click links in text for more info

California League

The California League is a Minor League Baseball league which operates in the state of California. It is classified at three steps below Major League Baseball. Most players reach this level in their fourth year of professional play. All of the current teams are affiliated with MLB teams located west of the Rockies. League attendance continues to increase each season, with over one million fans attending games per year, part of a general nationwide growth and expansion to smaller towns and regions below those in the National League or American League with Minor League Baseball at various levels of play in growing popularity in the last few decades; the league is divided into a Southern Division. There were various attempts in the late 1800s and early 1900s to form a "California League" on the West Coast, considering the distance of the two current major leagues which had teams only in the Northeast and were restricted at first until World War I by long distance train travel; the first organized California League lasted from 1887–1889 another followed in 1891, 1893, in 1899–1902.

After the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, an organization of minor leagues was formed in 1902, the California League operated outside the NAPBL system as an independent league in 1902 and again from 1907–1909. This led to huge differences in the quality of teams competing with each other. In 1907, the San Francisco team was 3-34, while in 1908 San Francisco was 9-67 and Oakland was 4-71. Oakland and San Francisco competed in every year of these various state leagues, with San Francisco having two teams during 1887-88; the current California League was founded in 1941, included teams in Anaheim, Fresno, Riverside, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, Stockton. The following year, as a result of World War II, the league dropped to four teams ceased and suspended operations altogether, although major league baseball and some minor leagues continued as much as possible with limited availability of players during the war years, it reorganized and came back in 1946, adding teams in Visalia, San Jose, Ventura by 1947.

Further east, Nevada joined the league in 1955 with the movement of the old Channel Cities Oilers in Santa Barbara and continued as a member for 37 years. Though nicknames and affiliations shifted, the California League's postwar configuration was stable by the late 1950s; the league reached eight clubs in 1966 and would hold that for ten years dipped to six before wavering between eight and nine clubs in the early eighties reached ten in 1986 and held that configuration for thirty-one seasons. From 1996 to 2016, the league had a remarkably stable alignment for Class A baseball, with no teams moving or folding for twenty-one years. After the 2016 season, the Bakersfield Blaze, long dogged by inadequate facilities and unable to negotiate significant repairs, the High Desert Mavericks, suffering from falling attendance and a lease dispute with the city of Adelanto, were folded. Year by Year list of league champions: The Los Angeles area, San Bernardino, Palm Springs and Las Vegas were major league spring training site cities, as well possessed California League teams on different occasions.

Modesto has hosted a California League team longer than any other city, hosting a team in all but two of the CL's 65 seasons. Current team Former team Alameda Grays/Alameda Encinals 1906–08 Fresno Tigers/Fresno Raisin Growers 1908–09 Oakland Commuters 1906–09 Sacramento Cordovas/Sacramento Senators 1906–08 San Francisco Orphans 1906–09 San Jose Prune Pickers 1906–09 Santa Cruz Sand Crabs 1908–09 Stockton Millers 1906–09 The California League inducted its first class of 15 inductees into its Hall of Fame in 2016; the California League Most Valuable Player Award was established in 1941. For award winners, see footnote. For award winners, see footnote. For award winners, see footnote; the Doug Harvey Award—established in 2010—is for the umpire of the year. Baseball awards § California League California League web site

Drum Workshop

Drum Workshop is an American drum kit and hardware manufacturing company based in Oxnard, California. Current products by DW include drum kits, snare drums and bass pedals. Drum Workshop was founded in 1972 as a teaching studio by Don Lombardi, it offered private lessons and the occasional workshop. Lombardi, along with student John Good, began a small drum equipment sales operation to cover the facility's operation costs; this operation soon created the first-ever DW product: The height-adjustable trap seat, envisioned by Lombardi. The demand became so great that, after accepting an offer to purchase all of Camco's manufacturing equipment, the primary focus of the DW operation became drum hardware manufacturing. DW's Camco origins can be seen on their drums today. Following this, the next big product introduced by DW was the 5000 series nylon strap bass drum pedal; this pedal was soon joined by the double bass pedal, the rotating-base, cable remote hi-hat stands. DW expanded into larger facilities in Oxnard and grew to oversee a new company, Pacific Drums and Percussion, a company offering lower-priced drumsets.

DW pioneered the timbre-matching technique of grouping a set of drumshells together by listening to the note each shell holds before it is sanded. Each shell produced by the Oxnard DW factory is stamped with the note of that shell on the interior. For a brief period, DW opened a facility in Ensenada, Mexico, to manufacture its drums and at the same time DW entered the drumstick market with the "3" drumstick lineup; the "3" drumstick. When DW closed operation at Ensenada facility they ceased the drumstick line. In 2015, Drum Workshop Inc acquired and licensed American music instrument brands Gretsch Drums, Ovation Guitars, Latin Percussion, Toca Percussion, Gibraltar Hardware and KAT Technologies. In November, 2019, DW acquired Slingerland Drum Company from Gibson, with plans to introduce Slingerland-branded, vintage style drums to the market in 2020. Many drummers endorse DW, including Tony Royster, Jr. Chad Smith, Jonathan "Sugarfoot" Moffett, Cobus Potgieter, Gerald Heyward, Thomas Pridgen, Cora Coleman-Dunham, Derek Roddy, Dave Grohl, Stephen Perkins, Dominic Howard, Luke Holland, Alex González, Steve Jocz, Brooks Wackerman, Scott Travis, Scott Phillips, Abe Laboriel Jr. Sandy Gennaro, Peter Criss, Neil Peart of Rush, Nick Mason of Pink Floyd, Danny Seraphine, Will Berman of MGMT, Zak Starkey and Martone drummer Daniel Adair, Thomas Lang, Terry Bozzio, the late Troy Penland, Roger Taylor, Max Weinberg, José Pasillas from Incubus, Atom Willard, Glen Sobel The hired gun of and Other Bands and Christoph Schneider.

Others include Jason Bonham Tommy Clufetos, Kelly Keagy, Bruce Becker, Victor Loyo, Eric Moore, Rex Hardy Jr. Matt Greiner and Venzella Joy Williams. Eagles drummers Don Henley and Scott Crago are well known users of DW and are endorsed by the company. Mick Fleetwood of Fleetwood Mac is a DW artist, as is Marco Minnemann. Travis Barker of Blink-182, although endorsed by OCDP drums, uses DW hardware. Tico Torres of Bon Jovi switched to DW drums and hardware after using Pearl for over 25 years in April 2013 during their Because We Can tour. Most of DW's drums can be custom-ordered to suit the customer's needs in any of DW's Custom Shops. Unique to DW's drum kits are its True-Pitch tuning rods, DW's Coated/Clear drumheads made by Remo, STM tom mounts, Specialized Shell Configuration, which allows the customer to choose between X, VLT, or VLX shells for a unique sound. DW offers a special line of drums that are different from "standard" drums and are used in situations which call for a new sound.

Cocktail Kit – This drum kit combines the use of DogBone clamps, smaller drum sizes, the Sidekick offset pedal in order to reduce the size of the kit. With shallow toms and the bass drum pedal operating on the floor tom lower head, this 4-piece kit plays like a 5-piece and takes up the space of a 2-piece. Gong Drum – A large single-headed 10-ply maple drum with a 21" or 23" diameter mounted on a stand and intended to be struck with a drumstick, it aims for a sound between a bass drum. Woofer – An 8" deep by 18" to 28" wide drum mounted in front of the bass drum, it amplifies the low-end punch of the bass drum and includes a pre-installed AKG D112BD internal mic. Piccolo Toms – 2.5" deep steel toms available in 8", 10", 12" diameters. Rata Toms – Similar to octobans, single headed toms made from North American maple with a 6" diameter and varying depth options, it produces a loud crack. DW manufactures an assortment of snare drums. Available are made to order snares, which can be mass-produced snare drums.

All DW snares come standard with True-Tone snare wires, 3.0mm True-Hoops, Remo batter/resonant heads and True-Pitch Tension Rods. Introduced in 2009 was the DW "Mag Throw-off", a snare throw-off system that uses a three-way butt plate with three different settings: loose, medium, an

Lemar Marshall

Lemar Willie Marshall is a former American football linebacker. He was signed by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers as an undrafted free agent in 1999, he played college football at Michigan State. Marshall was a first-team All-State pick as a senior at St. Xavier High School in Cincinnati, where he graduated in 1995. Lemar was a three-year starter at cornerback for the Bomber football team, including his sophomore year when he played on the state finalist squad, he was first team all-GCL and all-city as a junior and senior and was a first team All-Ohio pick as a senior. Lemar earned three letters in basketball and was a second team all-GCL pick as a senior, he was inducted into the school's Hall of Fame in 2008. Marshall was recruited by Michigan State University in 1995, he played in 11 games including two at cornerback. As a sophomore in 1996, he posted 54 stops in 12 games, he started four of 12 games at strong safety as a junior, recording 79 tackles in 1997. As a senior in 1998, he finished third on the team with a career-high 101 tackles, recorded two interceptions, breaking up 16 other passes.

At Michigan State, Marshall lettered all four years, compiling 261 tackles and 27 passes defensed. He was a merchandising management major. Marshall entered the National Football League as an undrafted free agent with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 1999, he spent parts of 1999 and 2000 on the practice squads of the Buccaneers and the Philadelphia Eagles. In 2001, he spent training camp with the Denver Broncos before being released in early September. Marshall signed with the Washington Redskins in late 2001. In 2002, he made his professional debut in Week 1 against the Arizona Cardinals, he went on to play all 16 games on special teams coverage units. He posted nine total tackles on special teams. In 2003, Marshall played in 12 games on special teams units but logged some action at reserve linebacker, getting ten total tackles and 0.5 sacks. He was inactive for four games. In 2004, Marshall had a breakthrough season, starting 14 games at outside linebacker when LaVar Arrington was sidelined with a knee injury.

Marshall stepped up, recording 1.5 sacks. During the 2004 season, Marshall started all 16 games, recording 98 tackles and 2 sacks, as well as four interceptions, two forced fumbles, one defensive touchdown. Marshall anchored the middle of the defense as the Redskins made the playoffs for the first time since 1999. In 2006, he didn't perform as well because he was bothered by ankle injuries. However, he managed to get a career-high of 104 tackles; this was the only time in his professional career that he had over 100 tackles, along with his 1.5 sacks and 1 safety. Lemar Marshall signed a one-year contract with his hometown-Bengals August 23, 2007, two days after a surprise move by the Washington Redskins who released him in training camp, he appeared in four games for the Bengals, starting three, recorded eight tackles, 1 sack, 1 forced fumble, 1 safety. However, he was placed on the injured reserve with a ruptured Achilles tendon after his fourth game, he was not retained by Cincinnati. He is the Co-Owner of an advanced fitness studio called Phenom Strength & Conditioning in Ashburn Virginia.

They train a wide variety of age groups, provide nutritional advice, have NFL Combine Training. The company website is


Jikjisa is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Seon Buddhism. It is located on the slopes of Hwangaksan in Daehang-myeon, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea, it may be one of the oldest temples in South Korea. Jikjisa was established in 418 by Preceptor Ado. There are two stories concerning Jikji. One is that Ado pointed to Hwangaksan from Dorisa in Seonsan, said, “There is a good temple site on that mountain; the story is that in 936 when Great Master Neungyeo reconstructed the temple, he didn’t use a ruler but instead he used his own hands to measure the land and construction materials, the name Jikji. Hwangaksan, on which Jikjisa stands, represents the color yellow, one of the five colors that correspond to the Wu Xing; the colors black, red and yellow correspond to north, south and center. Jikjisa is located near the center of Korea; that is why the mountain is called Hwangaksan and why Jikjisa has been considered one of Korea's foremost temples since ancient times. From Biro Peak, the summit of Hwangaksan, one can see the three provinces of Gyeongsang and Chungcheong.

Thus it can be said that the temple is situated at the center of three of Korea's southern provinces. Jikjisa saw two reconstruction efforts during the Silla era; the first reconstruction, passed down as oral history, was conducted in 645 by Vinaya Master Jajang Yulsa. The second reconstruction, verified by written records, was carried out in 930 by Great Master Cheonmuk; the “Stele of Jikjisa’s Daejangdang Hall Record,” published in the Daedong Geumseokseo, says that Daejangdang Hall was built in 930 and that “transcripts of the entire Buddhist canon in gold ink” were enshrined there. During the Joseon era, an earthenware urn holding the placenta from the birth of Joseon's second king, was enshrined on a Hwangaksan peak north of Jikjisa, auspicious “snake-head formation” from a geomantic perspective, making the temple the guardian of the royal placenta. Today Jikjisa is the head temple of the eighth religious district of the Jogye Order of Seon and supervises 54 branch temples scattered among the deep folds of the Baekdudaegan range in northwestern North Gyeongsang Province.

It was at Jikjisa that Great Master Yujeong was ordained, who led a righteous army of monks to save Korea during the Japanese invasions of Korea. From Miryang, South Gyeongsang Province, Yujeong moved to Yuchon Village near Jikjisa at age 13 and he studied under Hwang Yeoheon, the great-great-grandson of Chief State Councilor Hwang Hui. However, at age 15, his mother died, the next year his father died; this sudden turn of events led Samyeong to become a monk under the guidance of Great Master Sinmuk. When Yujeong was 18, he earned the highest score in the State Examination for Monks, when he was 30, he became the head of Jikjisa Temple. At age 32 he was recommended to be the head of Bongeunsa, succeeding his teacher Great Master Seosan. However, he followed Master Seosan to Bohyeonsa on Myohyangsan instead. While at Yujeomsa on Mount Kumgang, Japanese troops invaded Korea in 1592. Yujeong responded to a letter sent by his teacher Seosan and organized and led a righteous army gaining fame for his leadership.

There is one remaining object related to Yujeong's early days at Jikjisa. It is a flat stone beside the Heavenly Kings’ Gate. One day, Great Master Sinmuk dozed off during meditation. In a dream he saw a golden dragon entwined around the gingko tree next to the Heavenly Kings’ Gate; when he awoke, he rushed to the gingko tree and saw a flat stone which appeared as if someone had carved it. A young boy was asleep on it. In 1800 that gingko tree was destroyed in a fire that burned down Manseru Pavilion, but the flat stone next to the Heavenly Kings’ Gate remains; the stone is awaiting another Yujeong. It offers Temple Stay programs where visitors can experience Buddhist culture. Korean Buddhist temples List of Buddhist temples Korean architecture Official site Temple profile from Korea Tourism Organization Profile from KoreaTemple

Selby (Brayton Gates) railway station

Selby was the initial, temporary southern terminus of the short Cawood and Selby Light Railway in North Yorkshire, England. The line was connected to the North Eastern Railway nearby; the station is sometimes referred to as "Brayton Gates" or plain "Selby", though it was around a mile from the much larger Selby station. The line had three stations, Selby and Cawood; the Brayton Gates terminus was wooden, with a shelter. It closed in 1904, it had been the CW&SLR's aim to run to the main Selby station from the outset, but this was thwarted by the NER, ostensibly because they were planning a significant upgrade. In contrast, Cawood's and Wistow's permanent, brick-built station buildings were similar, but differed from the NER's typical rural station; the main difference between the two was that Wistow station building stood alongside the platform, parallel to the track, whilst the Cawood building stood at right angles to it. In 1899 the company obtained parliamentary approval to build an extension to Church Fenton.

No photograph or track diagram of the Brayton Gates station has been published. Its exact location is unclear on the 1906 25" OS Map; the line had an exceptionally low route availability of "two". Operators could supply light goods engines which did not need continuous brakes, but had precious few light passenger locomotives; the founding company hired a loco - "Cawood" - and two coaches for the job. When the NER took over they modified at least one steam locomotive for the line. After trains were diverted to the main Selby station the NER developed a pioneering pair of Petrol-electric Autocars which were sent to Selby in 1908 to run the Cawood service, among others; the autocars ceased working the line in the early 1920s, when it reverted to steam haulage, with trains composed of a single "Bogie Brake third" coach worked by a NER Class E 0-6-0T or BTP 0-4-4T No. 189. On 9 July 1923 a quite different form of internal combustion-powered provision was deployed on some services in the form of the unique "Leyland" petrol railbus, a converted 26-seater NER road bus of conventional appearance for the period.

This ran a wide-ranging diagram including the Cawood branch which came to a sudden end on 11 November 1926 when the railbus was destroyed by fire while refuelling at Selby. On 1 May 1928 Selby received its first Sentinel steam railcars. No. 220 "Water Witch" may have been the first to work to Cawood, but it was destroyed in a collision near Doncaster on 9 June 1929. Better remembered were two similar cars, No. 225 "True Blue" and No. 273 "Trafalgar" which worked the branch until the last passenger service on Saturday 30 December 1929. Occasional special passenger trains, such as excursions to pantomimes in Leeds, used the line until 1946. After the end of passenger services the line went into steady decline in the face of road competition, which accelerated after the Second World war. A handful of ancient 0-6-0Ts were in charge, notably J71s 68285 and 68286 and veteran "Ironclad" J77 68406, with a J72 appearing more in the late 1950s. Selby locoshed closed in September 1959, after which the occasional "flyweight" freights were hauled by a Class 03 diesel shunter.

The line's initial passenger timetable provided five trains a day, Monday to Saturday, plying between "Selby" Wistow and Cawood. The journey time was 17 minutes. By July 1899 the timings had been adjusted and one train had been removed on Tuesdays to Saturdays. On Monday - Selby's Market Day - an extra train was provided out and back mid-morning and an extra from Brayton Gates at teatime, which returned empty. By 1910 the unbalanced teatime Market Train had been withdrawn and timings had been adjusted, but the pattern of four a day plus a Market Day extra remained, with the added benefit that the first train from Cawood in the morning ran through to York; the journey time remained 17 minutes despite the extra mile to reach Selby's main station instead of Brayton Gates. By 1914 there were two Market Day extras and four daily trains, but by 1923, whilst the Market Day extras remained, only two daily trains survived and mid-evening. A "Farewell" railtour ran on 22 April 1960 using two brake vans.

The line closed on 2 May 1960. The last train, sent out to collect a stranded van and Cawood station's office equipment, ran on 23 May 1960, hauled by a diesel shunter; as a boy, Wistow's Mr John Woodall had travelled on the first train in 1898, British Railways agreed to his request to travel in the guard's van of this final trip. The track was lifted and the Selby Dam bridge was demolished by contractors in 1961, using road vehicles. Cawood station has been demolished, Wistow station remains as a private residence; the engine shed at Brayton Gates was used by railwaymen's mutual improvement classes for many years, but was demolished in 1963. By 2010 less than half the trackbed remained visible as field boundaries; the Cawood, Wistow & Selby Light Railway Model railway of the line, The line on multiple old OS maps, with modern overlays National Library of Scotland The line on a navigable 1940s OS map npe Maps The line with mileages Railway Codes Brief history of the line, with photo at Cawood Cawood History Detail of one loco adapted for use on the line Rail UK Detail of another loco adapted for use on the line Rail UK

Traversay Islands

The Traversay Islands are a group of three islands—Zavodovski and Visokoi—at the northern end of the South Sandwich Islands. The group was discovered in November 1819 by a Russian expedition under Bellingshausen, who named them for Jean-Baptiste Prevost de Sansac, Marquis de Traversay, a French naval officer who joined the Russian navy in 1791, at the request of an émigré Frenchman in Russian service, admiral Nassau-Siegen, he was Minister of Naval Affairs at Saint Petersburg, 1809–28, chief promoter of Bellingshausen's Antarctic voyage. The name was transliterated as Traverse because it was incorrectly thought that the man commemorated was a Russian. Zavodovski Island lies 350 kilometres southeast of South Georgia Island, it is the nearest to South Georgia. The island is 5 kilometres across with a peak elevation of 551 metres above sea level; the stratovolcano Mount Asphyxia dominates the western side of the island while the eastern half is a low-lying lava plain. Mount Asphyxia is believed to be active with fresh lava reported in 1830 and numerous indications of activity since.

50% of the island is composed of tephra. The island is home to around two million breeding chinstrap penguins, making it one of the world's largest penguin colonies. Zavodovski Island featured in the initial part of BBC’s Planet Earth II natural history television series, narrated by David Attenborough and first shown in the UK on 6 November 2016; the programme described in film life in the harsh environment for the 1.5 million Chinstrap penguins – the largest penguin colony in the world. Visokoi Island, which lies to the southeast of Zavodovski, is 7.2 km long and 4.8 km wide, capped by Mount Hodson, a volcanic peak. The peak is named after a governor of the Falkland Islands. Visokoi means "high"; the island's eastern tip, Point Irving, is named for the leader of a British exploratory and mapping expedition, Commander John J. Irving. Leskov Island is located to the west of the main arc of the South Sandwich Islands and is less than 1.5 kilometres long, lies 48 km west of Visokoi. It was named by Bellingshausen after the third lieutenant on the expedition ship Vostok.

It is composed of andesitic rather than basaltic lava. The subduction zone forming the South Sandwich Trench lies to the east of the island arc. List of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands List of Antarctic islands north of 60° S Photograph of Zavodovski Island Aerial photograph of Zavodovski Island This image belongs to John Smellie, Leicester University Photograph of Visokoi Island