A trivet /ˈtrɪvᵻt/ is an object placed between a serving dish or bowl, and a dining table, usually to protect the table from heat damage. Trivet refers to a used to elevate pots from the coals of an open fire. Metal trivets are often tripod-like structures with three legs to support the trivet horizontally in order to hold the dish or pot above the table surface and these are often included with modern non-electric pressure cookers. A trivet may often contain a receptacle for a candle that can be lit to keep food warm, a three-legged design is optimal because it eliminates wobbling on uneven surfaces. Modern trivets are made from metal, ceramic, silicone or cork
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
William Randolph Hearst
Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak and he expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Politically he espoused the Progressive Movement, speaking on behalf of the working class and he controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines and thereby exercised enormous political influence. He called for war in 1898 against Spain—as did many other newspaper editors—but he did it in sensational fashion, after 1918, he called for an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs. He was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist, and deeply suspicious of the League of Nations and of the British, French and Russians. He was a supporter of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932–34, but broke with FDR.
His life story was the inspiration for Charles Foster Kane. His famous mansion, Hearst Castle, on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean near San Simeon, is now a State Historical Monument and a National Historic Landmark. William R. Hearst was born in San Francisco, to mining engineer, goldmine owner and U. S. senator George Hearst. His paternal great-grandfather was John Hearst, of Ulster Protestant origin and he migrated to America from Ballybay, County Monaghan as part of the Cahans Exodus with his wife and six children in 1766 and settled in South Carolina. Their immigration to South Carolina was spurred in part by the governments policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants. The names John Hearse and John Hearse Jr, the Hearse spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. Hearsts mother, née Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was of Irish ancestry and she was the first woman regent of University of California, funded many anthropological expeditions and founded the Phoebe A.
Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Following preparation at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, while there he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the A. D. Searching for an occupation, in 1887, Hearst took over management of a newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, a self-proclaimed populist, Hearst went on to publish stories of municipal and financial corruption, often attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market, the inventor of color comics, and all of Pulitzers Sunday staff as well. Another prominent hire was James J. Montague, who came from the Portland Oregonian, Hearst imported his best managers from the San Francisco Examiner and quickly established himself as the most attractive employer among New York newspapers. Hearsts activist approach to journalism can be summarized by the motto, While others Talk, the New York Journal and its chief rival, the New York World, mastered a style of popular journalism that came to be derided as yellow journalism, after Outcaults Yellow Kid comic
Sather Tower is a campanile on the University of California, Berkeley campus, more commonly known as The Campanile for its resemblance to the Campanile di San Marco in Venice. It is the universitys most recognizable symbol, given by Jane K. Sather in memory of her husband, banker Peder Sather, it is the third-tallest bell-and-clock-tower in the world. Its 61-bell carillon, built around a nucleus of 12 bells given by Jane Sather, can be heard for many miles and supports an extensive program of education in campanology. Designed by John Galen Howard, founder of the Department of Architecture at the University, Sather Tower was completed in 1914, with seven principal floors and an eighth-floor observation deck, at 307 feet it is the third-tallest bell-and-clock-tower in the world. It marked a secondary axis in Howards original Beaux-Arts campus plan and has been a point of orientation in almost every campus master plan since. Sather Tower houses a concert carillon, enlarged from the original 12-bell chime installed in October 1917 to 48 bells in 1979.
The original bells all bear the inscription Gift of Jane K. Sather 1914, Jane was wife of the Norwegian-born banker Peder Sather. The current bells range from small 19 pound bells to the 10,500 pound Great Bear Bell, the bells toll the hour 7 days a week between the hours of 8 a. m. and 10 p. m. At noon on the last day of each semester, Theyre Hanging Danny Deever in the Morning is played. Following that, the carillon is silent until the end of finals and group lessons are offered in carillon through the Department of Music, subject to auditions and with Music majors receiving priority. Students work on one of Sather Towers two practice keyboards until they are ready to perform on the carillon itself, an elevator takes visitors 200 feet up to an observation deck with sweeping views of the campus, the surrounding hills, San Francisco, and the Golden Gate. Admission is free for UC Berkeley students and faculty, two dollars for seniors, Cal Alumni Association members, and persons age 17 and under, and three dollars for everyone else.
The trumpets of the California Marching Band every year play Cal spirit songs during Big Game week from the top of the tower, known as the Campanile Concert, the music can be heard throughout the campus and Berkeley, and in some cases, all the way to Oakland. Sather Tower houses many of the Department of Integrative Biologys fossils because its cool, the surrounding promenade features a grid of pollarded London Plane trees, frequently enjoyed for the sport of slacklining. In 1958 a 67-year-old retired attorney jumped to his death, prompting a daily patrol to guard the platform, in 1961, after an undergraduate suicide, glass was installed to enclose the viewing platform. These panes were removed in 1979 due to complaints that the panes were muffling the sound of the expanded carillon, in 1981 metal bars were installed. The Berkeley Carillon is housed within Sather Tower and it originated as a twelve bell chime, cast in 1915 by John Taylor & Co of Loughborough, England. The original bells were a gift of Jane K.
Sather, who gave the university the Sather Tower, Sather Gate
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo
Mission San Carlos Borromeo del río Carmelo, known as the Carmel Mission or Mission Carmel, is a Roman Catholic mission church in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California. It is on the National Register of Historic Places and a U. S. National Historic Landmark, the mission was the headquarters of the Alta California missions headed by Saint Junípero Serra from 1770 until his death in 1784. It was the seat of the presidente, Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen. The mission buildings and lands were secularized by the Mexican government in 1833 and they were partially restored beginning in 1884. In 1886 it was transferred from the Franciscans to the diocese and has continued as a parish church since then. It is the one of the California Missions to have its original bell tower dome. Mission Carmel is the second built by Franciscan missionaries in Upper California. It was first established as Mission San Carlos Borromeo in Monterey and it was named for Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, Italy. It was the site of the first Christian confirmation in Alta California, when the mission moved, the original building continued to operate as the Royal Presidio chapel and became the current Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo.
Pedro Fages, who served as governor of Alta California between 1770 and 1774, kept his headquarters at the Presidio of Monterey, the capital of Alta California. He worked his men very harshly and was seen as a tyrant, Serra intervened on behalf of Fages soldiers, and the two men did not get along. The soldiers raped the Indian woman and kept them as concubines, Serra wanted to put some distance between the missions neophytes and Fages soldiers. Serra found that the land near the mouth of the Carmel River was better suited for farming, in May 1771, Spains viceroy approved Serras petition to relocate the mission to its current location near the Carmelo River. The relocated mission was renamed Mission San Carlos Borromeo del Río Carmelo, after the Carmel mission was moved to Carmel Valley, the Franciscans began to baptize some natives. By the end of 1771, the population of mission was 15 with an additional 22 baptized Indians, farming was not very productive and for several years the mission was dependent upon the arrival of supply ships.
Historian Jame Culleton wrote in 1950, The summer of 73 came without bringing the supply ship, neither Carmel nor Monterey was anything like self-supporting. To improve baptismal rates, they sought to convert key members of the Esselen and Rumsen tribes and this persuaded some Indians to follow them to the mission. Disease, starvation and torture decimated these tribes, native neophyte laborers made the adobe bricks, roof tiles and tools needed to build the mission
Beniamino Bufano was a California-based Italian American sculptor, best known for his large-scale monuments representing peace. His modernist work often featured smoothly rounded animals and relatively simple shapes and he worked in ceramics, stainless steel, and mosaic, and sometimes combined two or more of these media. Some of his works are cast stone replicas and he sometimes went by the name Benvenuto Bufano because he admired Benvenuto Cellini. His youthful nickname was Bene, which was anglicized into Benny. He became a naturalized U. S. citizen in November 1938, Bufano was born in San Fele, Italy. He came to New York with his mother and 11 siblings in 1902, there is considerable question about his date of birth. In fact, it is difficult to establish the truth about many of the stories about his life, a 1972 biography by Sonia Brown and Howard Wilkening is based on interviews with the artist and extensive research but is not conclusive. As the artist admitted, I just told each person not only what I thought he wanted to hear, another biography was published by his ex-wife Virginia Howard ten years after his death and includes many stories she would have heard from him.
As she wrote, Benny revived lying, made it an art and a way of life, yet lying is a misleading word to explain the thought processes of the little artist. If he lied, he was not aware of being dishonest—he was nonmoral, the only biography with footnotes is the limited-edition volume by Lois Rather published in 1975 and focusing on Bufanos dealings with the federal government. He evidently studied at the Art Students League of New York during 1913–15 with the famous sculptors Herbert Adams, Paul Manship and he assisted Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney at her home studio in Roslyn, New York in about 1913. In the fall of 1914, Paul Manship invited Bufano to work with Robert Treat Paine on a commission Manship had received for the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Bufano rented a room in San Franciscos Chinatown, made some friends there, and became fascinated with Chinese art. He was given additional sculpture projects at the exposition, panels for the Arches of Triumph, after returning to New York in 1915, Bufano entered a nationwide art competition and exhibit on the theme The Immigrant in America.
The Immigrants in America Review administered the contest, frances Kellor, who had been top committeewoman in former President Theodore Roosevelts Progressive Party, headed the Review. Roosevelt visited the exhibit of the 100 works entered in the contest, which added to its prestige, Bufano, a virtual unknown, won the first prize of $500 with a sculpture in tile and steel entitled Peace. Bufanos theme contrasted with most of the entries, which focused on the struggle for survival in their new homeland. The New York Times reported on Roosevelts visit to the exhibit, roosevelt used the occasion to inveigh against cubist art, but singled out Bennie Bufanos prize-winning sculpture for praise. Wonderful work, he exclaimed to the Times, I should like to meet the sculptor, shortly after the United States entered World War I in 1917, Bufano accidentally cut off half of his right index finger
Julia Morgan was an American architect in California. She designed more than 700 buildings in California during a long and she is best known for her work on Hearst Castle in San Simeon, California. Morgan was the first woman to be admitted to the program at lÉcole nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She designed many buildings for institutions serving women and girls including YWCA buildings and buildings for Mills College, Morgan embraced the Arts and Crafts Movement and used various producers of California pottery to adorn her buildings. Julia Morgan is the first woman to receive the AIA Gold Medal, Morgans father, Charles Bill Morgan, was born into a prominent East Coast family that included successful military men and influential businessmen. He studied to be an engineer, in 1867, he sailed for San Francisco, California, to speculate in mines. He returned the year to marry Eliza Woodland Parmelee, the favored daughter of Albert O. Parmelee. The wedding was in Brooklyn, New York, where she had grown up, as a wedding present, Parmelee gave his daughter an envelope full of money so that she could raise a family in comfort.
He indicated that more money would follow, the newlyweds traveled to San Francisco and settled downtown in a family-oriented but luxurious residential hotel. In April 1870, a son was born and named Parmelee Morgan, on January 20,1872, Julia Morgan was born. Three more children were born to the family in Oakland, Charles Morgan was not successful in any of his business ventures, so the family relied upon money from grandfather Parmelee. Eliza Morgan ran the household with a hand, providing young Julia with a role model of womanly competence and independence. In mid-1878, Eliza took the children to live near the Parmelees in New York for a year while Charles worked in San Francisco, in New York, Julia was introduced to her older cousin Lucy Thornton, who was married to successful architect Pierre Le Brun. After returning to Oakland, Julia kept in contact with Le Brun, in New York, Julia got sick with scarlet fever and was kept in bed for a few weeks. As a result of illness, throughout her adult life she was prone to ear infections.
In July 1880, grandfather Parmelee died, grandmother Parmelee moved into the Oakland house, bringing with her the Parmelee wealth. This reinforced Julias impression that women provided the foundation of social means, Morgan resisted her mothers suggestion that she have a debutante party to celebrate her availability for marriage. She argued that she should first gain a career and her parents were supportive of this wish
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
California College of the Arts
California College of the Arts is an art, design and writing school founded in 1907. It has campuses in San Francisco and Oakland, and it enrolls approximately 1,500 undergraduates and 500 graduate students, businessWeek magazine in 2009 called CCA one of the world’s best design schools. CCA ranks fourth among San Francisco Bay Area colleges and universities for highest-paying degrees, CCA was founded in 1907 by Frederick Meyer in Berkeley as the School of the California Guild of Arts and Crafts during the height of the Arts and Crafts movement. The Arts and Crafts movement originated in Europe during the late 19th century as a response to the aesthetics of the machine age. Followers of the movement advocated an approach to art, design. Today, Frederick Meyer’s practical art school is a known and respected institution. In 1908 the school was renamed California School of Arts and Crafts, the college’s Oakland campus location was acquired in 1922, when Meyer bought the four-acre James Treadwell estate at Broadway and College Avenue.
Two of its buildings are on the National Register of Historic Places, the Oakland campus still houses the more traditional, craft based studios like the art glass, jewelry metal arts, painting and ceramic programs. In 2003 the college changed its name to California College of the Arts, CCA offers 22 undergraduate and 13 graduate majors. The CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, located near the San Francisco campus in a new facility on Kansas St. is a forum for contemporary culture, in 2013 the Wattis Institute recruited a new director, Anthony Huberman, formerly of Artists Space in New York. Alumni Robert Arneson and Peter Voulkos and faculty member Viola Frey helped establish the medium of ceramics as an art and were closely linked to the emergence of the 1960s ceramics movement. The photorealist movement of the 1970s is represented by current faculty member Jack Mendenhall and alumni Robert Bechtle, alumni Nathan Oliveira and Manuel Neri were leaders in the Bay Area Figurative Movement.
Marvin Lipofsky founded CCAs Glass Program in 1967 and was important in the Studio Glass movement, two school faculty established California Faience