West Sacramento, California
West Sacramento is a city in Yolo County, California. The city is separated from Sacramento by the Sacramento River which separates Sacramento and Yolo counties, it is a fast-growing community. The traditional industrial center of the region since the Gold Rush era, West Sacramento is home to a diverse economy and is one of the area's top four employment centers; the United States Conference of Mayors named West Sacramento as the Most Livable City in America in 2014 in the category of cities with fewer than 100,000 residents. West Sacramento is part of the Sacramento–Arden Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area which has a population of 1,796,857. Major industries to the region include agriculture and transportation. In 1844, John Schwartz, a Flemish traveler, was the first Euro-American to permanently settle in the area of West Sacramento, which at that time was part of Mexico, he built a shack on the west bank of the Sacramento River six miles south of its connection with the American River.
John, with the help of his brother George, founded a salmon fishery along the river. In addition to the fishery, they found the soil to be fertile and began farming and raising livestock; the announcement of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 brought a multitude of miners to the region. This coincided with the end of the Mexican–American War. In 1846, a man named. With his wife and their three daughters, McDowell settled in the area we know today as Broderick; the McDowell family experienced first-hand the violence. In May 1849, James McDowell was shot and killed in a barroom argument that he had started. With the loss of the sole supporter of the McDowell family, Margaret needed to find a way to provide for her family. In October 1849, Margaret hired a land surveyor to map out 160 acres, divided into forty one blocks, she sold individual lots within this platted area which she named the "Town of Washington". The first lot was sold to August W. Kaye for $500. During its first ten years, the rural Town of Washington went through a significant increase in business development and shipping activity.
One of the first businesses to be established in the town was the California Steam Navigation Company, attracted to the area in 1859 by how close the Sacramento River is to it. Other businesses in early Washington included hotels and restaurants catering to the needs of people passing through. Many of the travelers making the treacherous journey through the marshlands on their way to Sacramento were appreciative of the rest stop at the Town of Washington. While Sacramento began to urbanize on the other side of the river, early West Sacramento found its hand at agricultural development. Salmon, catfish, eel and clams proved to be lucrative in this region as fisherman soon found; the river settlement was flourishing, stocking fish markets not only in Sacramento, but in San Francisco as well. In addition, the rich soil of the valley produced abundant crops of com, melons and sweet potatoes; the dairy industry established roots in West Sacramento around this time. One of the area's most well known dairy farmers was Mike Bryte.
Bryte came to California in 1849 to try his hand at gold mining. He was able to purchase a dairy farm with his findings; when the California Steam Navigation Company came to Washington, Bryte used the steamships to carry his dairy products to various markets within the region. Profits from this allowed Bryte to expand his holdings. Bryte was able to own several thousand acres of land in the area to farm on, as well as raise his many livestock on. Mike Bryte's influence in the community was marked by his election to the Yolo County Board of Supervisors and as sheriff. During the 20th century, Mike Bryte's property was divided and became known as the community of Bryte. In time, the region began to develop; the Town of Washington was renamed Broderick in honor of U. S. Senator David C. Broderick. After 1900, the three communities known as Bryte and West Sacramento were cumulatively known as "East Yolo". From 1900 to 1920, the population of this area doubled from 1,398 to 2,638; the West Sacramento post office opened in 1915.
These communities incorporated as the City of West Sacramento in 1987. Was chosen for a pilot program called VIA, a van pool rideshare program. Port of West SacramentoIn June 1963, the Port of Sacramento was opened to deep sea traffic with the completion of the Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel; the project had been authorized by Congress in 1946 and construction commenced in 1949 on the west side of the river. It has since been renamed The Port of West Sacramento. West Sacramento is located at 38°34′50″N 121°31′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.8 square miles, of which, 21.4 square miles of it is land and 1.4 square miles of it is water. West Sacramento, which lies in Yolo County, is separated from the city of Sacramento and Sacramento County by the Sacramento River. West Sacramento, incorporated in 1987, consists of three communities that were distinct towns, Broderick and West Sacramento, as well as the Southport area. Southport, which comprises about half of the city's land area consisted of rural homesteads and small neighborhoods in Arlington Oaks and Linden, but now has a considerable population that resulted from hous
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin
Politics of California
The recent and current politics of the U. S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests.. The Big Five is an informal institution of the legislative leadership role in California's government, consisting of the governor, the Assembly speaker, the Assembly minority leader, the Senate president pro tempore, the Senate minority leader. Members of the Big Five meet in private to discuss bills pending in the legislature; because the party caucus leaders in California's legislature control the party's legislative campaign funds, the leaders wield tremendous power over their caucus members. They are thus able to exert some influence in their caucus's votes in Big Five meetings. Only the Democratic Party and Republican Party have representation in the State Legislature. However, for a brief period around the turn of the 21st century, one member of the Green Party was a member of the State Assembly, representing the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. California uses the plurality voting system in its elections, but some municipalities such as San Francisco and Berkeley have opted to use a system of preferential voting used in Australia and Ireland, more popularly known in the United States as instant-runoff voting or ranked choice voting.
Local elections in California at the county and city level are non-partisan and political party affiliations are not included on local election ballots. The two major political parties in California that have representation in the State Legislature and U. S. Congress are the Republican Party. There are four other parties that qualify for official ballot status: the American Independent Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, Peace and Freedom Party. Of the 19,696,371 California voters registered for the November 6, 2018, general election: 43.5% were Democrats 24.0% were Republicans 5.0% were affiliated with other political parties 27.5% were unaffiliated voters Many of California's governmental agencies and programs have been established in the Constitution of California. Additionally, the state constitution establishes mandatory funding levels for some agencies and institutions; this issue came to the forefront when Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and the California Legislature attempted to cut spending to close the state's multibillion-dollar budget deficits during the 2000s.
Affected agencies with support from special interest groups pressed the California Supreme Court to order the restoration of funding to a number of agencies and programs, cut. There have been several events, many dubbed "constitutional crises" by their opponents, over the last thirty-two years including: the passage of term limits for the California legislature and elected constitutional officers, hotly argued statewide, debated in the Supreme Court of California. A failure to pass a budget until three months after the constitutional deadline. Northern California's inland areas, the Central Valley, Southern California outside Los Angeles County are Republican areas. Coastal California, including such areas as the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County and as well as Sacramento are Democratic areas; as most of the population is in Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area, California as a whole tends to be liberal. California was a Republican stronghold in presidential elections from 1952 until 1992.
During this period, the Republicans won California in every election except the election of 1964. In these years, the GOP nominated Californians as presidential candidates: Richard Nixon in 1960 and 1972, Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984. Since however, the Democrats have carried the electoral rich state since 1992; the immigration of Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans and migration of northern liberals, who tend to vote Democratic, the flight of white and upper-middle class suburbanites out of the state shifted the balance in favor of the Democratic Party. Among the state's divisive issues are water and water rights, resulting in the California Water Wars. Lacking reliable dry season rainfall, water is limited and available surface sources are extensively developed through dams and pipelines; the principal water sources are mountain runoff from wet season rains and higher altitude snowpack and some Colorado River water supplying southern California. Waste water reclamation in California is routine.
Most water is in the north of the State, while agriculture, the largest user of stored water in California, is most prevalent in the central and southern areas. Additionally, the majority of the state's population is in the south. Water viewed as excess by the south is viewed by the north as environmentally essential for agriculture and wildlife. While the southern electorate has a greater portion of the population it is not as unified in its viewpoint as is that of the north, so ballot propositions such as those promoting a P
Government of California
The government of California is the governmental structure of the state of California as established by the California Constitution. It is composed of three branches: the executive, consisting of the Governor of California and the other constitutionally elected and appointed officers and offices. There is local government, consisting of counties, special districts, school districts, as well as government entities and offices that operate independently on a constitutional, statutory, or common law basis; the state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum and ratification. California's elected executive officers are: All offices are elected separately to concurrent four-year terms, each officer may be elected to an office a maximum of two times; the Governor has the powers and responsibilities to: sign or veto laws passed by the Legislature, including a line item veto. The Lieutenant Governor is the President of the California Senate and acts as the governor when the Governor is unable to execute the office, including whenever the Governor leaves the state.
The Governor and Lieutenant Governor serve as ex officio members of the University of California Board of Regents and of the California State University Board of Trustees. Regulatory activity is published in the California Regulatory Notice Register and the general and permanent rules and regulations are codified in the California Code of Regulations. State government is organized into many departments, of which most have been grouped together into several huge Cabinet-level agencies since the administration of Governor Pat Brown; these agencies are sometimes informally referred to as superagencies by government officials, to distinguish them from the general usage of the term "government agency." The Cabinet-level agencies are the: California Business, Consumer Services and Housing Agency California Government Operations Agency California Environmental Protection Agency California Health and Human Services Agency California Labor and Workforce Development Agency California Natural Resources Agency California State Transportation Agency The independently elected officers run separate departments not grouped within the superagencies, there are other Cabinet-level departments: Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation Department of Education Department of Finance Department of Food and Agriculture Department of Insurance Department of Justice Department of the Military There are several state government entities and offices that are supposed to be independent of direct control by the executive and judicial branches of the state government, as well as any local government.
Most of the leaders of these entities are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the state Senate. Examples include the: Regents of the University of California California State University Board of Trustees California Community Colleges Board of Governors California Public Utilities Commission California State Auditor Fair Political Practices Commission The California State Legislature is the state legislature, it is a bicameral body consisting of the California State Assembly, the lower house with 80 members, the California State Senate, the upper house with 40 members. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms; the Speaker of the California State Assembly presides over the State Assembly. The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote, the President pro tempore of the California State Senate is elected by the majority party caucus; the Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Its session laws are codified into the 29 California Codes.
The state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative and recall. The Judiciary of California interprets and applies the law, is defined under the Constitution and regulations; the judiciary has a hierarchical structure with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Superior Courts are the primary trial courts, the Courts of Appeal are the primary appellate courts; the Judicial Council is the rule-making arm of the judiciary. The California Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of six Associate Justices; the Court has original jurisdiction in a variety of cases, including habeas corpus proceedings, has discretionary authority to review all the decisions of the California Courts of Appeal, as well as mandatory review responsibility for cases where the death penalty has been imposed. The Courts of Appeal are the intermediate appellate courts; the state is geographically divided into six appellate districts. Notably, all published California appellate decisions are binding on all Superior Courts, regardless of appellate district.
The California superior courts are the courts of general jurisdiction that hear and decide any civil or criminal action, not specially designated to be heard before some other court or governmental agency. As mandated by the Constitution, each of the 58 counties has a superior court; the superior courts have appellate divisions (superior
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
California executive branch
The California executive branch consists of elected officers and other offices and officers. The elected executive officers are: Total number of employees is 227,536 excluding California State Universities. In 2004, there were 4,462 job classifications, many of which had no employees occupying the position, as a workaround for certain hiring practices; as part of a civil service reform initiative beginning in 2013, 700 job titles were eliminated. The California Department of Human Resources oversees the state's civil service system, with some additional functions handled by the California State Personnel Board. In 1979, then-Governor Jerry Brown requested a report on the State's personnel system from the Little Hoover Commission, an independent government oversight agency, which resulted in several recommendations of which some were implemented, including the creation of the Department of Personnel Administration but other recommendations such as the dissolution of the California State Personnel Board were not.
In the 1980s, a recommendation to decentralize hiring to departments was implemented. In 2012, California Department of Human Resources was created by combining the functions the former Department of Personnel Administration with most of the operations of the State Personnel Board implementing recommendations by experts in the prior decades. In 2012, the California Government Operations Agency was created under Governor Jerry Brown, its director, Marybel Batjer, launched an initiative of civil service reform intended to make state employment more attractive to talented employees relative to the private sector. In 2015, the first engagement survey of state employees was conducted using a sample of 5,000; the survey showed that employees believed that their work was important, but did not believe that workers were held accountable or that they received proper recognition for good work. In 2016, the state rolled out a new hiring website, for the first time allowing for electronic job applications for state jobs.
Unusually, it was programmed by state employees rather than an external contractor. Agencies under the direction of a secretary that report directly to the Governor are cabinet-level agencies; some agencies such as the California State Controller, Attorney General of California, California Insurance Commissioner are headed by independent elected officials. The California State Auditor is appointed by the Governor with confirmation by the Legislature, but operates independently of both. One new top-level agency, California Government Operations Agency, was created in 2012 to help modernize the government. State Board of Education State Superintendent of Public Instruction California Department of Education Insurance Commissioner California Department of Insurance Secretary of State Lieutenant Governor State Controller State Treasurer State Board of Equalization Attorney General Department of Justice Board of Governors, Community Colleges California Postsecondary Education Commission California Student Aid Commission Trustees of State Universities University of California Board of Regents Fair Political Practices Commission California Gambling Commission State Lands Commission California Lottery Commission Public Employment Relations Board California Public Utilities Commission California Transportation Commission Generally, a Cabinet-level head of an agency in California holds the title of "secretary", while the head of a department holds the title of "director."
Exceptions include the head of the Department of the California Highway Patrol, whose title is "commissioner." The vast majority of state government agencies and departments are headquartered in Sacramento or in parts of Sacramento County near the city of Sacramento. Notable exceptions include the California Public Utilities Commission and the California Department of Industrial Relations, which are both headquartered in San Francisco. Other defunct statewide elected offices that no longer exist include the Comptroller, the Surveyor General, the Clerk of the Supreme Court. In June 2012, Governor Jerry Brown obtained approval from the Legislature to proceed with a reorganization plan. By July 2013, the business and housing components of BTH will be consolidated with the consumer components of SCSA to form the new Business, Consumer Services and Housing Agency. California Government of California Politics of California