Constitutional convention (political meeting)
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. Members of a constitutional convention are though not or elected by popular vote. However, a wholly popularly-elected constitutional convention can be referred to as a Constituent assembly. Examples of constitutional conventions to form or revise the constitution of a nation include: United States: The Philadelphia Convention was convened to revise the United States' original plan of government, the Articles of Confederation. However, a consensus soon developed to create an new plan; the United States Constitution was drafted at the convention in 1787, ratified by the states in 1788, took effect in 1789. France: The National Convention of 1792 convened during The French Revolution on September 20 with the purpose of writing a Republican Constitution following the suspension of the French Monarchy; the monarchy was abolished on September 21 by The Convention. Canada Quebec Conference, 1864 London Conference of 1866.
Australia held four constitutional conventions, one each in 1891, 1897, 1973, 1998 Germany: Parlamentarischer Rat – Drafted the Basic Law of the Federal Republic for ratification by the Länder. Northern Ireland: Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention – a failed attempt to find a solution to the status of Northern Ireland. Scotland: Scottish Constitutional Convention – produced a plan for Scottish devolution. European Union: European Convention – Drafted the Constitution for Europe for approval by the European Council and ratification by the member states. Philippines 1898 - drafted the 1898 Malolos Constitution, the basic law of the First Philippine Republic, the first constitutional republic in Asia; the drafted constitution was written by Felipe Calderón y Roca and Felipe Buencamino as an alternative to a pair of proposals to the Malolos Congress by Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. After a lengthy debate in the latter part of 1898, it was enacted on 21 January 1899. 1935 – to draft a constitution to create the autonomous Commonwealth of the Philippines under the U.
S. Tydings–McDuffie Act; the constitution was used in the 3rd Republic until the passage of the 1973 constitution. Members were elected through the Philippine Constitutional Convention election, 1934 1971 – to draft a revised constitution to replace the old U. S. customed 1935 Philippine constitution. Members were elected through the Philippine Constitutional Convention election, 1970; the system of government changed from Presidentitial to Parliamentary to Presidentital-Parliamentary. The constitution lasted until the downfall of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 and Corazon Aquino appointed members to draft the 1987 Constitution through a Constitutional Commission. Ireland: In Ireland, the government elected in March 2011 has committed to establishing a "constitutional convention" to recommend constitutional amendments on six specified issues and others it may consider. Constitutional conventions have been used by constituent states of federations — such as the individual states of the United States — to create, replace, or revise their own constitutions.
Several U. S. states have held multiple conventions over the years to change their particular state's constitutions. Missouri has held four, in 1820, 1865, 1875 and 1945. Michigan has held four, in 1835, 1850, 1908 and 1963. Massachusetts has held six, in 1778, 1779–80, 1820-21, 1853, 1917–18, most 2016. Virginia Conventions have included six unlimited meetings. Constitutions were promulgated by fiat in 1776, 1864 and 1901-02, ratified by referendum in 1829-30, 1850, 1868. Limited Conventions and Constitutional Commissions resulting in revisions were held in 1927, 1945, 1956 and 1968. Subsequently the state legislature proposes amendments. Constituent assembly Convention parliament Constitutional commission Independence Convention Intergovernmental Conference
Fresno is a city in California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern portion of California's Central Valley. Named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885; the city has since become an economic hub of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley, with much of the surrounding areas in the Metropolitan Fresno region predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. The population of Fresno grew from a 1960 census population of 134,000 to a 2000 census population of 428,000. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 527,438, Fresno is the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous city in the Central Valley, the most populous inland city in California, the 34th-most populous city in the nation. Fresno is near the geographical center of California.
It lies 220 miles north of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, 185 miles southeast of San Francisco. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, Sequoia National Park is 75 miles to the southeast; the original inhabitants of the San Joaquin Valley region were the Yokuts people and Miwok people, who engaged in trading with other Californian tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. The first European to enter the San Joaquin Valley was Pedro Fages in 1772; the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River; the county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings and Mono counties.
Millerton on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry and Elkhorn Springs; the San Joaquin River flooded on December 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQueen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.
Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew into the town of Fresno Station called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track. In 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. In carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno; when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires ravaged American frontier towns.
The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded. Fresno entered the ranks of the 100 most populous cities in the United States in 1960 with a population of 134,000. Thirty years in the 1990 census, it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, in the census of 2000, it achieved 37th place with 428,000; the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund site. Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, Chinatown. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Fresno's population as 94.0% white, 3.3% black and 2.7% Asian..
During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps. The Fresno Fairgrounds were utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development in the perio
Constitution of California
The Constitution of California is the primary organizing law for the U. S. state of California, describing the duties, powers and functions of the government of California. Following cession of the area from Mexico to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War, California's original constitution was drafted in both English and Spanish by delegates elected on August 1, 1849, to represent all communities home to non-indigenous citizens; the delegates wrote and adopted the constitution at the 1849 Constitutional Convention, held beginning on September 3 in Monterey, voters approved the new constitution on November 13, 1849. Adoption of the "state" constitution preceded California's Admission to the Union on September 9, 1850 by ten months. A second constitutional convention, the Sacramento Convention of 1878–79, amended the original document, ratifying the amended constitution on 7 May 1879; the Constitution of California is one of the longest collections of laws in the world due to provisions enacted during the Progressive Era limiting powers of elected officials, but due to additions by California ballot proposition and voter initiatives, which take form as constitutional amendments.
Initiatives can be proposed by the governor, legislature, or by popular petition, giving California one of the most flexible legal systems in the world. It is the 8th longest constitution in the world. Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the United States Bill of Rights in the Federal Constitution. An example is the case of Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, in which "free speech" rights beyond those addressed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution were found in the California Constitution by the California courts. One of California's most significant prohibitions is against "cruel or unusual punishment," a stronger prohibition than the U. S. Constitution's Eighth Amendment prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishment." This caused the California Supreme Court to find Capital Punishment unconstitutional on state Constitutional grounds in the 1972 case of People v. Anderson; the constitution has undergone numerous changes since its original drafting.
It was rewritten from scratch several times before the drafting of the current 1879 constitution, which has itself been amended or revised. In response to widespread public disgust with the powerful railroads that controlled California's politics and economy at the start of the 20th century, Progressive Era politicians pioneered the concept of aggressively amending the state constitution by initiative in order to remedy perceived evils. From 1911, the height of the U. S. Progressive Era, to 1986, the California Constitution was amended or revised over 500 times; the constitution became bloated, leading to abortive efforts towards a third constitutional convention in 1897, 1914, 1919, 1930, 1934 and 1947. By 1962, the constitution had grown to 75,000 words, which at that time was longer than any other state constitution but Louisiana's; that year, the electorate approved the creation of a California Constitution Revision Commission, which worked on a comprehensive revision of the constitution from 1964 to 1976.
The electorate ratified the Commission's revisions in 1966, 1970, 1972, 1974, but rejected the 1968 revision, whose primary substantive effect would have been to make the state's superintendent of schools into an appointed rather than an elected official. The Commission removed about 40,000 words from the constitution; the California Constitution is one of the longest in the world. The length has been attributed to a variety of factors, such as influence of previous Mexican civil law, lack of faith in elected officials and the fact that many initiatives take the form of a constitutional amendment. Several amendments involved the authorization of the creation of state government agencies, including the State Compensation Insurance Fund and the State Bar of California. Unlike other state constitutions, the California Constitution protects the corporate existence of cities and counties and grants them broad plenary home rule powers; the Constitution gives charter cities, in particular, supreme authority over municipal affairs allowing such cities' local laws to trump state law.
By enabling cities to pay counties to perform governmental functions for them, Section 8 of Article XI resulted in the rise of the contract city. Article 4, section 8 defines an "urgency statute" as one "necessary for immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety". Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the Bill of Rights in the federal constitution. Two examples include the Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins case involving an implied right to free speech in private shopping centers, the first decision in America in 1972 which found the death penalty unconstitutional, California v. Anderson, 6 Cal. 3d 628. This noted that under California's state constitution a stronger protection applies than under the U. S. Constitution's 8th Amendment.
Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824; the claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California and Utah, parts of Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico. Neither Spain nor Mexico colonized the area beyond the southern and central coastal areas of present-day California, small areas of present-day Arizona, so they exerted no effective control in modern-day California north of the Sonoma area, or east of the California Coast Ranges. Most interior areas such as the Central Valley and the deserts of California remained in de facto possession of indigenous peoples until in the Mexican era when more inland land grants were made, after 1841 when overland immigrants from the United States began to settle inland areas.
Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges were claimed to be part of Alta California, but were never colonized. To the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. Alta California ceased to exist as an administrative division separate from Baja California in 1836, when the Siete Leyes constitutional reforms in Mexico re-established Las Californias as a unified department, granting it more autonomy. Most of the areas comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848. Two years California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the coastal area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century and prospected the area as a domain of the Spanish monarchy. During the following two centuries there were various plans to settle the area, including Sebastián Vizcaíno's expedition in 1602–03 preparatory to colonization planned for 1606–07, canceled in 1608.
Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from today's Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. Father Eusebio Kino missionized the Pimería Alta from 1687 until his death in 1711. Plans in 1715 by Juan Manuel de Oliván Rebolledo resulted in a 1716 decree for extension of the conquest which came to nothing. Juan Bautista de Anssa proposed an expedition from Sonora in 1737 and the Council of the Indies planned settlements in 1744. Don Fernando Sánchez Salvador researched the earlier proposals and suggested the area of the Gila and Colorado Rivers as the locale for forts or presidios preventing the French or the English from "occupying Monterey and invading the neighboring coasts of California which are at the mouth of the Carmel River." Alta California was not accessible from New Spain: land routes were cut off by deserts and hostile Native populations and sea routes ran counter to the southerly currents of the distant northeastern Pacific.
New Spain did not have the economic resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. Spanish interest in colonizing Alta California was revived under the visita of José de Gálvez as part of his plans to reorganize the governance of the Interior Provinces and push Spanish settlement further north. In subsequent decades, news of Russian colonization and maritime fur trading in Alaska, the 1768 naval expedition of Pyotr Krenitsyn and Mikhail Levashev, in particular, alarmed the Spanish government and served to justify Gálvez's vision. To ascertain the Russian threat, a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched. In preparation for settlement of Alta California, the northern, mainland region of Las Californias was granted to Franciscan missionaries to convert the Native population to Catholicism, following a model, used for over a century in Baja California; the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule.
The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolá in San Diego in 1769. The following year, 1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu; the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781. By law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents; the Franciscans, prolonged their control over the missions after control of Alta California passed from Spain to independent Mexico, continued to run the missions until they were secularized, beginning in 1833.
The transfer of property never occurr
Colton Hall is a government building and museum in Monterey, United States. It was built in the late 1840s by Walter Colton, who came to Monterey as a chaplain on Commodore Stockton's vessel and remained to become Monterey's first alcalde in the American Period. Colton Hall was a public school and government meeting place, it hosted California's first constitutional convention in 1849. Upon becoming the elected alcalde Colton decided to build a school in Monterey, he decided that it would be in the style of the buildings he was familiar with from Philadelphia and Washington DC, the Greek Revival style, he wrote in his diary "It is built of white stone, quarried from the neighboring hill". As alcalde, Colton served as mayor, judge, sheriff, in charge of weights and measures and tax collector. In order to raise funds and free labor, Colton took full advantage of his "absolute" powers, he would tax cantinas and gambling, sell city lots and used the money toward the building. When he found someone "misbehaving" he would arrest them as the sheriff, throw them in jail and act as the judge times sentencing them to labor on the school.
When the building was completed March 8, 1849 it was the largest public building in California. The scheme was regarded with incredulity by many, but the building is finished, the citizens have assembled in it, christened it after my name, which will now go down to posterity with the odor of gamblers and tipplers. I leave it as a humble evidence of what may be accomplished by rigidly adhering to one purpose, shrinking from no personal efforts necessary to its achievement; the Native Sons of the Golden West were instrumental in 1903 in securing a legislative appropriation for necessary repairs on Colton Hall. The building was registered as a California Historical Landmark in 1934. In October 2018, the City of Monterey completed a $353,000 renovation; this included a back stairway, deck and parking lot. The building became compliant with the American Disabilities Act with the installation of a chair lift and ADA restroom. “'We are excited to welcome all visitors to our exhibits and events in Colton Hall,” said Mayor Clyde Roberson...“This is a perfect example of a Neighborhood Improvement Program project.'”
California's military governor called for a constitutional convention, to be held in Monterey's Colton Hall. On September 1, delegates from ten districts arrived in Monterey to debate and write California's first state constitution; the California Constitution was ratified on October 13, voted on in November that year and sent to Congress in January 1850. San Jose was chosen as the seat for the first Legislature. Built to be a school for Monterey children, it became the district school office as well as a grade school in 1873. In 1897 the school moved to a bigger building nearby; the Monterey Weekly Herald wrote in 1875, "'Surely the children of Monterey cannot fail to imbibe knowledge within such a building, the air of, redolent with patriotism and learning'". The most important public office building in Monterey County still in continuous use, Colton Hall has over the years housed Monterey's City Hall, a public school, the county court house, the sheriff's office, Monterey's city police headquarters.
The second floor is a museum, established in 1949. According to the museum's website it is open for free daily from 10-4pm. A docent is on staff during these hours for information and tours. City of Monterey Muesum Constitutional Convention
History of California before 1900
Human history in California began when indigenous Americans first arrived some 13,000–15,000 years ago. Coastal exploration by Europeans began in the 16th century, settlement by Europeans along the coast and in the inland valleys began in the 18th century. California was ceded to the United States under the terms of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the defeat of Mexico in the Mexican–American War. American westward expansion intensified with the California Gold Rush, beginning in 1848. California joined the Union as a free state in 1850, due to the Compromise of 1850. By the end of the 19th century, California was still rural and agricultural, but had a population of about 1.4 million. The most accepted model of migration to the New World is that peoples from Asia crossed the Bering land bridge to the Americas some 16,500 years ago; the remains of Arlington Springs Man on Santa Rosa Island are among the traces of a early habitation, dated to the Wisconsin glaciation about 13,000 years ago.
In all, some 30 tribes or culture groups lived in what is now California, gathered into six different language family groups. These groups included the early-arriving Hokan family and the arrived Uto-Aztecan of the desert southeast; this cultural diversity was among the densest in North America, was the result of a series of migrations and invasions during the last 10,000–15,000 years. At the time of the first European contact, Native American tribes included the Chumash, Maidu, Modoc, Ohlone, Serrano, Tataviam, Wintu and Yokut. Tribes adapted to California's many climates. Coastal tribes were a major source of trading beads, produced from mussel shells using stone tools. Tribes in California's broad Central Valley and the surrounding foothills developed an early agriculture, burning the grasslands to encourage growth of edible wild plants oak trees; the acorns from these trees were pounded into a powder, the acidic tannin leached out to make edible flour. Tribes living in the mountains of the north and east relied on salmon and game hunting, used California's volcanic legacy by collecting and shaping obsidian for themselves and for trade.
The deserts of the southeast were home to tribes who learned to thrive in that harsh environment by making careful use of local plants and living in oases and along water courses. The indigenous people practiced various forms of forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands, ensuring that desired food and medicine plants continued to be available; the Native Americans controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density "wild" agriculture in loose rotation. By burning underbrush and grass, the Native Americans revitalized patches of land whose regrowth provided fresh shoots to attract food animals. A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle; the relative strength of the tribes was dynamic, as the more successful expanded their territories and less successful tribes contracted. Slave-trading and war among tribes alternated with periods of relative peace.
The total population of Native California is estimated, by the time of extensive European contact in the 18th century, to have been 300,000. Before Europeans landed in North America, about one-third of all natives in what is now the United States were living in the area, now California; the first European explorers, flying the flags of Spain and of England, sailed along the coast of California from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century, but no European settlements were established. The most important colonial power, focused attention on its imperial centers in Mexico and Peru. Confident of Spanish claims to all lands touching the Pacific Ocean, Spain sent an exploring party sailing along the California coastline; the California seen by these ship-bound explorers was one of hilly grasslands and wooded canyons, with few apparent resources or natural ports to attract colonists. The other colonial states of the era, with their interest on more densely populated areas, paid limited attention to this distant part of the world.
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that both Russian and British explorers and fur traders began establishing stations on the coast. Around 1530, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán was told by an Indian slave of the Seven Cities of Cibola that had streets paved with gold and silver. About the same time Hernán Cortés was attracted by stories of a wonderful country far to the northwest, populated by Amazonish women and abounding with gold and gems; the Spaniards conjectured that these places may be the same. An expedition in 1533 discovered a bay, most that of La Paz, before experiencing difficulties and returning. Cortés accompanied expeditions in 1535 without finding the sought-after city. On May 3, 1535, Cortés claimed "Santa Cruz Island" and laid out and founded the city, to become La Paz that spring. Also: Island of California In July 1539, moved by the renewal of those stories, Cortés sent Francisco de Ulloa out with three small vessels, he made it to the mouth of the Colorado River sailed around the peninsula as far as Cedros Island.
The account of this voyage marks the first-recorded application of the name "California". It can be traced to the fifth volume of a chivalric romance, Amadis de Gallia, arranged by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo and first printed around 1510
LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. and from 2009–2017 was producing about 1,000 items per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects. LibriVox is affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, posed the question; the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad.
The main features of the way LibriVox works have changed little since its inception, although the technology that supports it has been improved by the efforts of its volunteers with web-development skills. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, giving the meaning BookVoice; the word was coined because of other connotations: liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says: "We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as'child of the voice', and'free voice'; the other link we like is'library' so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice."There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox. It is accepted. LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project, it has legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, who maintain a searchable catalogue database of completed works.
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Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a limited number of contemporary books. These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report, a work of the US Federal Government therefore in the Public Domain; the LibriVox catalogue is varied. It contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi; the collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds. In January 2009, the catalogue contained 55 percent fiction and drama, 25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2018, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman. Around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, but recordings have been made in languages including Urdu and Tagalog.
LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Project Gutenberg. Intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as "perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia"; the project has been featured in press around the world and has been recommended by the BBC's Click, MSNBC's The Today Show, Wired, the US PC Magazine and the UK Metro and Sunday Times newspapers. A frequent concern of listeners is the site's policy of allowing any recording to be published as long as it is understandable and faithful to the source text; this means. While some listeners may object to those books with chapters read by multiple readers, others find this to be a non-issue or a feature, though many books are narrated by a single reader. Virtual volunteering Voice acting LibriVox siteLibriVox home page and LibriVox Catalogue of Audio BooksArticlesXeni Tech story from NPR's Day to Day, "Amateur Audio Books Cat