Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and physics. It involves the application of techniques and analyses. Chemical biologists attempt to use chemical principles to modulate systems to investigate the underlying biology or create new function. Research done by chemical biologists is often related to that of cell biology than biochemistry. Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level. In this sense, it is related to fields such as proteomics. Proteomics investigates the proteome, the set of expressed proteins at a time under defined conditions. Current goals in proteomics include determining protein sequences and any post-translational modifications, of interest are protein–protein interactions, cellular distribution of proteins and understanding protein activity. Another important aspect of proteomics is the advancement of technology to achieve these goals, protein levels, modifications and interactions are complex and dynamic properties.
With this complexity in mind, experiments need to be designed to answer specific questions especially in the face of the massive amounts of data that are generated by these analyses. The most valuable information comes from proteins that are expressed differently in a system being studied and these proteins can be compared relative to each other using quantitative proteomics, which allows a protein to be labeled with a mass tag. Proteomic technologies must be sensitive and robust, it is for these reasons, the high precision of mass spectrometry can distinguish between closely related species and species of interest can be isolated and fragmented within the instrument. Its applications to protein analysis was possible in the late 1980s with the development of protein. These breakthroughs were ESI and MALDI, mass spectrometry technologies are modular and can be chosen or optimized to the system of interest. Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques and these approaches include the development of enrichment strategies, chemical affinity tags and probes.
Samples for Proteomics contain a myriad of peptide sequences, the sequence of interest may be represented or of low abundance. However, for successful MS analysis the peptide should be enriched within the sample, reduction of sample complexity is achieved through selective enrichment using affinity chromatography techniques. This involves targeting a peptide with a feature like a biotin label or a post translational modification
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland. It is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies by market cap and sales. Novartis manufactures such drugs as clozapine, carbamazepine, additional agents include ciclosporin, methylphenidate and others. In 1996, Ciba-Geigy merged with Sandoz, and the pharmaceutical and agrochemical divisions of companies formed Novartis as an independent entity. Other Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz businesses were sold, or like Ciba Specialty Chemicals, the Sandoz brand disappeared for 3 years, but was revived in 2003 when Novartis consolidated its generic drugs businesses into a single subsidiary and named it Sandoz. Novartis divested its agrochemical and genetically modified crops business in 2000 with the spinout of Syngenta in partnership with AstraZeneca, Novartis AG is a publicly traded Swiss holding company that operates through the Novartis Group. Novartis AG owns, directly or indirectly, all companies worldwide that operate as subsidiaries of the Novartis Group, the businesses of Novartis are divided into three operating divisions, Pharmaceuticals and Sandoz.
Novartis AG holds 33. 3% of the shares of Roche however, Novartis owned 24. 9% of Idenix Pharmaceuticals prior to its sale to Merck & Co, Inc. Novartis has two significant license agreements with Genentech, a Roche subsidiary, one agreement is for Lucentis, the other is for Xolair, both of which Novartis markets outside the US. Novartis has established a centre at Hyderabad, India, in order to offshore several of its R&D, clinical development, medical writing. The global service centre began in 2001 with 17 people and Hyderabad was chosen from a shortlist of 23 cities including Pune, the centre supports the drug major’s operations in the pharmaceuticals, eye care and generic drugs segments. This centre is more than 870,000 square feet in size, Novartis was the worlds second largest pharmaceutical company in 2011. An IMS Health report ranked Novartis as the biggest pharma company in 2012, Alcon was already the worlds largest and most profitable eye care company when Novartis bought it, with 2009 annual sales of $6.5 billion and net income of $2 billion.
At that time, Novartis stated that it believed the two companies could generate approximately $200 million of potential annual pre-tax cost synergies. Sandoz, As of 2013, Sandoz was the second largest generic drug company. Sandoz biosimilars leads its field, getting the first biosimilar approvals in the EU, Vaccines and Diagnostics, As of 2013 Novartis was considering selling this division off. While sales in the unit were up 14% for the first half of 2013, vaccine revenue was $1.4 billion in 2012 and has been forecast to more than double to $3.14 billion by 2018. In 2012, Novartis ranked 7th on the Access to Medicine Index, in 2010, Novartis was in the top three pharma companies
Bayer AG, German pronunciation, ) is a German multinational chemical and life sciences company. It is headquartered in Leverkusen, where its sign is a landmark. Bayers primary areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, consumer products, agricultural chemicals and biotechnology products. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, the companys motto is science for a better life. Bayers first and best known product was aspirin, there is a dispute about what scientist at Bayer made the most important contributions to it, Bayer trademarked the name heroin for the drug diacetylmorphine and marketed it as a cough suppressant and non-addictive substitute for morphine from 1898 to 1910. Bayer introduced phenobarbital, the first widely used antibiotic and the subject of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine, the antibiotic Cipro, in 2014 Bayer bought MSDs consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholls. Its BayerCropscience business develops genetically modified crops and pesticides and its materials science division makes polymers like polyurethanes and polycarbonate.
Bayer was founded in Barmen in 1863 and it was part of IG Farben, the worlds largest chemical and pharmaceutical company, from 1925 to 1952, and again became an independent company. The company played a key role in the Wirtschaftswunder during the early Cold War, Bayer acquired Schering in 2006 and announced its acquisition of Monsanto in 2016, the merger is still pending approval. Bayer AG was founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, the companys corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904. It consists of the horizontal word BAYER crossed with the vertical word BAYER, an illuminated version of the logo is a landmark in Leverkusen, the location of Bayer AGs headquarters. Bayers first major product was acetylsalicylic acid, a modification of salicylic acid or salicin and it is now widely used in the US, UK, and France for all brands of the drug. However, it is still a trademark of Bayer in more than 80 other countries, including Canada, Germany. As of 2011, approximately 40 thousand tons of aspirin are produced each year and 10 to 20 billion tablets are taken in the U. S. alone each year for prevention of cardiovascular events.
It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a health system. There has been controversy over the roles played by Bayer scientists in the development of aspirin, Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, claimed to be the first to discover an aspirin formulation which did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain. Eichengrün claimed that he invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety, Bayer contends that aspirin was discovered by Felix Hoffmann to alleviate the sufferings of his father, who had arthritis. Various sources support the conflicting claims, most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Felix Hoffmann and/or Arthur Eichengrün
Calico is an independent research and development biotech company founded on September 18,2013 by Google and Arthur D. Levinson with the goal of combating aging and associated diseases. In Googles 2013 Founders Letter, Larry Page described Calico as a focused on health, well-being. The companys name is an acronym for California Life Company, in August 2015, Google announced plans to restructure into Alphabet Inc. wherein Google and Calico would become two of the subsidiaries of the new company along with others. This was completed on October 2, in September 2014, it was announced that Calico, in partnership with AbbVie, would be opening up a R&D facility focused on aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. Initially, each company will invest $350 million, with an option for each to add an extra $500 million on, in the same month, Calico announced a partnership with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and 2M Companies regarding drug development for neurodegenerative disorders. P7C3 compounds have previously shown in a number of publications to be beneficial in animal models for age-related neurodegeneration.
The partnership involves upfront and milestone payments for development of the compounds into therapeutics, the research has the potential to tackle age-related cognitive decline
Steven Chu is an American physicist. Chu served as the 12th United States Secretary of Energy from 2009 to 2013, Chu resigned as energy secretary on April 22,2013. He returned to Stanford as Professor of Physics and Professor of Molecular & Cellular Physiology, Chu is a vocal advocate for more research into renewable energy and nuclear power, arguing that a shift away from fossil fuels is essential to combating climate change. He has conceived of a global economy, a form of a low-carbon economy. Chu was born in St. Louis, with ancestry from Liuhe, Taicang, in Jiangsu, China and he received both a B. A. in mathematics and a B. S. in physics in 1970 from the University of Rochester. He went on to earn his Ph. D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1976, Chu comes from a family of scholars. His father, Ju-Chin Chu, earned a doctorate in engineering from MIT and taught at Washington University in St. Louis and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. His maternal grandfather, Shu-tian Li, earned a Ph. D.
from Cornell University and his mothers uncle, Li Shu-hua, a physical scientist, studied physics at the Sorbonne before returning to China. Chus older brother, Gilbert Chu, is a professor of biochemistry and his younger brother, Morgan Chu, is a partner and former co-managing partner at the law firm Irell & Manella. According to Chu, his two brothers and four cousins have four Ph. D. s, three M. D. s, and a J. D. among them, in 1997, he married Jean Fetter, a British-American Oxford-trained physicist. He has two sons and Michael, from a marriage to Lisa Chu-Thielbar. Chu is interested in such as baseball, swimming. He taught himself reading a book—in the eighth grade, and was a second-string substitute for the school team for three years. He taught himself how to pole vault using bamboo poles obtained from the local carpet store, Chu said he never learned to speak Chinese because his parents always spoke to their children in English. He left Bell Labs and became a professor of physics at Stanford University in 1987, serving as the chair of its Physics Department from 1990 to 1993, under Chus leadership, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been a center of research into biofuels and solar energy.
He spearheaded the laboratorys Helios project, an initiative to develop methods of harnessing solar power as a source of energy for transportation. Chus early research focused on physics by developing laser cooling techniques. He and his co-workers at Bell Labs developed a way to cool atoms by employing six laser beams opposed in pairs, trapping atoms with this method allows scientists to study individual atoms with great accuracy
QB64 is a self-hosting BASIC compiler for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, designed to be compatible with Microsoft QBasic and QuickBASIC. QB64 is a C++ emitter, which is integrated with a C++ compiler to provide compilation via C++ code, QB64 implements most QBasic statements, and can run many QBasic programs, including Microsofts QBasic Gorillas and Nibbles games. Furthermore, QB64 has been designed to contain an IDE resembling the QBASIC IDE, QB64 extends the QBASIC programming language to include 64-bit data types, as well as better sound and graphics support. It can emulate some DOS/x86 specific features such as INT 33h mouse access, QB64 was originally compiled with QuickBASIC4.5. After significant development, the developer, became hindered by QuickBASICs memory limitations and switched to Microsoft Basic PDS7.1, after version 0.63, QB64 was able to compile itself so the Conventional memory limitations no longer applied. QB64s syntax is designed to be backwards compatible with QuickBASIC.
Line numbers are not required, and statements are terminated by newlines or by colons, QB64 extends the QuickBASIC language in several ways. It adds the new data types including _BIT, _BYTE, _INTEGER64, the new data types have suffixes just like the traditional BASIC data types. It allows the use of 32-bit colors as opposed to the limited 256 colors originally offered, the programmer does not have to specify which programming libraries to include since QB64 does it automatically. The programmer has the option to include a library of their own through the $INCLUDE command just as QuickBASIC did, as of version 0.954, the SDL version of QB64 has been discontinued. The current versions of QB64 integrate FreeGLUT for its graphics and text, daily builds are generated with additions and fixes to the code base, hosted on GitHub. QB64 can use DLL libraries for Windows, C++ and SDL functions, users can access C header files to run C functions. Official website QB64. org qb64 on GitHub Black Annex is the best QBASIC game youve ever seen - an indie video game compiled in QB64
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of California, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.
In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War.
In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives
BASIC is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. In 1964, John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the original BASIC language at Dartmouth College in the U. S. state of New Hampshire and they wanted to enable students in fields other than science and mathematics to use computers. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, versions of BASIC became widespread on microcomputers in the mid-1970s and 1980s. Microcomputers usually shipped with BASIC, often in the machines firmware, having an easy-to-learn language on these early personal computers allowed small business owners, professionals and consultants to develop custom software on computers they could afford. In the 2010s, BASIC remains popular in many computing dialects and in new languages influenced by BASIC, before the mid-1960s, the only computers were huge mainframe computers. Users submitted jobs on punched cards or similar media to specialist computer operators, the computer stored these, used a batch processing system to run this queue of jobs one after another, allowing very high levels of utilization of these expensive machines.
As the performance of computing hardware rose through the 1960s, multi-processing was developed and this allowed a mix of batch jobs to be run together, but the real revolution was the development of time-sharing. The original BASIC language was released on May 1,1964 by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz, the acronym BASIC comes from the name of an unpublished paper by Thomas Kurtz. BASIC was designed to allow students to write computer programs for the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. It was intended specifically for technical users who did not have or want the mathematical background previously expected. Being able to use a computer to support teaching and research was quite novel at the time, the language was based on FORTRAN II, with some influences from ALGOL60 and with additions to make it suitable for timesharing. Wanting use of the language to become widespread, its designers made the available free of charge. They made it available to schools in the Hanover area. In the following years, as dialects of BASIC appeared, Kemeny.
A version was a part of the Pick operating system from 1973 onward. During this period a number of computer games were written in BASIC. A number of these were collected by DEC employee David H. Ahl and he collected a number of these into book form,101 BASIC Computer Games, published in 1973. During the same period, Ahl was involved in the creation of a computer for education use
Regis B. Kelly
Regis Baker Kelly OBE is a neuroscientist and university administrator who develops academia-industry partnerships and supports early-stage entrepreneurship in the life sciences. Kelly grew up in a family in Edinburgh, Scotland. He graduated from the University of Edinburgh with a degree in physics in 1961. He earned a doctorate in biophysics at the California Institute of Technology in 1967, Kelly went on to pursue postdoctoral studies under Nobel Laureate Arthur Kornberg at Stanford University, examining mechanisms of DNA replication. He switched fields to neurobiology during a second postdoctoral fellowship under the direction of Zach Hall at Harvard University, Kelly joined the University of California, San Francisco in 1971. He began as an assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry and his neurobiology research explored biochemical mechanisms of synaptic transmission and neural plasticity involved in long-term memory. While at UCSF Kelly was appointed chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, director of the program in Cell Biology.
During this time he served on the boards of scientific journals, including Cell, The Journal of Cell Biology, The Journal of Membrane Biology, Trends in Neurosciences. He served on the committee for the Council of American Society for Cell Biology from 1989-1992. In 2000 Kelly was appointed executive vice-chancellor of UCSF, as chancellor he directed the construction of the new UCSF Mission Bay Campus and oversaw the UCSF research enterprise. As director Kellys stated goal is to promote research as a means to improve public health. To accomplish this he bridges academia with commercial industries and entrepreneurship ventures, Kelly was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2014 New Year Honours for services to science and global health
Elizabeth Helen Blackburn, AC, FRS, FAA, FRSN is an Australian-American Nobel laureate who is currently the President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Previously she was a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who studied the telomere. Blackburn co-discovered telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes the telomere, for this work, she was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, sharing it with Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak, becoming the only Tasmanian-born Nobel laureate. She worked in medical ethics, and was dismissed from the Bush Administrations Presidents Council on Bioethics. Elizabeth Helen Blackburn was born in Hobart, Tasmania on 26 November 1948 and her family moved to the town when she was four, where she attended the Broadland House Church of England Girls Grammar School until the age of sixteen. Upon her familys relocation to Melbourne, she attended University High School and she carried out postdoctoral work in molecular and cellular biology between 1975 and 1977 at Yale University.
In 1981, Blackburn joined the faculty of the University of California, Blackburn is currently the Morris Herzstein Professor of Biology and Physiology at UCSF, and a non-resident fellow of the Salk Institute. She is the president-elect of the American Association for Cancer Research, Blackburn co-discovered telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes the telomere. Blackburn recalls, Carol had done this experiment, and we stood, just in the lab, and I remember sort of standing there, and she had this – we call it a gel. Its an autoradiogram, because there was trace amounts of radioactivity that were used to develop an image of the separated DNA products of what turned out to be the enzyme reaction. I dont remember any details in that area, Ah, there was a regularity to it. For this work, she was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, sharing it with Carol W. Greider, in recent years Blackburn and her colleagues have been investigating the effect of stress on telomerase and telomeres with particular emphasis on mindfulness meditation.
She is one of biologists in the 1995 science documentary Death by Design/The Life and Times of Life. Studies suggest that psychological stress may accelerate ageing at the cellular level. Intimate partner violence was found to shorten telomere length in formerly abused women versus never abused women, possibly causing poorer overall health, Blackburn was appointed a member of the Presidents Council on Bioethics in 2002. She supported human embryonic cell research, in opposition to the Bush Administration and her Council terms were terminated by White House directive on 27 February 2004. This was followed by expressions of outrage over her removal by many scientists, there is a growing sense that scientific research—which, after all, is defined by the quest for truth—is being manipulated for political ends, wrote Blackburn. There is evidence that such manipulation is being achieved through the stacking of the membership of advisory bodies and through the delay, Blackburn serves on the Science Advisory Board of the Genetics Policy Institute. H. A
University of California, Santa Cruz
The University of California, Santa Cruz, is a public research university and one of 10 campuses in the University of California system. Located 75 miles south of San Francisco at the edge of the community of Santa Cruz. Founded in 1965, UC Santa Cruz began as a showcase for progressive, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education, innovative teaching methods and contemporary architecture. The residential college system, which consists of ten colleges, is intended to combine the student support of a small college with the resources of a major university. The Santa Cruz site was selected over a proposal to build the campus closer to the population center of San Jose. The formal design process of the Santa Cruz campus began in the late 1950s, construction had started by 1964, and the university was able to accommodate its first students in 1965. The campus was intended to be a showcase for contemporary architecture, progressive teaching methods, according to founding chancellor Dean McHenry, the purpose of the distributed college system was to combine the benefits of a major research university with the intimacy of a smaller college.
UC President Clark Kerr shared a passion with former Stanford roommate McHenry to build a university modeled as several Swarthmores in close proximity to each other, roads on campus were named after UC Regents who voted in favor of building the campus. Early student and faculty activism at UCSC pioneered an approach to environmentalism that greatly impacted the development of the surrounding area. The lowering of the age to 18 in 1971 led to the emergence of a powerful student-voting bloc. City voters in 2006 passed two measures calling on UCSC to pay for the impacts of campus growth, a Santa Cruz Superior Court judge invalidated the measures, ruling they were improperly put on the ballot. In 2008, the university, city and neighborhood organizations reached an agreement to set aside numerous lawsuits and allow the expansion to occur. UCSC agreed to local government scrutiny of its campus expansion plans, to provide housing for 67 percent of the additional students on campus. George Blumenthal, UCSCs 10th Chancellor, intends to mitigate growth constraints in Santa Cruz by developing off-campus sites in Silicon Valley.
The NASA Ames Research Center campus is planned to ultimately hold 2,000 UCSC students – about 10% of the universitys future student body as envisioned for 2020. In April 2010, UC Santa Cruz opened its new $35 million Digital Arts Research Center, the 2, 000-acre UCSC campus is located 75 miles south of San Francisco, in the Ben Lomond Mountain ridge of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Elevation varies from 285 feet at the entrance to 1,195 feet at the northern boundary. The southern portion of the campus consists of a large, open meadow
International Genetically Engineered Machine
Working at their own schools over the summer, they use these parts and new parts of their own design to build biological systems and operate them in living cells. Randy Rettberg, an engineer who has worked for companies including Apple, Sun. One of the aims of the competition is to attempt to build biological systems from standard, interchangeable parts. The iGEM competition facilitates this by providing a library of standardized parts to students, student teams can submit their own BioBricks. Successful projects produce cells that exhibit new and unusual properties by engineering sets of genes together with mechanisms to regulate their expression. Information about BioBrick standard biological parts, and a toolkit to make and manipulate them, is provided by the Registry of Standard Biological Parts, or simply, the Registry. This is a resource for the iGEM program, and one that has been evolving rapidly to meet the needs of the program. Beyond just building biological systems, broader goals of iGEM include, to promote the open and transparent development of tools for engineering biology.
And to help construct a society that can productively and safely apply biological technology, IGEM developed out of student projects conducted during MITs Independent Activities Periods in 2003 and 2004. Later in 2004, a competition with five teams from various schools was held, in 2005, teams from outside the United States took part for the first time. Since iGEM has continued to grow, with 130 teams entering in 2010, because of this increasing size, in the years 2011 -2013 the competition was split into three regions, the Americas, and Asia. Regional jamborees occurred during October, and some subset of teams attending those events were selected to advance to the World Championship at MIT in November, in January 2012 the iGEM Foundation was spun out of MIT as an independent non-profit organization located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. The iGEM Foundation supports scientific research and education through operating the iGEM competition, the same year, iGEM expanded into having not only the Collegiate division, but competitions for entrepreneurs and high school students.
For their tenth anniversary iGEM added new tracks to the ones, Art & Design, Community Labs, Measurement, Policy & Practice. Although Entrepreneurship and Software were tracks in years, in 2014 they were made more distinct in terms of their judging requirements. A Life of Its Own, Where will synthetic biology lead us, archived from the original on December 2,2010. Biosafety Considerations of Synthetic Biology in the International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition, IGEM iGEM2014 iGEM2015 Registry of Standard Biological Parts The BioBricks Foundation