Gavin Christopher Newsom is an American politician and businessman. He is the 40th governor of California, serving since January 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 49th lieutenant governor of California from 2011 to 2019 and as the 42nd mayor of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011, he was sworn in as Governor of California on January 7, 2019. Newsom attended Redwood High School, graduated from Santa Clara University. After graduation, he founded the PlumpJack wine store with family friend Gordon Getty as an investor; the PlumpJack Group grew to manage 23 businesses, including wineries and hotels. Newsom began his political career in 1996, when San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown appointed him to serve on the city's Parking and Traffic Commission. Brown appointed Newsom to fill a vacancy on the Board of Supervisors the following year, Newsom was elected to the Board in 1998, 2000, 2002. In 2003, Newsom was elected the 42nd mayor of San Francisco, becoming the city's youngest mayor in a century.
Newsom was re-elected in 2007 with 72 percent of the vote. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of California in 2010 as the running mate of Jerry Brown, was re-elected in 2014. In February 2015, Newsom announced his candidacy for Governor of California in the 2018 election. On June 5, 2018, he finished in the top two of the non-partisan blanket primary. Newsom defeated Republican John H. Cox in the general election on November 6. Newsom hosted The Gavin Newsom Show on Current TV and wrote the 2013 book Citizenville. Despite speculation, he has denied any interest in running for President of the United States. Gavin Christopher Newsom was born in San Francisco, California, to Tessa Thomas and William Alfred Newsom III, a state appeals court justice and attorney for Getty Oil, he is a fourth-generation San Franciscan. His father is of Irish descent. Newsom is the second cousin, twice removed, of musician Joanna Newsom. Newsom's parents separated when he was two, divorced in 1972. At age ten, Newsom moved with his mother and sister to nearby Marin County.
While Newsom reflected that he did not have an easy childhood, he attended kindergarten and first grade at the French American bilingual school in San Francisco. He transferred because of severe dyslexia that still affects him, his dyslexia has made it difficult for him to write, spell and work with numbers. He attended third through fifth grades at Notre Dame des Victoires, where he was placed in remedial reading classes. In high school, Newsom played basketball and baseball and graduated from Redwood High School in 1985. Newsom was an outfielder in baseball and his baseball skills placed him on the cover of the Marin Independent Journal. Tessa Newsom worked three jobs to support Gavin and his sister Hilary Newsom Callan, the president of the PlumpJack Group, named after the opera Plump Jack composed by family friend Gordon Getty. In an interview with The San Francisco Chronicle, his sister recalled Christmas holidays when their mother told them there wouldn't be any gifts. Tessa opened their home to foster children, instilling in Newsom the importance of public service.
His father's finances were strapped in part because of his tendency to give away his earnings. Newsom worked several jobs in high school to help support his family. Newsom attended Santa Clara University on a partial baseball scholarship, where he graduated in 1989 with a B. S. in political science. Newsom was a left-handed pitcher for Santa Clara, but he threw his arm out after two years and hasn't thrown a baseball since, he lived in the Alameda Apartments, which he compared to living in a hotel. He reflected on his education fondly, crediting the Jesuit approach of Santa Clara that he said has helped him become an independent thinker who questions orthodoxy. While in school, Newsom spent a semester studying abroad in Rome. Newsom's aunt was married to Ron Pelosi, the brother-in-law of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi. On May 14, 1991, Newsom and his investors created the company PlumpJack Associates L. P. In 1992, the group started the PlumpJack Winery with the financial help of his family friend Gordon Getty.
PlumpJack was the name of an opera written by Getty, who invested in 10 of Newsom's 11 businesses. Getty told the San Francisco Chronicle that he treated Newsom like a son and invested in his first business venture because of that relationship. According to Getty business investments were because of "the success of the first". One of Newsom's early interactions with government occurred when Newsom resisted the San Francisco Health Department requirement to install a sink at his PlumpJack wine store; the Health Department argued that wine was a food and required the store to install a $27,000 sink in the carpeted wine shop on the grounds that the shop needed the sink for a mop. When Newsom was appointed supervisor, he told the San Francisco Examiner: "That's the kind of bureaucratic malaise I'm going to be working through."The business grew to an enterprise with more than 700 employees. The PlumpJack Cafe Partners L. P. opened the PlumpJack Café on Fillmore Street, in 1993. Between 1993 and 2000, Newsom and his investors opened several other businesses that included the PlumpJack Squaw Valley Inn with a PlumpJack Café, a winery in Napa Valley, the Balboa Café Bar and Grill, the PlumpJack Development Fund L.
P. the MatrixFillmore Bar, PlumpJack Wines shop Noe Valley branch, PlumpJackSport retail clothing, a second Balboa Café at Squaw Valley. Newsom's investm
2018 United States Senate election in California
The 2018 United States Senate election in California took place on November 6, 2018, to elect a member of the United States Senate to represent the State of California, concurrently with other elections to the United States Senate, elections to the United States House of Representatives, various state and local elections. Under California's non-partisan blanket primary law, all candidates appear on the same ballot, regardless of party. In the primary, voters may vote for any candidate, regardless of their party affiliation. In the California system, the top two finishers—regardless of party—advance to the general election in November if a candidate receives a majority of the votes cast in the primary election. Washington and Louisiana have similar "jungle primary" style processes for U. S. Senate elections, as does Mississippi for U. S. Senate special elections; the candidate filing deadline was March 8, 2018 and the primary election was held on June 5, 2018. Four-term Democratic incumbent Dianne Feinstein won reelection in 2012 with 63% of the vote, taking the record for the most popular votes in any U.
S. Senate election in history with 7.86 million votes. Feinstein is the ranking member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, she turned 85 years old in 2018, leading to speculation that she would retire in January 2019, as her long-time colleague Barbara Boxer did in January 2017. However, Feinstein stood for reelection for her fifth consecutive term, winning 44.2% of the vote in the top-two primary. For the second time since direct elections to the Senate began after the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, no Republican appeared on the general election ballot for U. S. Senate in California; the highest Republican finisher in the primary won only 8.3 percent of the vote, the 10 Republicans only won 31.2 percent of the vote between them. In the general election, Feinstein defeated De León with 54% of the vote to De León's 46%. Kevin de León, President pro tempore of the California State Senate Adrienne Nicole Edwards, Vice Chairwoman on the HDT Community Development Foundation board Dianne Feinstein, incumbent U.
S. Senator Pat Harris, attorney Alison Hartson, national director of Wolf PAC David Hildebrand, legislative analyst Herbert G. Peters, retired aerospace engineer and candidate for U. S Senate in California in 2016 Douglas Howard Pierce Gerald Plummer Donnie O. Turner, Air Force veteran Topher Brennan John Melendez, television writer and radio personality Steve Stokes, candidate for the U. S. Senate in 2016 Ana Kasparian, co-host of The Young Turks Joseph Sanberg and investor Tom Steyer, hedge fund manager Cenk Uygur, host of The Young Turks Arun K. Bhumitra, businessman James P. Bradley, businessman Jack Crew, bus driver Erin Cruz, published author Rocky De La Fuente and perennial candidate Jerry Joseph Laws, candidate for the U. S. Senate in 2016 Patrick Little, neo-Nazi Kevin Mottus, candidate for the U. S Senate in 2016 Mario Nabliba, scientist Tom Palzer, retired city planner and candidate for the U. S. Senate in 2016 Paul Allen Taylor, businessman Donald R. Adams, businessman Gary Coson John Estrada Timothy Charles Kalemkarian, perennial candidate Caren Lancona, businesswoman Jazmina Saavedra and activist Stephen James Schrader, veteran Kevin Faulconer, Mayor of San Diego Caitlyn Jenner, 1976 Olympic gold medalist and television personality Arnold Schwarzenegger and former Governor of California Ashley Swearengin, former Mayor of Fresno Derrick Michael Reid, retired attorney and engineer and candidate for President in 2016 Michael V. Ziesing John Thompson Parker Colleen Shea Fernald, perennial candidate Tim Gildersleeve and researcher Rash Bihari Ghosh Michael Fahmy Girgis Don J. Grundmann, California Constitution Party chairman and perennial candidate Jason M. Hanania David Moore Lee W. Olson Ursula M. Schilling Ling Ling Shi, evangelist Jerry Leon Carroll Michael Eisen, biologist Charles Junior Hodge Richard Thomas Mead Clifton Roberts Democratic candidates won a combined total of 4,231,444, Republican candidates 2,216,223 votes, other candidates 223,053 votes.
Complete video of debate, October 17, 2018 Because of California’s top-two runoff system, the seat was guaranteed to be won/held by a Democrat since the initial primary produced two Democratic candidates. ^Highest rating given The race had an undervote of around 1.3 million votes compared to the gubernatorial election by Republican voters choosing neither candidate. De León won many of the same counties won by Republican gubernatorial nominee John Cox, as many voters may have expressed opposition to the incumbent senator. Blue represents. Orange represents. Candidates at Vote Smart Candidates at Ballotpedia Campaign finance at FEC Campaign finance at Center for Responsive PoliticsOfficial campaign websitesDianne Feinstein for Senate Kevin de León for Senate
Hispanics and Latinos in California
Hispanic and Latino Californians are residents of the state of California who are of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2010 U. S. Census and Latinos of any race were 38.1% of the state's population. Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who are culturally or genetically descended from the Spanish-speaking community which has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, Mestizo origin; the Hispanic presence in California has existed since the earliest European exploration of the region, the first such explorer of the California coast being Portuguese explorer and adventurer João Rodrigues Cabrilho. Cabrillo was commissioned by the Viceroy of New Spain and in 1542 he sailed into what is now San Diego, California, he continued north as far as Pt. Reyes, California. California became part of the Spanish trading route, but was not well explored due to its remoteness from Europe and challenging terrain. In the 1700s, it was claimed by Spain which divided California into two parts, Baja California and Alta California, as provinces of New Spain.
Baja or lower California consisted of the Baja Peninsula and terminated at San Diego, California where Alta California started. After the establishment of Missions in Alta California after 1769, the Spanish treated Baja California and Alta California as a single administrative unit, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with Monterey, California, as its capital. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain, Alta California became one of the three interior provinces in the First Mexican Empire north of the Rio Grande, along with Texas and New Mexico; the Mexican government was unstable, leading to the annexation of California by the United States in 1846. During Mexican rule, California was sparsely populated, with only a few thousand Mexican residents, compared to tens of thousands of Native Americans, a handful of Yankee entrepreneurs. At the time of the annexation, "foreigners outnumbered Californians of Spanish ancestry 9,000 to 7,500"; the advent of the California Gold Rush in 1848 led to a massive influx of settlers - including thousands of Mexican miners, but tens of thousands of Americans from the East.
Other substantial immigrant groups included Chileans, Chinese people. Spanish is the state's second most spoken language. Areas with large Spanish speaking populations include the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the California-Mexico border counties of San Diego and Imperial, the San Joaquin Valley. By ethnicity, 38.1% of the total population is Hispanic. New Mexico and Texas have higher percentages of Hispanics, but California has the highest total number of Hispanics of any U. S. state. As of July 1, 2013, it is estimated that California's Hispanic population has equaled the population of non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics Mexican Americans, form major portions of the population of Southern California in Los Angeles, as well as the San Joaquin Valley; the city of Los Angeles is said to be the largest Mexican community in the United States. Census records kept track of the growth since 1850, but Mexican and Mexican Americans have lived in California since the Spanish period. However, the number and percentage population of Hispanics living in California increased in the late 20th century.
The result is that, Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in Los Angeles County, at over 40 percent of the county's population. Hispanics are predominantly concentrated in the older eastern and southern suburbs surrounding downtown Los Angeles and northern Long Beach, the southern/eastern San Fernando Valley, the San Gabriel/Pomona Valleys, they comprise sizable communities in Bakersfield, El Monte, Fresno, La Puente, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, San José, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria and Vallejo. In Santa Ana in Orange County, Hispanics comprise 75 percent of the population. Nearby Anaheim is over half Hispanic, Orange County's population is 30-35 percent Hispanic; the Imperial Valley on the U. S.-Mexican border is about 70–75% Hispanic. The Central Valley has many Mexican American migrant farm workers. Hispanics are the majority in Colusa, Kern, Madera, San Benito, Santa Cruz and Yolo counties. Hispanics make up at least 20% of the San Francisco Bay Area. Many live in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, as well in San Francisco.
The Napa Valley and Salinas Valley have predominantly Hispanic communities established by migrant farm workers. San Jose is about 30-35 percent Hispanic, the largest Hispanic community in northern California, while the Mission District, San Francisco and Lower/West Oakland has barrios established by Mexican and Hispanic American immigrants; the Mexican American communities of East Los Angeles and Logan Heights, San Diego, as well the San Joaquin Valley are centers of historic Chicano and Hispanic cultures. Most of the state's Hispanics have Mexican ancestry, but there are many Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, Guatemalan Americans, Honduran Americans, Salvadoran Americans, Nicaraguan Americans, Chilean Americans, Colombian Americans, Peruvian Americans. Los Angeles has the United States' largest Central American community, as well as the largest Mexican American community since the 1910s and 1920s. In Mariposa County, there is a small community of Californios or Spanish American people as they identify themselves, that dates back before the U.
S. annexation of California. Hornitos is home to an estimated 1,000 people and many are "Californio"; the commun
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
2016 United States Senate election in California
The 2016 United States Senate election in California was held November 8, 2016, to elect a member of the United States Senate to represent the State of California, concurrently with the 2016 U. S. presidential election, as well as other elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Under California's nonpartisan blanket primary law, all candidates appear on the same ballot, regardless of party. In the primary, voters may vote for any candidate, regardless of their party affiliation. In the California system, the top two finishers — regardless of party — advance to the general election in November if a candidate manages to receive a majority of the votes cast in the primary election. Washington and Louisiana have similar "jungle primary" style processes for senators. Incumbent Democratic senator Barbara Boxer decided to not run for re-election to a fifth term in office; this was the first open seat Senate election in California in 24 years.
In the primary on June 7, 2016, California Attorney General Kamala Harris and U. S. Representative Loretta Sanchez, both Democrats, finished in first and second place and contested the general election. For the first time since direct elections to the Senate began after the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, no Republican appeared on the general election ballot for U. S. Senate in California; the highest Republican finisher in the primary won only 7.8 percent of the vote, the 10 Republicans only won 27.9 percent of the vote among them. In the general election, Harris defeated Sanchez in a landslide, carrying all but four counties, including Sanchez's home county Orange. Barbara Boxer was re-elected with 52.1% of the vote in 2010 against Republican Carly Fiorina. Towards the end of 2014, Boxer's low fundraising and cash-on-hand numbers led to speculation that she would retire. On January 8, 2015, Boxer announced. President Cristina Grappo Kamala Harris, California Attorney General Massie Munroe, engineer Herbert G. Peters Emory Rodgers, activist Loretta Sanchez, U.
S. Representative Steve Stokes, small business owner and independent candidate for CA-28 in 2014 Stewart Albertson, attorney Xavier Becerra, U. S. Representative and candidate for Mayor of Los Angeles in 2001 Ami Bera, U. S. Representative Barbara Boxer, incumbent U. S. Senator Julia Brownley, U. S. Representative Louis Caldera, former director of the White House Military Office, former United States Secretary of the Army, former state assemblyman Tony Cárdenas, U. S. Representative John Chiang, California State Treasurer, former California State Controller and former member of the State Board of Equalization Kevin de León, President pro tempore of the California State Senate John Garamendi, U. S. Representative, former lieutenant governor of California, former California Insurance Commissioner and former Deputy Secretary of the Interior Eric Garcetti, Mayor of Los Angeles Jane Harman, president and CEO of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, former U. S. Representative and candidate for governor in 1998 Jared Huffman, U.
S. Representative Kevin Johnson, Mayor of Sacramento and former professional basketball player Sam Liccardo, Mayor of San Jose Bill Lockyer, former California State Treasurer and former California Attorney General Gloria Molina, former Los Angeles County Supervisor Janet Napolitano, president of the University of California, former United States Secretary of Homeland Security and former governor of Arizona Gavin Newsom, Lieutenant Governor of California and former mayor of San Francisco Alex Padilla, Secretary of State of California and former state senator Raul Ruiz, U. S. Representative Linda Sánchez, U. S. Representative Sheryl Sandberg, COO of Facebook Adam Schiff, U. S. Representative Hilda Solis, Los Angeles County Supervisor, former United States Secretary of Labor and former U. S. Representative Jackie Speier, U. S. Representative and candidate for lieutenant governor in 2006 Darrell Steinberg, former President pro tempore of the California State Senate Tom Steyer, hedge fund manager and environmentalist Eric Swalwell, U.
S. Representative Mark Takano, U. S. Representative Ellen Tauscher, former Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs and former U. S. Representative Antonio Villaraigosa, former mayor of Los Angeles Steve Westly, former California State Controller and candidate for governor in 2006 Greg Conlon, businessman Tom Del Beccaro, former chairman of the California Republican Party Von Hougo, educator Don Krampe and candidate for the U. S. Senate in 2012 Jerry J. Laws Tom Palzer, former city planner Karen Roseberry, educator George "Duf" Sundheim, former chairman of the California Republican Party Ron Unz and candidate for governor in 1994 Jarrell Williamson, attorney Phil Wyman, former state senator George C. Yang, businessman Rocky Chavez, state assemblyman Mary Bono, former U. S. Representative Tom Campbell, former U. S. Representative, nominee for the U. S. Senate in 2000 and candidate for the U. S. Senate in 1992 and 2010 Carl DeMaio, former San Diego City Council member, candidate for Mayor of San Diego in 2012 and candidate for California's 52nd congressional district in 2014 Tim Donnelly, former state assemblyman, Minuteman founder and candidate for governor in 2014 David Dreier, former U.
S. Representative Larry Elder, talk radio host and attorney Kevin Faulconer, Mayor of San Diego Carly Fiorina and nominee for the U. S. Senate in 2010 Darrell Issa, U. S. Representative and candidate for the U. S. Senate in 1998 Ernie
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Interstate 110 and State Route 110 (California)
Route 110, consisting of State Route 110 and Interstate 110, is a state highway in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, built to freeway standards. The entire route connects San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena; the southern segment from San Pedro to Interstate 10 in downtown Los Angeles is signed as I-110, while the northern segment to Pasadena is signed as SR 110. The entire length of I-110, as well as SR 110 south of the Four Level Interchange with US 101, is the Harbor Freeway, SR 110 north from US 101 to Pasadena is the historic Arroyo Seco Parkway, the first freeway in the western United States. I-110 is one of two 3-digit interstate designations to appear on opposite coasts; the Harbor Freeway, signed as Interstate 110, begins at Gaffey Street in San Pedro, where it travels due north to the Santa Monica Freeway at a point south of downtown Los Angeles, where it becomes signed as State Route 110. I-110 is within the city limits of Los Angeles, running right the South Los Angeles region and the Harbor Gateway, a two-mile wide north–south corridor, annexed by the city of Los Angeles to connect San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with the rest the city.
In addition, the Harbor Transitway, a grade-separated bus and high-occupancy vehicle corridor in the median of the 110, runs between State Route 91 and the south side of Downtown Los Angeles. The Harbor Freeway, along with the Long Beach Freeway, are the principal means for freight from the port of Los Angeles to rail yards and warehouses further inland, its interchange with the Santa Monica Freeway is notoriously busy and congested, the portions bordering Bunker Hill in northwest Downtown Los Angeles are choked with traffic at peak travel times. Notable landmarks and attractions near the Harbor Freeway include the California State University, Dominguez Hills. A. Live, Los Angeles Harbor College. SR 110 continues north on the Arroyo Seco Parkway to Pasadena; the Harbor Freeway is noted for its elaborate high-occupancy toll lane feature, with the HOT lanes elevated above the rest of traffic in many areas, constructed in 1994 by C. C. Myers, Inc. as HOV lanes and converted to HOT lanes in 2012. Of particular note is the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, which contains the most elaborate network of direct HOV/HOT connectors in Los Angeles County.
It includes a 7-story ramp that connects the Century Freeway's HOV lanes to the Harbor Freeway's northbound HOT lanes and offers splendid views of the entire Los Angeles Basin and the San Gabriel Mountains. The interchange with State Route 91 is fairly large. Route 110 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. In the 1924 Major Street Traffic Plan for Los Angeles, a widening of Figueroa Street to San Pedro as a good road to the Port of Los Angeles was proposed. Progress was slow, in 1933 the state legislature added the entire length to the state highway system as Route 165, an unsigned designation; this route not only extended from San Pedro north to Los Angeles, but continued through the city-built Figueroa Street Tunnels and along the northern extension of Figueroa Street to Eagle Rock, followed Linda Vista Avenue to Route 9 at the Devil's Gate Reservoir.
The entire length of Route 165 became Sign Route 11 in 1934. U. S. Route 6 was assigned to the portion between SR 1 and Avenue 26 in 1937, at about the same time US 66 was moved from Eagle Rock Boulevard to Figueroa Street, overlapping SR 11 between Sunset Boulevard and Colorado Street; the state completed the Arroyo Seco Parkway, added to the state highway system in 1935 as Route 205, in early 1941, providing a faster route between SR 11 at Avenue 26 and Pasadena. US 66 was moved to the new route, while SR 11 remained on Figueroa Street and Linda Vista Avenue, the former becoming a new U. S. Route 66 Alternate. Construction of a freeway to San Pedro was much slower, despite having been in the earliest plans for an integrated system; the Harbor Parkway was to split at the merge with the Venice Parkway northeast of the University of Southern California, with the East By-Pass and West By-Pass straddling the Los Angeles Central Business District and rejoining at the split between the Arroyo Seco Parkway and Riverside Parkway south of Dodger Stadium.
The West By-Pass was soon incorporated into the Harbor Parkway, the first short piece, by renamed the Harbor Freeway, opened on July 30, 1952 from the Four Level Interchange south to 3rd Street. The Harbor Freeway pushed south, opening to Olympic Boulevard on March 23, 1954 and Washington Boulevard on May 14, 1954. On March 27, 1956, the highway was extended to 42nd Street, on April 24, 1957 it reached temporary ramps at 88th Place. Further extensions were made to Century Boulevard on July 31, 1958, 124th Street on September 24, 1958, Alondra Boulevard on May 2