Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature, the upper house being the California State Senate. The Assembly convenes, along with the State Senate, at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the Assembly consists with each member representing at least 465,000 people. Due to a combination of the state's large population and small legislature, the Assembly has the largest population-per-representative ratio of any state lower house and second largest of any legislative lower house in the United States after the federal House of Representatives. Members of the California State Assembly are referred to using the titles Assemblyman, Assemblywoman, or Assemblymember. In the current legislative session, Democrats enjoy a three-fourths supermajority of 61 seats, while Republicans controls 19 seats; the Speaker presides over the State Assembly in the chief leadership position, controlling the flow of legislation and committee assignments. The Speaker is elected by the full Assembly.
Other leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber. The current Speaker is Democrat Anthony Rendon; the majority leader is Democrat Ian Calderon. As a result of Proposition 140 in 1990 and Proposition 28 in 2012, members elected to the Legislature prior to 2012 are restricted by term limits to three two-year terms, while those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years in the legislature in any combination of four-year State Senate or two-year State Assembly terms; every two years, all 80 seats in the Assembly are subject to election. This is in contrast to the State Senate, in which only half of its 40 seats are subject to election every two years; the chamber's green tones are based on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with its central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a portrait of Abraham Lincoln and a Latin quotation: legislatorum est justas leges condere.
Every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. To run for the Assembly, a candidate must be a United States citizen and a registered voter in the district at the time nomination papers are issued, may not have served three terms in the State Assembly since November 6, 1990. According to Article 4, Section 2 of the California Constitution, the candidate must have one year of residency in the legislative district and California residency for three years; the chief clerk of the Assembly, a position that has existed since the Assembly's creation, is responsible for many administrative duties. The chief clerk is the custodian of all Assembly bills and records and publishes the Assembly Daily Journal, the minutes of floor sessions, as well as the Assembly Daily File; the chief clerk is the Assembly's parliamentarian, in this capacity gives advice to the presiding officer on matters of parliamentary procedure. The chief clerk is responsible for engrossing and enrolling of measures, the transmitting passed legislation to the governor.
Since 2016, the chaplain of the Assembly has been a Buddhist cleric. The chaplain from 2003 to 2016 was a Greek Orthodox priest; the position of sergeant-at-arms of the Assembly has existed since 1849. The sergeant-at-arms is tasked with law enforcement duties, but customarily has a ceremonial and protocol role. Today, some fifty employees are part of the Assembly Sergeant-at-Arms Office; the Chief Clerk, the acting Chief Sergeant-at-Arms, the Chaplains are not members of the Legislature. Elected in a special election Current committees include: Assembly Committee on Accountability and Administrative review Assembly Committee on Aging And Long-Term Care Assembly Committee on Agriculture Assembly Committee on Appropriations Assembly Committee on Arts, Sports and Internet Media Assembly Committee on Banking and Finance Assembly Committee on Budget Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 1 on Health and Human Services Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 2 on Education Finance Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 3 on Resources and Transportation Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 4 on State Administration Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 5 on Public Safety Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 6 on Budget Process Oversight and Program Evaluation Assembly Committee on Business and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Communications and Conveyance Assembly Committee on Education Assembly Committee on Elections and Redistricting Assembly Committee on Environmental Safety and Toxic Materials Assembly Committee on Governmental Organization Assembly Committee on Health Assembly Committee on Higher Education Assembly Committee on Housing and Community Development Assembly Committee on Human Services Assembly Committee on Insurance Assembly Committee on Jobs, Economic Development, the Economy Assembly Committee on Judiciary Assembly Committee on Labor and Employment Assembly Committee on Local Government Assembly Committee on Natural Resources Assembly Committee on Privacy and Consumer Protection Assembly Committee on Public Employees and Social Security Assembly Committee on Public Safety Assembly Committee on Revenue and Taxation Assembly Committee on Rules Assembly Committee on Transportation Assembly Committee on Utilities and Commerce Assembly Committee on Veterans Affairs Assembly Committ
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Matt Dababneh is an American politician who served in the California State Assembly. A Democrat, he represented the 45th Assembly District, which encompasses most of the western San Fernando Valley. Dababneh was raised in the Inland Empire and graduated from La Sierra Academy in 1999. Dababneh went on to graduate from the University of California, Los Angeles, with a degree in Political Science and History, he was on the staff of the John Kerry for President campaign in 2004. On December 4, 2017, Pamela Lopez, a Sacramento lobbyist, alleged that Dababneh sexually assaulted her. According to Lopez, in 2016 Dababneh pushed her into a Las Vegas hotel bathroom, masturbated in front of her and urged her to touch him. "I felt the weight of a body push me into the restroom." Dababneh has denied the allegation, his attorney Patricia L. Glaser, who represents embattled film producer Harvey Weinstein, threatened to sue Lopez for defamation. "I affirmatively deny that this event happened," said Dababneh. "I am saddened by this lobbyist's effort... for her own self-promotion."Jessica Y.
Barker, Dababneh's subordinate when they both worked in US Congresman Brad Sherman's District Office came forward and accused Dababneh of sexual harassment. According to Barker, Dababneh spoke about his sexual exploits and made degrading comments about women, she said his behavior was the main factor in her decision to leave her job as a field representative for the congressman after 18 months. She said over the course of her tenure there that Dababneh made inappropriate comments at work, including talking about his sexual habits and the attire of female staffers. Two friends confirmed to The Los Angeles Times that Barker told them about Dababneh's behavior and that she said it made her feel uncomfortable. According to Barker, "Pamela and I aren't the only women. There are others and I have spoken to them."On December 5, Assembly Speaker Anthony Rendon announced that the Assembly Rules Committee would hire an outside law firm to investigate the incident described by Pamela Lopez, Dababneh would temporarily step down as chair of the Assembly Banking and Finance Committee.
On December 8, Dababneh announced. He said he didn't feel pressure to resign because of the allegations, for which he maintains his innocence, but he said he no longer felt passionate about lawmaking and was ready for a change. After hearing of Dababneh's resignation, Lopez said this was only the beginning if he wanted to atone for his actions, she called on him to donate his 2018 campaign money to a rape trauma center. Lopez announced that day she'd heard from several other women with allegations against Dababneh that ranged from sexual harassment to assault. Prior to being elected to the state assembly, for eight years he was the district chief of staff and senior aide to United States Congressman Brad Sherman of the 30th U. S. Congressional district. Dababneh took office in January 2014, after winning the November 2013 election to complete the remaining 2014 term vacated by the 2013 resignation of Bob Blumenfield to represent Los Angeles City Council District 3. Dababneh won the seat in contested run-off election after finishing 329 votes ahead of his opponent.
He won a full term in 2014, secured a spot in the general election of 2016 finishing as the top vote getter in June primary with 49.24% of the vote. This came after Dababneh received more than $350,000 in outside money in support of his re-election bid. Prior to the June 2016 primary he faced criticism from local Democratic activists for positions he had taken while in office. In March 2017, Dababneh coauthored the controversial California Senate Bill 649 which would remove a city's ability to control where the technology is placed and transfer that power to the state and is considered "an unconstitutional bill that forcibly exposes neighborhoods to constant, hazardous 4G/5G microwave radiation."
Hidden Hills, California
Hidden Hills is a city and gated community in Los Angeles County, California. It is located in the west San Fernando Valley, it is notable for being home to many celebrities. Hidden Hills is in the southern Simi Hills Transverse range near the Santa Monica Mountains, is located at 34°10′3″N 118°39′39″W; the community was designed and developed in the 1950s by A. E. Hanson, a renowned Southern California landscape architect and planned community developer, his earlier projects included Rolling Hills and Palos Verdes Estates, the 1920s Beverly Hills Harold Lloyd Estate'Greenacres.' It is a gated residential community with a total all land area of 1.7 square miles. An elementary school is publicly accessible at one of the three gates to the community; the city has a summer camp for children and children's theatre programs, annual parades, parties, welcome wagon, snow days, weekly community-wide barbecues all summer long. Hidden Hills is bordered on the north by the nature reserve and greenbelt of the Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve, a park with miles of equestrian and mountain biking trails.
Nearby to the south is the pioneer Leonis Adobe National Historic Landmark, with gardens and a historical Museum. It's across the historic El Camino Real of the Spanish Las Californias and Mexican Alta California eras, now U. S. Route 101; the city was the setting of a short-lived NBC sitcom called Hidden Hills, which aired in 2002–2003. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,875 people, 568 households, 506 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,135.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 592 housing units at an average density of 358.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.70% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.71% Asian, 1.55% from other races, 1.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race 6.24% of the population. There were 568 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 81.7% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.9% were non-families.
7.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.30 and the average family size was 3.39. In the city the population was spread out with 33.0% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 20.9% from 25 to 44, 31.9% from 45 to 64, 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. Females had a median income of $95,667; the per capita income for the city was $194,096. No families and none of the population were below the poverty line; the 2010 United States Census reported that Hidden Hills had a population of 1,856. The population density was 1,099.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Hidden Hills was 1,713 White, 37 African American, 3 Native American, 42 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 30 from other races, 30 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 123 persons.
The Census reported that 1,856 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 593 households, out of which 269 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 453 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 40 had a female householder with no husband present, 24 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 9 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 61 households were made up of individuals and 39 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13. There were 517 families; the population was spread out with 531 people under the age of 18, 125 people aged 18 to 24, 245 people aged 25 to 44, 660 people aged 45 to 64, 295 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.8 years. For every 100 females there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. There were 626 housing units at an average density of 370.7 per square mile, of which 552 were owner-occupied, 41 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%. 1,743 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 113 people lived in rental housing units. According to the United States Census Bureau, Hidden Hills has a median household income of $203,199. No families and none of the population were below the poverty line; the Los Angeles Times found the median annual household income in Hidden Hills to be $203,199. Hidden Hills has been identified as being among the most affluent municipalities in the United States. In the California State Legislature, Hidden Hills is located within the 27th Senate District, represented by Democrat Henry Stern, in the 45th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jesse Gabriel. In the United States House of Representatives, Hidden Hills is located within California's 30th congressional district, represented by Democrat Brad Sherman. Hidden Hills has traditionally been won by Republican candidates for public office. However, the 2016 United States Presidential election represented a substantial swing toward the Democratic Party in Hidden Hills, with Hillary Clinton carrying the town.
In the 2004 United States Pre
2016 United States presidential election in California
The 2016 United States presidential election in California of November 8, 2016, was won by Democrat Hillary Clinton with a 61.7% majority of the popular vote over Republican Donald Trump. California's 55 electoral votes were assigned to Clinton. Clinton won the state with 61.73% of the vote and a 30.11% margin, both the highest since Franklin D. Roosevelt's 66.95% vote share and 35.25% margin in 1936. This was the first time Orange County voted Democratic since 1936, when Franklin D. Roosevelt swept every single county in the state. Trump's vote share in the state was the lowest for a major-party candidate since John W. Davis's 8.2% in 1924. On June 7, 2016, in the presidential primaries, California voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican and Libertarian, Peace and Freedom, American Independent parties' respective nominees for president. While California has had a top-two candidates open primary system since 2011, presidential primaries are still partisan races. Registered members of each party may only vote in their party's presidential primary.
Unaffiliated voters may choose any one primary in which to vote, if the party allows such voters to participate. For 2016, the American Independent and Libertarian, parties have chosen to allow voters registered with no party preference to request their respective party's presidential ballots. Seven candidates appeared on the Democratic presidential primary ballot: Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders Rocky De La Fuente Henry Hewes Keith Judd Michael Steinberg Willie L. Wilson Five candidates appeared on the Republican presidential primary ballot, four of whom had suspended their campaigns prior to the primary: Donald Trump Ben Carson Ted Cruz John Kasich Jim Gilmore Donald Trump, the only candidate with an active campaign, won each Congressional district by substantial margins, as well as all the statewide delegates, to capture all 172 votes. Twelve candidates appeared on the Libertarian presidential primary ballot: Marc Feldman John Hale Cecil Ince Gary Johnson Steve Kerbel John McAfee Darryl Perry Austin Petersen Derrick M. Reid Jack Robinson Jr. Rhett Smith Joy WaymireThe primary took place after Gary Johnson won the Libertarian nomination at the Party's 2016 convention.
The American Independent Party, a far-right and paleoconservative political party that formed when endorsing the candidacy of George Wallace in 1968 held a small presidential primary on June 7. It was won by attorney Alan Spears; the American Independent Party nullified the results of this primary when they endorsed Donald Trump in August. The party indicated that Trump was a popular write-in choice during the primary, but was not allowed on the ballot because there was no evidence that Trump wanted the American Independent endorsement. Below is an official list of Recognized Write-in Candidates. California law only requires that 55 "electors" sign on to declare a person a write-in candidate, not that the person consent, according to a statement from the Secretary of State's Office. Laurence Kotlikoff for president and Edward Leamer for vice president Mike Maturen for president and Juan Muñoz for vice president Evan McMullin for president and Nathan Johnson for vice president Bernie Sanders for president and Tulsi Gabbard for vice president Jerry White for president and Niles Niemuth for vice president Final results by county certified December 16, 2016.
Clinton won 46 of the 53 congressional districts, including 7 held by Republicans. Official outcomes by city. Clinton won in 367 cities. Nevada Orange California has voted Democratic in every presidential election since Republican George H. W. Bush won the state in 1988. Hillary Clinton continued the Democratic tradition in California, winning the state with 61.7% of the vote, Clinton's second highest vote percentage of any state, behind Hawaii. Donald Trump received 31.6 % of a Democratic victory margin of 30.11 points. California was one of eleven states where Hillary Clinton outperformed outgoing President Barack Obama in 2012, contributed to Clinton's national popular vote victory; the California state result was one of the most successful for the Democratic Party nominee by several measures, as Hillary Clinton carried California by the largest margin of any Democratic candidate since Franklin D. Roosevelt swept the state by 35.25% in his 1936 re-election landslide. Clinton was the first Democrat since FDR in 1936 to win traditionally Republican Orange County.
Clinton received nearly 72% of the vote in Los Angeles County, making her the first Democratic presidential candidate in history to receive over 70% of the vote in Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries 2016 Republican Party presidential debates and forums 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries RNC 2016 Republican Nominating Process Green papers for 2016 primaries and conventions California neighborhood election results — A Los Angeles Times map of election results down to the precinct level
Reseda, Los Angeles
Reseda is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California. It was founded in 1912, its central business district started in 1915; the neighborhood was devoted to agriculture for many years. Earthquakes struck the area in 1971 and 1994; the neighborhood has fifteen public and five private schools. The community includes a senior center and a regional branch library. Parts of Reseda have been used in several motion television productions; the area now known as Reseda, like much of Los Angeles County was inhabited by Native Americans of the Tongva tribe who lived close to what is now known as the Los Angeles River. In 1909 the Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by H. J. Whitley, general manager of the Board of Control, along with Harry Chandler, H. G. Otis, M. H. Sherman and O. F. Brandt purchased 48,000 acres of the Farming and Milling Company for $2,500,000. Henry E. Huntington, extended his Pacific Electric Railway through the Valley to Owensmouth; the Suburban Home Company laid out plans for roads and the towns of Van Nuys and Canoga Park.
The rural areas were annexed into the city of Los Angeles in 1915. On April 2, 1915 H. J. Whitley purchased the Suburban Home Company so that he would have complete control for finishing the development. On land, part of the San Fernando Mission, Reseda originated in 1912 as the town of Marian, it was named after Marian Otis Chandler, the daughter of the Los Angeles Times publisher, Harrison Gray Otis and wife of Harry Chandler. The name Reseda itself refers to the fragrant plant Reseda odorata, found in gardens of the time and is native to many areas with a Mediterranean climate; the geographic name "Reseda" was first used for a siding on a branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which ran between the cities of Burbank and Chatsworth in the San Fernando Valley. In the 1920s, the name Reseda was transferred from the Southern Pacific Railroad to the Western Division of the Pacific Electric Railway "Red Cars Line", which had expedited development after the building of the Los Angeles Aqueduct.
It was used as the name of a stop on the Pacific Electric interurban railway running along Sherman Way. Throughout this time the town's name of Marian remained; as the Zelzah Tribune reported: The Marian territory has made application for a post office to serve that district. To avoid confusion in mail distribution it is necessary that the name of the town be changed and the people of that community have decided upon the name Reseda, if the application is granted it will be the only post office in the United States by that name. Mrs. Turner, we are told, who has taken an active interest in the canvass and to create a sentiment for post office advantages, will be the postmistress. Ninety-two residents agreed to rename the town Reseda; the central business district began in 1915, at what is now the intersection of Reseda Boulevard and Sherman Way, with the construction of a hardware store. Soon a blacksmith shop and an auto repair garage were built nearby. Within a short time, these were followed by a drug store.
There were no sidewalks or pavement yet, most were beginning to be added during the 1918 to early 1920s time period. On the southwest corner of Sherman Way a wooden building housed the volunteer Fire Department until 1922, when the present brick building was erected as was the Reseda Bank; the wooden building, housing the Fire Department, was moved to the southeast side of Sherman Way, where it remained until 1933. In May 1929, the city's namesake roadway, Reseda Avenue, was renamed Reseda Boulevard by a Los Angeles City ordinance. Parts of the original 1920s and 1930s residential neighborhood remain and are found to the southwest of Sherman Way and Reseda Boulevard. Reseda grew slowly; the stock market crash of 1929 and subsequent Great Depression further slowed expansion. During the late 1920s and 1930s, the area became known for its production of lettuce, lima beans, sugar beets, walnuts; the Southern Pacific Railroad trains came up the middle of Sherman Way to pick up freight cars of lettuce on a daily basis during the lettuce harvest season.
Around that time, manufacturing roof tile, canning poultry products, processing walnuts began to emerge as viable businesses as well. Reseda remained an agricultural community with a population of 1,805 in 1930. However, by 1940 the population had increased to 4,147 residents; the mid to 1940's saw a large increase in the numbers of single-family dwellings in Reseda and the loss of numerous acres of agriculture, the addition of First Class Postal Service. Reseda was one of the first suburbs in the San Fernando Valley; the large ranches were subdivided, the area was developed by realtors just as the veterans of World War II were returning home. The familiar orange groves were successively plowed under in favor of housing. At the time, most of the jobs were in the Los Angeles Basin and to the south, over the Santa Monica mountains. By 1950, Reseda had over 16,000 residents and in the early 1950s, a population explosion took place, making Reseda one of the most popular and populated of all Valley communities.
Because of this, Reseda's merchants provided bus service to transport shoppers throughout the busy downtown Reseda areas. In the early 1950s, the Valley's population reached 400,000; the average new Valley home, in 1949, cost $9,000. By 1955, that same house could be resold for nearly $15,000. At that price, th