the privileges and perks of the office, forgoing the newly constructed 20,000 square-foot governor's residence in the suburb of Carmichael and instead renting a $250-per-month apartment at the corner of 14th and N Streets, adjacent to Capitol Park in downtown Sacramento. Rather than riding as a passenger in a chauffeured limousine as previous governors had done, Brown walked to work and drove in a Plymouth Satellite sedan; as governor, Brown held a strong interest in environmental issues. He appointed J. Baldwin to work in the newly created California Office of Appropriate Technology, Sim Van der Ryn as State Architect, Stewart Brand as Special Advisor, John Bryson as chairman of the California State Water Board.
Brown reorganized the California Arts Council, boosting its funding by 1300 percent and appointing artists to the council, appointed more women and minorities to office than any other previous California governor. In 1977, he sponsored the "first-ever tax incentiv
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. The party is headquartered in Sacramento, is led by acting-Chair Alex Gallardo-Rooker. With 43.5% of the state's registered voters as of 2018, the Democratic Party has the highest number of registrants of any political party in California. Democrats enjoy supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature, holding 61 out of 80 seats in the California State Assembly and 29 out of 40 in the California State Senate. Democrats hold all 8 statewide executive branch offices, 46 of the state's 53 seats in the House of Representatives, both of California's seats in the United States Senate. Since the beginning of the 1850s, issues regarding slavery had split the California Democratic Party. By the 1853 general election campaign, large majorities of pro-slavery Democrats from Southern California, calling themselves the Chivalry, threatened to divide the state in half, should the state not accept slavery.
John Bigler, along with former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor David C. Broderick from the previous McDougall Administration, formed the Free Soil Democratic faction, modeled after the federal Free Soil Party that argued against the spread of slavery; the Democrats split into two camps, with both the Chivalry and Free Soilers nominating their own candidates for the 1853 election. By 1857, the party had split into the Anti-Lecompton factions. Lecompton members supported the Kansas Lecompton Constitution, a document explicitly allowing slavery into the territory, while Anti-Lecompton faction members were in opposition to slavery's expansion; the violence between supporting and opposition forces led to the period known as Bleeding Kansas. Splits in the Democratic Party, as well as the power vacuum created by the collapse of the Whig Party, helped facilitate the rise of the American Party both in state and federal politics. In particular, state voters voted Know-Nothings into the California State Legislature, elected J. Neely Johnson as governor in the 1855 general elections.
During the 1859 general elections, Lecompton Democrats voted for Milton Latham, who had lived in the American South, as their nominee for Governor. Anti-Lecomptons in turn selected John Currey as their nominee; the infant Republican Party, running in its first gubernatorial election, selected businessman Leland Stanford as its nominee. To make matters more complicated, during the campaign, Senator David C. Broderick, an Anti-Lecompton Democrat, was killed in a duel by slavery supporter and former state Supreme Court Justice David Terry on September 13; until the early 1880s the Republican Party held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti freedom of attainment position. In 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry; the party began working with the state's railroad commission to create fair rates for passengers and to eliminate monopolies the railroad companies held over the state.
The main effort focused on making railroads public avenues of transportation similar to streets and roads. This measure passed and was a great victory for the Democrats. Budd was to be the last Democratic governor for thirty years; the struggle between the anti-monopolists and the railroad companies was, however, a key and defining issue for the Democratic Party for some time. Despite their relative lack of power during this period, the Democrats in California were still active in pursuing reform; the party crusaded for tariff reform. The party supported the large scale railroad strikes that sprung up statewide; the corruption of the time in both the railroad companies and the government led to a change in political dynamic. The people of the state moved away from both of the main parties and the Progressive Movement began. While the Progressives were successful in creating positive reform and chasing out corruption, the movement drained away many of the Democratic Party's members; as their movement ended, the Republicans won the governorship, but the Democratic Party had a distinct voter advantage.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president and the Power balance between the Republicans and the Democrats in California equalized. However, as Roosevelt's New Deal policies began to raise the nation out of the depression, Democratic strength mounted. Culbert Olson was elected to the governorship, but his term was rocky and both parties organized against him. Shortly thereafter, Earl Warren and the Republicans seized power again; the California Democratic Party needed a new strategy to regain power in the state. A strategy of reorganization and popular mobilization emerged and resulted in the creation of the California Democratic Council; the CDC as it became known was a way for members of the party from all levels of government to come together and as such the party became more unified. A new network of politically minded civilians and elected officials emerged and the party was stronger for it. Despite the fact that the council struggled in the cold war era, due to Republican strength and issues such as the Vietnam War, it still exists today.
By 1992, California was hurting more than most states from a national recession which had started in 1990, causing incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush's approval rating to tank within the state, giving an opening for the Democratic party to break through and become the largest party. Starting with the double digit victory of Bill Clinton, this became the f
2012 United States presidential election in California
The 2012 United States presidential election in California took place on November 6, 2012, as part of the 2012 general election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. California voters chose 55 electors, the most out of any state, to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, against Republican challenger and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and his running mate, Congressman Paul Ryan. According to Secretary of State Debra Bowen's website, the President won the popular vote with 60.24%, with Mitt Romney in second place at 37.12%, Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson in third place at 1.10%. The Democrats have won the state in every presidential election after Republican George H. W. Bush won the state in 1988. There was no primary in 2012 for the Democratic party; the California Republican 2012 primary took place on June 5, 2012. 169 delegates were chosen, for a total of 172 delegates at the national.
As noted in the Green Papers for California, "159 district delegates are to be bound to presidential contenders based on the primary results in each of the 53 congressional districts: each congressional district is assigned 3 National Convention delegates and the presidential contender receiving the greatest number of votes in that district will receive all 3 of that district's National Convention delegates. 10 at-large delegates are to be bound to the presidential contender receiving the greatest number of votes in the primary statewide. In addition, 3 party leaders, the National Committeeman, the National Committeewoman, the chairman of the California's Republican Party, will attend the convention as unpledged delegates by virtue of their position." Candidate Ballot Access: Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan, Republican Barack Obama/Joseph Biden, Democratic Gary Johnson/James P. Gray, Libertarian Jill Stein/Cheri Honkala, Green Tom Hoefling/Robert Ornelas, Independent Roseanne Barr/Cindy Sheehan and FreedomWrite-In Candidate Access: Virgil Goode/Jim Clymer, Constitution Rocky Anderson/Luis J. Rodriguez, Justice James Harris/Maura DeLuca, Socialist Workers Stewart Alexander/Alejandro Mendoza, Socialist Jerry White/Phyllis Scherrer, Socialist Equality Stephen Durham/Christina Lopez, Freedom Socialist Ron Paul/Andrew Napolitano United States presidential election, 2012 timeline Republican Party presidential debates, 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012 Results of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries California Republican Party The Green Papers: for California The Green Papers: Major state elections in chronological order
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Foothills of the San Gabriel Valley
The Foothills of the San Gabriel Valley are the foothills and hills in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, California. They include the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, independent low mountain ranges of hills, in the east Greater Los Angeles region; the landforms are part of the Transverse Ranges System of Baja California. The ranges are parallel the San Andreas fault to the north over the San Gabriel Mountains' ridgeline, they are along the Interstate 210 freeway, giving it the name "Foothill Freeway". The Interstate 210 and State Route 210 freeway covers 86 miles, between Sylmar in the west, through the foothills and San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys, to Redlands in the east; the Foothills and Hills in the San Gabriel Valley region include Foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains – along southern face. Puente Hills San Jose Hills San Rafael Hills South Hills Verdugo Mountains The foothills provide greenbelts and contain Open Space Preserves and Regional parks; the undeveloped hill areas are part of ’s Mediterranean climate California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion – with montane chaparral and woodlands and Oak savannas habitats.
Their chaparral and oak woodland plant communities evolved with wildfires, with some species of their native plants dependent on natural fires to regenerate and thrive. Chaparral is California’s most extensive native plant community, it is one of the State’s most characteristic wilderness types, dominating foothills and mountain slopes. Properly defined, chaparral is a kind of shrub-dominated community of hard-leaved plants shaped by summer drought, wet winters, fires that occur every 30 to 150 years plus – more frequent fires can lead to habitat loss and conversion to non-native grasslands. Montane forests are pine and fir dominated communities that occur at higher elevations in southern California’s mountain areas from 3000 up to 8500 ft. At the lower parts of the range, dominant trees include big-cone Douglas fir and Coulter pine as well as canyon live oak and California bay. On higher slopes, limber, ponderosa and sugar pines occur along with white fir, incense cedar, western juniper, black and canyon oaks.
The low elevation species are sensitive to fire, thus only found on rocky areas where the geology itself is fire-resistant. The fire danger in the foothills is high. All of the cities that the hills go through are cities for which CAL FIRE has made recommendations on Very High Fire Hazard Severity Zones. There have been a number of wild fires in the foothills of the San Gabriel Valley, part of the area's natural environment. Global warming has occurred over the course of the past half-century. In California, less precipitation will occur as snow, meaning that less water is able to be stored in the snow-pack, that dry summers could see less water availability. Summertime peak temperatures will increase in many places. Fire "seasons" may become longer; the declaration of fire season in California is a change in preparedness levels for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. When weather patterns in an area of the state become warm and dry, vegetation are at a low moisture content point, Emergency response dispatch levels are increased, facilities are staffed 24 hours a day and additional firefighters are hired.
When cooling weather and snow are sufficient to reduce the fire threat, CAL FIRE reduces its preparedness levels by releasing additional firefighters, closing some of the stations, repositioning aircraft. Eaton Canyon Nature Center Foothill Transit Metro Gold Line Puente Hills Fault Interstate 210 and State Route 210 "Cities for Which CAL FIRE Has Made Recommendations on Very High Fire Hazard Severity Zones." CAL FIRE. N.p. n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. "Climate and Habitat in Southern California." – Sustainable and Fire Safe Landscapes. N.p. n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. "Frequently Asked Questions." Http://www.fire.ca.gov. N.p. n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. Http://geology.campus.ad.csulb.edu. N.p. n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. "IE Communities at Risk Www.fireinformation.com." IE Communities at Risk Www.fireinformation.com. N.p. n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. "San Gabriel Valley." ROAD TRIP USA. N.p. n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2012
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, lawyer and public speaker. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, as the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election, the first woman nominated by a major party. Born in Chicago and raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future president Bill Clinton in 1975. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Families, she was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. As First Lady of Arkansas, she led a task force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansas's public schools.
As First Lady of the United States, Clinton advocated for healthcare reform. Her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female Senator from New York, she was reelected to the Senate in 2006. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama. During her tenure as U. S. Secretary of State in the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya, she helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and a regime of international sanctions against Iran in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program. Upon leaving her Cabinet position after Obama's first term, she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements. Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016.
She received the most votes and primary delegates in the 2016 Democratic primaries and formally accepted her party's nomination for President of the United States on July 28, 2016, with vice presidential running mate Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine. She lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College, despite winning a plurality of the popular vote, she received more than 65 million votes, the 3rd-highest count in a U. S. presidential election, behind Obama's victories in 2008 and 2012. Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups. Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 1947, at Edgewater Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois, she was raised in a United Methodist family. When she was three years old, her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, her father, Hugh Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent, managed a small but successful textile business, which he had founded.
Her mother, Dorothy Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, French Canadian and Welsh descent. Clinton has two younger brothers and Tony; as a child, Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge. She earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout, she has told a story of being inspired by U. S. efforts during the Space Race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut, only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program. She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council, the school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society, she was elected class vice president for her junior year, but lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys, one of whom told her that "you are stupid if you think a girl can be elected president". For her senior year and other students were transferred to the new Maine South High School, where she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted, "most to succeed".
She graduated in 1965 in the top five percent of her class. Rodham's mother wanted her to have an independent, professional career, her father, otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender, she was raised in a politically conservative household, she helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the close 1960 U. S. presidential election. She saw evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon, volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U. S. presidential election of 1964. Rodham's early political development was shaped by her high school history teacher, who introduced her to Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative and by her Methodist youth minister, with whom she saw and afterwards met, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. at a 1962 speech in Chicago's Orchestra Hall. In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College. During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans.
As the leader of this "Rockefeller Republican"-oriented group, she supported the elections of moderate Republicans John Lind