Madison is the capital of the U. S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of Dane County. As of July 1,2015, Madisons estimated population of 248,951 made it the second largest city in Wisconsin, after Milwaukee, and the 84th largest in the United States. The city forms the core of the United States Census Bureaus Madison Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Dane County and neighboring Iowa, the Madison Metropolitan Statistical Areas 2010 population was 568,593. When the Wisconsin Territory was created in 1836 the territorial legislature convened in Belmont, One of the legislatures tasks was to select a permanent location for the territorys capital. Doty lobbied aggressively for Madison as the new capital, offering buffalo robes to the freezing legislators and he had James Slaughter plat two cities in the area and The City of Four Lakes, near present-day Middleton. Doty named the city Madison for James Madison, the fourth President of the U. S. who had died on June 28,1836 and he named the streets for the other 39 signers of the U. S.
Constitution. Being named for the founding father James Madison, who had just died. The cornerstone for the Wisconsin capitol was laid in 1837, on October 9,1839, Kintzing Prichett registered the plat of Madison at the registrars office of the then-territorial Dane County. Madison was incorporated as a village in 1846, with a population of 626, when Wisconsin became a state in 1848, Madison remained the capital, and the following year it became the site of the University of Wisconsin. The Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad connected to Madison in 1854, Madison incorporated as a city in 1856, with a population of 6,863, leaving the unincorporated remainder as a separate Town of Madison. The original capitol was replaced in 1863 and the capitol burned in 1904. The current capitol was built between 1906 and 1917, during the Civil War, Madison served as a center of the Union Army in Wisconsin. Camp Randall, on the west side of Madison, was built and used as a camp, a military hospital. After the war ended, the Camp Randall site was absorbed into the University of Wisconsin, in 2004 the last vestige of active military training on the site was removed when the stadium renovation replaced a firing range used for ROTC training.
The City of Madison continued annexations from the Town of Madison almost from the date of the citys incorporation, Madison is located in the center of Dane County in south-central Wisconsin,77 miles west of Milwaukee and 122 miles northwest of Chicago. The city completely surrounds the smaller Town of Madison, the City of Monona, Madison shares borders with its largest suburb, Sun Prairie, and three other suburbs, Middleton, McFarland and Fitchburg. The citys boundaries approach the city of Verona, and the villages of Cottage Grove, DeForest, and Waunakee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 94.03 square miles
BioTime, Inc. is a clinical-stage biotechnology company in the field of regenerative medicine headquartered in Alameda, California. BioTime stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange Market Exchange, bioTime’s products currently on the market include Hextend, a blood plasma volume expander which is manufactured and distributed by Hospira and research reagents. Hospira was acquired by Pfizer in February 2015, the company is in a pivitol clinical trial for age-related macular degeneration. On November 3,2014 BioTimes subsidiary Cell Cure Neurosciences received FDA authorization to initiate a phase I/IIa trial of OpRegen, BioTime was founded in 1990 in Berkeley, California. The company initially focused on developing processes to cool living bodies, in 2007, the company appointed Michael D. West, Ph. D, as chief executive officer. West had been CSO and CEO of Advanced Cell Technology (and prior to that had founded Geron, for which he secured venture capital investment from Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, in 2009, BioTime secured $4.
In 2013, BioTime acquired the assets of Geron Corporation. BioTime has a number of subsidiaries, Asterias Biotherapeutics, the CEO of this subsidiary is Pedro Lichtinger, former CEO of Optimer Pharmaceuticals, which along with Trius Therapeutics was acquired by Cubist Pharmaceuticals for $1.6 billion in July 2013. Asterias Biotherapeutics stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange market exchange, based in Israel, Cell Cure Neurosciences is developing stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of retinal and neural degenerative diseases. In partnership with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, LifeMap Solutions and the Icahn School were one of the first five groups designated by Apple Inc to develop an app for Apple’s ResearchKit for iPhone, announced by Apple on March 9,2015. OncoCyte, which is developing products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, orthoCyte, which is developing cellular therapies designed to reverse spinal damage. ESI BIO, which stem cell tools to the research community.
ESI BIO was formerly known as ES Cell International, which BioTime acquired in April 2010, established in Singapore in 2010, ES Cell International was the first group to make embryonic stem cell lines suitable for clinical trials available to researchers. BioTime’s Board of Directors includes, Neal Bradsher, a chartered financial analyst, Bradsher is founder and president of Broadwood Capital. He was a member of Questcor Pharmaceuticals until it was acquired by acquired by Mallinckrodt Pharmaceutics for $5.6 Billion in August 2014. He is general partner of Greenway Partners LP and was formerly an advisor to billionaire investor Carl Icahn from 1968 to 1992. Michael H. Mulroy, a business consultant and he formerly served as executive vice president of Mallinckrodt plc following its acquisition of Questcor Pharmaceuticals in August 2014. Mulroy held a variety of positions at Questcor including General Counsel, West Nasdaq Biotechnology Index Regenerative medicine Venrock Official website BioTime on Twitter BioTime on Facebook Yahoo
A biobank is a type of biorepository that stores biological samples for use in research. Since the late 1990s biobanks have become an important resource in medical research, supporting many types of research like genomics. Biobanks give researchers access to data representing a number of people. Samples in biobanks and the derived from those samples can often be used by multiple researchers for cross purpose research studies. Many researchers struggled to acquire sufficient samples prior to the advent of biobanks, Biobanks have provoked questions on privacy, research ethics and medical ethics. Whereas before data usually stayed in one laboratory, now began to store large amounts of genetic data in single places for community use. A problem remained, this practice allowed the collection of genotype data. Even when this data was available, there were ethical uncertainties about the extent to which, the institution of the biobank began to be developed to store genotypic data, associate it with phenotypic data, and make it more widely available to researchers who needed it.
In 2008 United States researchers stored 270 million specimens in biobanks, researchers began to progress beyond single-center research centers to a next-generation qualitatively different research infrastructure. Because of these new problems and policymakers began to require new systems of research governance, many researchers have identified biobanking as a key area for infrastructure development in order to promote drug discovery and drug development. Collections of plant, animal and other materials may be described as biobanks. Biobanks usually incorporate cryogenic storage facilities for the samples and they may range in size from individual refrigerators to warehouses, and are maintained by institutions such as hospitals, nonprofit organizations, and pharmaceutical companies. Biobanks may be classified by purpose or design, disease-oriented biobanks usually have a hospital affiliation through which they collect samples representing a variety of diseases, perhaps to look for biomarkers affiliated with disease.
Virtual biobanks integrate epidemiological cohorts into a common pool, virtual biobanks allow for sample collection to meet national regulations. Tissue banks harvest and store human tissues for transplantation and research, as biobanks become more established, it is expected that tissue banks will merge with biobanks. Population banks store biomaterial as well as associated characteristics such as lifestyle, the collection which a biobank stores and makes available are its specimens taken by sampling. Specimen types include blood, skin cells, organ tissue, the biobank keeps these specimens in good condition until a researcher needs them to conduct a test, do an experiment, or perform an analysis. A common test done with specimens is a genome-wide association study, like other DNA databases, must carefully store and document access to samples and donor information
Sheila James Kuehl is an American politician and former child actor, currently the member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors for the 3rd District. In 1994, she became the first openly gay California legislator and in 1997, Kuehl most recently served as a Democratic member of the California State Senate, representing the 23rd district in Los Angeles County and parts of southern Ventura County. A former member of the California State Assembly, she was elected to the Senate in 2000 and she was elected to her supervisorial post in 2014. In her capacity as Supervisor, she sits on the Metro Board, First 5 LA. Kuehl was born Sheila Ann Kuehl in Tulsa and her father was an airplane construction worker. He was Catholic and her mother was Jewish, as a child actress she performed under the stage name Sheila James. At age seven Kuehls parents noticed that she loved to try to play piano, Kuehls parents agreed to pay for lessons when a door-to-door salesmen came to their home selling Saturday classes for tap-dancing and singing lessons at Meglin Studios.
Her parents would accompany her by bus for tap-dancing lessons at the studio every Saturday, as the tap instructors wife taught drama classes for an additional 50 cents, Kuehls parents signed her up for those as well. The classes would have recitals on Monday nights to showcase what they had learned, at one recital Kuehl played an assistant in a skit called The Old Sleuth where she sat under a table listening for clues. To indicate she was listening Kuehl made faces which caused the audience to laugh, the skit was ruined but the drama teacher, Mrs. Meglin was impressed. Kuehl recalled that Meglin told her mother The kid’s pretty funny, and my mother said, Oh, she can read, she skipped two grades, she’s really very good. Mrs. Meglin said, There’s a radio series holding interviews…at an agent’s office on Sunset Boulevard, would you be interested in taking her to the interview. All she has to do is read… So we went for the interview and there were like 150 or 200 kids there, and I was called back…and eventually I got the part in what probably was the last family radio series before it went all music and news.
Airing in the adjacent studios was the popular drama The Cisco Kid, Kuehl would cite her interaction with the other NBC radio talent as influential in forming her professionalism and comedy skills. The show centred around Singleton playing Penny Williamson a widow selling real estate in a town to support two daughters. Due to her talent exhibited on radio, Kuehls agent convinced her parents to bring her to auditions for a television role. Kuehl recalled The same 200 kids I think were there for the interview and I was called back and called back and called back, and beginning in 1950, I did that series for six years. Kuehl was signed to play Jackie, Stuart Erwins tomboy daughter, after The Stu Erwin Show ended Kuehl continued to work as an actress while going to school
Runner, Jr. is the Vice Chair of the California State Board of Equalization, the only publicly elected tax commission in the United States. He is the Republican member representing the Boards 1st District, from 2004 to 2010, he was a California State Senator representing the 17th Senate District, and was the Republican Caucus Chair from 2004 to 2009. From 1996 to 2002, he was a California State Assemblyman representing the 36th Assembly District, born in Scotia, New York, Runner moved with his family to Lancaster, California as a young child. With his wife Sharon, George Runner founded the Desert Christian Schools, in 1992, Runner was elected to the Lancaster City Council. He served as Lancasters Vice Mayor from 1994–95 and as Mayor of Lancaster from 1995 to 1996, during his mayoral term, the California Business Journal named Lancaster the number one mid-size city with which to do business. In 1996, Runner was elected to represent the 36th Assembly District, during this time of service, Runner served as Vice Chair of the Assembly Budget Committee.
In 2004, he was elected to the Senate to represent the 17th Senate District, Runner served in 2007-2008 as the Chair of the Senate Republican Caucus. In 2006, along with his wife, then-Assemblywoman Sharon Runner, George Runner authored Proposition 83, the measure passed with the support of 71% of California voters, and passed in 57 of Californias 58 counties. Jessicas Law ensures that all sexual offenders who are convicted of activity with children under the age of 14 are put into a prison with a minimum sentence of 15 years or 25 years to life. It eliminates all first-offense sexual offense provisions from California law, the law requires that sex offenders who are released from prison wear a GPS bracelet for life. It creates a 2, 000-foot zone around schools and parks in which registered sex offenders are prohibited from residing, on February 3,2010, Runner introduced SB944, the nations first Ronald Reagan Day legislation. On July 19,2010, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the bill into law, Ronald Reagan Day is Californias third day of special significance honoring a specific person, after John Muir Day, and Harvey Milk Day.
Since 2009, Runner has served with Americans for Prosperity as an advocate on local tax issues in California. In February 2009, Runner announced his candidacy for the District 2 seat on the Board of Equalization, Runner won the Republican nomination for BOE after defeating Assemblyman Alan Nakanishi and incumbent BOE Member Barbara Alby in the June 2010 primary. Runner is the first person to defeat an incumbent BOE members reelection bid since 1978, Runner won the November 2010 general election for the seat, defeating Democrat tax attorney Chris Parker. Alby inexplicably resigned on December 31,2010, four days before Runner was to be sworn in, during his time on the Board, Runner has sought to improve California’s tax policies and practices and to create and retain more private sector jobs in that state. Runner is a leader in the fight against the states controversial fire tax, he supports a class action lawsuit that seeks to overturn the tax, as a result of redistricting, he ran in the first district, which was being vacated by Democrat Betty Yee.
He easily won re-election, besting Democrat Chris Parker by wide margins in both the June primary and November general elections, Democrat Fiona Ma won his seat in the second district
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms, in mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a system for the body. There are three known accessible sources of adult stem cells in humans, Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting. Adipose tissue, which requires extraction by liposuction, Stem cells can be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk, by definition, autologous cells are obtained from ones own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Adult stem cells are used in various medical therapies. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of tissues such as muscles or nerves.
Embryonic cell lines and autologous stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch, till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. The classical definition of a cell requires that it possess two properties, Self-renewal, the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. Potency, the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types, apart from this it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feed back mechanism. Stochastic differentiation, when one cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. Potency specifies the differentiation potential of the stem cell, totipotent stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. Such cells can construct a complete, viable organism and these cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell.
Cells produced by the first few divisions of the egg are totipotent. Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into all cells. Multipotent stem cells can differentiate into a number of cell types, oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few cell types, such as lymphoid or myeloid stem cells
Supreme Court of California
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California. It is headquartered in San Francisco and regularly holds sessions in Los Angeles and its decisions are binding on all other California state courts. Under the original 1849 California Constitution, the Court started with a chief justice, the court was expanded to five justices in 1862. Under the current 1879 constitution, the Court expanded to six associate justices and one chief justice, the justices are appointed by the Governor of California and are subject to retention elections. The Commission holds a hearing and if satisfied with the nominees qualifications. The nominee can immediately fill a vacancy, or replace a departing justice at the beginning of the next judicial term. If a nominee is confirmed to fill a vacancy that arose partway through a judicial term, voters determine whether to retain the justice for the remainder of the judicial term. At the terms conclusion, justices must again undergo a statewide election for a full 12-year term.
If a majority votes no, the seat vacant and may be filled by the Governor. The electorate has occasionally exercised the power not to retain justices, Chief Justice Rose Bird and Associate Justices Cruz Reynoso and Joseph Grodin were staunchly opposed to capital punishment and were subsequently removed in the 1986 general election. Newly reelected Governor George Deukmejian was able to elevate Associate Justice Malcolm M. Lucas to Chief Justice, four current justices were appointed by Republicans and three by a Democrat. There is one Filipino-American justice, one Hispanic, one African-American, the justices do not publicly discuss their religious views or affiliations. Two justices earned undergraduate degrees from a University of California school, in March 2017, Werdegar announced her intent to retire on August 31,2017. Between 1879 and 1966, the court was divided into two panels, Department One and Department Two. The chief justice divided cases evenly between the panels and decided which cases would be heard en banc by the Court sitting as a whole, after a constitutional amendment in 1966, the Court currently sits as a whole when hearing all appeals.
The procedure for all justices recuse themselves from a case has varied over time. In an average year the Court will decide to hear 83 cases, the Court is open for business year-round. The Court hears oral argument at least one week per month,10 months each year, since 1878, it has regularly heard oral argument each year at San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Sacramento
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres, UC San Diego is organized into six undergraduate residential colleges, three graduate schools, and two professional medical schools. UC San Diego is home to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the first centers dedicated to ocean and atmospheric science research and education. UC San Diego Health, the only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research. According to the National Science Foundation, UC San Diego spent $1.101 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2015, ranking it 5th in the nation. UC San Diego faculty and alumni have won 20 Nobel Prizes, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, two Pulitzer Prizes, and three Fields medals. Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres of land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
This outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley, UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego. The city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor. Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead, York planned the main campus according to the Oxbridge model, relying on many of Revelles ideas. UC San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed from the top down in terms of research emphasis, local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter, maria Goeppert-Mayer, the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960.
The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, chemistry, before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, and the whole site was designated the First College, renamed after Roger Revelle, of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor that year and was replaced by John Semple Galbraith, the undergraduate program accepted its first class of 181 freshman at Revelle College in 1964. Second College was founded in 1964, on the land deeded by the federal government, the School of Medicine accepted its first students in 1966. Political theorist Herbert Marcuse joined the faculty in 1965, a champion of the New Left, he reportedly was the first protestor to occupy the administration building in a demonstration organized by his student, political activist Angela Davis.
Further student unrest was felt at the university, as the United States increased its involvement in the Vietnam War during the early 1960s, protests escalated as the war continued and were only exacerbated after the National Guard fired on student protesters at Kent State University in 1970
National Academy of Medicine
The National Academy of Medicine, formerly called the Institute of Medicine, is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization. The National Academy of Medicine provides national advice on issues relating to science and health. Operating outside the framework of the U. S. federal government, it relies on a volunteer workforce of scientists and other experts, the institute was founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences as the Institute of Medicine. These changes took effect on July 1,2015, the National Academies attempt to obtain authoritative and scientifically balanced answers to difficult questions of national importance. The work is conducted by committees of volunteer scientists—leading national and international experts—who serve without compensation, committees are composed in an attempt to assure the requisite expertise and to avoid bias or conflict of interest. Victor Dzau is President and Chairman of the Council and his six-year term began on July 1,2014.
The Interim Leonard D. Schaeffer Executive Officer is Clyde J. Behney, the majority of studies and other activities are requested and funded by the federal government. Private industry and state and local governments initiate studies, reports are made available online for free by the publishing arm of the United States National Academies, the National Academies Press, in multiple formats. The academy is both an honorific membership organization and a research organization. Election to active membership is both an honor and a commitment to serve in Institute affairs, the bylaws specify that no more than 80 new members shall be elected annually, including 10 from outside the United States. The announcement of newly elected members occurs at the Annual Meeting in October, as of October 20,2015, the number of regular members plus international and emeritus members is 2,012. The Food and Nutrition Board is body within the NAM set up to study the safety and it publishes principles and guidelines for good nutrition.
It judges the relationship between nutrition, good health and disease prevention, the New York Times called the IOM the United States most esteemed and authoritative adviser on issues of health and medicine, and its reports can transform medical thinking around the world. It is accompanied by a medal and $20,000