California State University
The California State University is a public university system in California. With 23 campuses and eight off-campus centers enrolling 484,300 students with 26,858 faculty and 25,305 staff, CSU is the largest four-year public university system in the United States, it is one of three public higher education systems in the state, with the other two being the University of California system and the California Community Colleges System. The CSU System is incorporated as The Trustees of the California State University; the California State University system headquarters are at 401 Golden Shore in Long Beach, California. The California State University was created in 1960 under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, it is a direct descendant of the system of California State Normal Schools. With nearly 100,000 graduates annually, the CSU is the country's greatest producer of bachelor's degrees; the university system collectively sustains more than 150,000 jobs within the state, its related expenditures reach more than $17 billion annually.
In the 2011–12 academic year, CSU awarded 52 percent of newly issued California teaching credentials, 47 percent of the state's engineering degrees, 28 percent of the state's information technology bachelor's degrees, it had more graduates in business, communication studies, health and public administration than all other universities and colleges in California combined. Altogether, about half of the bachelor's degrees, one-third of the master's degrees, nearly two percent of the doctoral degrees awarded annually in California are from the CSU. Furthermore, the CSU system is one of the top U. S. producers of graduates who move on to earn their Ph. D. degrees in a related field. The CSU has a total of 17 AACSB accredited graduate business schools, over twice as many as any other collegiate system. Since 1961, nearly three million alumni have received their bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees from the CSU system. CSU offers more than 1,800 degree programs in some 240 subject areas. In fall of 2015, 9,282 of CSU's 24,405 faculty were tenured or on the tenure track.
Today's California State University system is the direct descendant of the Minns Evening Normal School, a normal school in San Francisco that educated the city's future teachers in association with the high school system. The school was taken over by the state in 1862 and moved to San Jose and renamed the California State Normal School. A southern branch of the California State Normal School was created in Los Angeles in 1882. In 1887, the California State Legislature dropped the word "California" from the name of the San Jose and Los Angeles schools, renaming them "State Normal Schools." Chico, San Diego, other schools became part of the State Normal School system. However, these did not form a system in the modern sense, in that each normal school had its own board of trustees and all were governed independently from one another. In 1919, the State Normal School at Los Angeles became the Southern Branch of the University of California. In May 1921, the legislature enacted a comprehensive reform package for the state's educational system, which went into effect that July.
The State Normal Schools were renamed State Teachers Colleges, their boards of trustees were dissolved, they were brought under the supervision of the Division of Normal and Special Schools of the new California Department of Education located at the state capital in Sacramento. This meant that they were to be managed from Sacramento by the deputy director of the division, who in turn was under the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and the State Board of Education. By this time it was commonplace to refer to most of the campuses with their city names plus the word "state"; the resulting administrative situation from 1921 to 1960 was quite complicated. On the one hand, the Department of Education's actual supervision of the presidents of the State Teachers Colleges was minimal, which translated into substantial autonomy when it came to day-to-day operations. Unlike the University of California, the State Teachers Colleges had no academic senates through which their faculties could collectively express their displeasure with presidents' decisions.
On the other hand, the State Teachers Colleges were treated under state law as ordinary state agencies, which meant their budgets were subject to the same stifling bureaucratic financial controls as all other state agencies. At least one president would depart his state college because of his express frustration over that issue: J. Paul Leonard, president of San Francisco State, in 1957. During the 1920s and 1930s, the State Teachers Colleges started to transition from normal schools into teachers colleges whose graduates would be qualified to teach all K–12 grades. A leading proponent of this idea was Charles McLane, the first president of Fresno State, one of the earliest persons to argue that K–12 teachers must have a broad liberal arts education. In 1932, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was asked by the state legislature and governor to perform a study of California higher education; the Foundation's 1933 report criticized the State Teachers College
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and social media. It corresponds to the geographical Santa Clara Valley. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third largest in California, the tenth largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Santa Clara, Mountain View, Sunnyvale; the San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The word "silicon" in the name referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortune 1000, thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development.
It was in the Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers; as more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco and Oakland, the "Silicon Valley" has come to have two definitions: a geographic one, referring to Santa Clara County, a metonymical one, referring to all high-tech businesses in the Bay Area. The term is now used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector; the name became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, thus inspired similar named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world. The popularization of the name is credited to Don Hoefler, who first used it in the article "Silicon Valley USA", appearing in the January 11, 1971 issue of the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News.
The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. Silicon Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital, steady U. S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University leadership was important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its success. On August 23, 1899, the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gate, signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War; the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose that "California first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853.
It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire." According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baugh's line was an intra-city, San Francisco-based service. E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose and Sacramento."
Delays to construction occurred until September 1853. The line was completed when Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24." The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with scheduled programming in San Jose; that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U. S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, signed a contract with the Navy in 1912. In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, was commissioned by the United States Government for use as a Naval Air Station to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One; the station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, between 1933 and 1947, U. S. Navy blimps were based there. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy.
When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast
California Community Colleges System
The California Community Colleges is "a postsecondary education system" in the U. S. state of California. The system includes the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges and 72 community college districts; the districts have established 114 community colleges. The California Community Colleges is the largest system of higher education in the United States, serving more than 2.1 million students. The California Community Colleges is referred to as the "California Community Colleges System". Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the California Community Colleges System is a part of the state's three-tier public higher education system, which includes the University of California system and the California State University system. Like the two other systems, the CCCS is headed by a governing board; the 17-member Board of Governors sets direction for the system and is in turn appointed by the California Governor. The board appoints the Chancellor, the chief executive officer of the system.
Locally elected Boards of Trustees work on the district level with Presidents who run the individual college campuses. The CCCS is a founding and charter member of CENIC, the Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California, the nonprofit organization which provides high-performance Internet-based networking to California's K-12 research and education community. In 1907, the California State Legislature, seeing a benefit to society in education beyond high school but realizing the load could not be carried by existing colleges, authorized the state's high schools to create "junior colleges" to offer what were termed "postgraduate courses of study" similar to the courses offered in just the first two years of university studies. A collegiate "department" of Fresno High School was set up in the fall of 1910 that developed into becoming Fresno City College, the oldest existing public community college in California and the second oldest existing public community college in the United States.
Thanks to the efforts of people such as Professor Alexis F. Lange, Dean of the School of Education at the University of California, the Junior College Act was passed in 1917, expanding the mission by adding trade studies such as mechanical and industrial arts, household economy and commerce. In the early 1920s, the Legislature authorized the creation of separate colleges, in addition to the programs offered in high schools. In 1921, California passed legislation which allowed for the creation of community college districts. In September 1921, Modesto Junior College became the first community college district; that launched the current model of community colleges that continued to offer trade studies such as mechanical and industrial arts but now included general education. The first transfer student was from Modesto Junior College and transferred to Stanford in 1922. By 1932 there were 38 junior colleges in the state; the 1944 GI Bill increased college enrollments, by 1950 there were 50 junior colleges.
By 1960 there were 56 districts in California offering junior college courses, 28 of those districts were not high school districts but were "junior college districts" formed expressly for the governance of those schools. The 1960 Master Plan for Higher Education and the resulting Donahoe Act was a turning point in higher education in California; the UC and CSU systems were to limit their enrollments, yet an overall goal was to "provide an appropriate place in California public higher education for every student, willing and able to benefit from attendance", meaning the junior colleges were to fulfill this role. In 1967, the Governor and Legislature created the Board of Governors for the Community Colleges to oversee the community colleges and formally established the community college district system, requiring all areas of the state to be included within a community college district; the degree of local control in this system, a side effect of the origins of many colleges within high school districts, can be seen in that 52 of the 72 districts govern only a single college.
The Master Plan for Higher Education banned tuition, as it was based on the ideal that public higher education should be free to students. As enacted, it states that public higher education "shall be tuition free to all residents." Thus, California residents do not pay tuition. However, the state has suffered severe budget deficits since the enacting of Proposition 13 in 1978, which led to the imposition of per-unit enrollment fees for California residents at all community colleges and all CSU and UC campuses to get around the legal ban on tuition. Non-resident and international students, however, do pay tuition, which at community colleges is an additional $100 per unit on top of the standard enrollment fee. Since no other American state bans tuition in public higher education, this issue is unique to California. In summer 2010, the state's public higher education systems began investigating the possibility of dropping the semantic confusion and switching to the more accurate term, tuition.
In the past decade and fees have fluctuated with the state's budget. For much of the 1990s and early 2000s, enrollment fees ranged between $11 and $13 per credit. However, with the state's budget deficits in the early-to-mid 2000s, fees rose to $18 per unit in 2003, and, by 2004, reached $26 per unit. Since fees dropped to $20 per unit, down $6 from January 2007, it was the lowest enrollment fee of
California State University, Los Angeles
California State University, Los Angeles is a public university in Los Angeles, California. It is part of the California State University system. Cal State LA offers 129 bachelor's degrees, 112 master's degrees, three doctoral degrees: a Ph. D. in special education, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Nursing Practice. It offers 22 teaching credentials. Cal State LA is a Hispanic-serving institution. Cal State LA has a student body of more than 24,000 students from the greater Los Angeles area, as well as 240,000 alumni. Cal State LA operates on the semester system with two semesters, each 15 weeks in duration per year: in the fall of 2016, the university changed to the semester system as part of a system-wide conversion of all quarter campuses. Cal State LA is organized into eight colleges that house a total of four schools and 50 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs offering a variety of majors. Cal State LA is home to the critically acclaimed Luckman Jazz-Orchestra and a unique Early Entrance Program in the Honors College for gifted students as young as 11.
The 175-acre hilltop campus core is home to the nation's first Charter College of Education, a NASA-funded SPACE program, Rockefeller-supported humanities center, a National Science Foundation funded environmental research center and other award-winning engineering programs. U. S. News has ranked Cal State LA's undergraduate business program as one of the best in the nation; the School of Nursing is considered to be one of the best in the state of California. The Charter College of Education has awarded more teaching credentials in the state of California than any other public institution, includes an innovative baccalaureate degree program in Urban Learning designed to train teachers for the specific demands of urban schools; the university has the nation's largest early/pre-teen collegiate program, one of the few and the longest-operating graduate Criminal Justice and Criminalistics program west of the Mississippi River. The Television and Media Studies program is one of the foremost film schools in the CSU system, coordinating film and TV production experiences with the neighboring Hollywood film industry by the Cal State LA Studios.
It is home to two high schools the Marc and Eva Stern Math and Science School and the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts, a prestigious arts high school, notable for being the only arts high school in Los Angeles that allows for students from any district within Los Angeles County to attend. Classrooms are shared with Cal State LA, however, LACHSA activities tend to be separate from those of the university. Notable LACHSA alumni include singer Josh Groban, actress Jenna Elfman, actor/singer Corbin Bleu, UCLA Athletics senior executive Ron "Country Club" Kobata. Cal State LA opened a new downtown Los Angeles campus in 2016 to provide university programs; the university has signed a lease for 21,000 square feet at South Grand Avenue. The location at the edge of the Financial District is in the midst of a residential development boom, with thousands of apartments under construction or in the pipeline, including a 700-unit apartment building anchored by a Whole Foods supermarket across the street from the Cal State LA site.
Cal State LA will offer undergraduate and graduate programs at the site, as well as professional development and certificate programs. The campus will contain 12 classrooms, two computer labs, student lounges, student collaboration space and events space, administrative and faculty offices; the university is located on the site of one of California's 36 original adobes, built in 1776 by Franciscan missionaries and destroyed by fire in 1908. These lands once were part of a Spanish land grant known as Rancho Rosa Castilla, given to Juan Batista Batz, a Basque rancher from northern Spain who settled here in the 1850s; the inspiration for the name of the rancho, according to local historians, was the wild roses that once grew near the ranch home. The main drive through the campus is known as Paseo Rancho Castilla, in acknowledgment of the university's historic heritage. Cal State LA was founded on July 2, 1947 by an act of the California legislature and opened for classes as "The Los Angeles State College" on the campus of Los Angeles City College.
In 1949, the Los Angeles State College was reconstituted by the Legislature as "The Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences." In 1964, the Board of Trustees of the California State Colleges changed the name of the college to the "California State College at Los Angeles," and in 1968 to "California State College, Los Angeles," when it became part of the California State College system. In 1972, CSCLA was awarded university status and was renamed California State University, Los Angeles. From 1947 to 1955, the college shared the campus of the Los Angeles City College but the shared-campus experiment proved to be unwieldy and the college moved to its present campus of 175 acres in the northeastern section of the City of Los Angeles, 5 miles east of the Civic Center. In 1952 the state proposed a new satellite campus for Cal State LA, at the time known as Los Angeles State College, in July 1958, the campus separated from Cal State LA and was renamed San Fernando Valley State College.
Since 1954, Cal State LA has been accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. The university's credential programs are approved by the Commission for Teacher Credentialing Committee on Accreditation. In 1968 Cal State LA established the nation's first Chicano Studies department. In 1993, the CSU Chancellor and Trustees approved development of Cal State LA's Charter
Clark Kerr was an American professor of economics and academic administrator. He was the first chancellor of the University of California and twelfth president of the University of California. Kerr was born in Stony Creek, Pennsylvania to Samuel William and Caroline Kerr, earned his A. B. from Swarthmore College in 1932, an M. A. from Stanford University in 1933, a Ph. D. in economics from UC Berkeley in 1939. In 1945, he became an associate professor of industrial relations and was the founding director of the UC Berkeley Institute of Industrial Relations. Soon after the beginning of the Second Red Scare, in 1949, the Regents of the University of California adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath to be signed by all University of California employees. Kerr fought against the firing of those who refused to sign. Kerr gained respect from his stance and was named UC Berkeley's first chancellor when that position was created in 1952; as chancellor, Kerr oversaw the construction of 12 high-rise dormitories.
In September, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him to the Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. In October 1957, Kerr was the Regents' unanimous choice to lead the entire university system. Raymond B. Allen had been expected to succeed Robert Gordon Sproul as systemwide president, but Allen's tenure as UCLA's first chancellor was marred by athletics scandals, poor campus planning, the perception among the southern Regents that he had not put up enough resistance—especially in comparison to Kerr—to Sproul's stubborn refusal to delegate anything to the campus chancellors. Therefore, when Sproul announced his retirement in 1957, Allen was passed over in favor of Kerr. Kerr's term as UC president saw the opening of campuses in San Diego and Santa Cruz to accommodate the influx of baby boomers. Faced with a dramatic increase of students entering college, Kerr helped establish the now much-copied California system of having the handful of University of California campuses act as'top tier' research institutions, the more numerous California State University campuses handle the bulk of undergraduate students and the numerous California Community College campuses provide vocational and transfer-oriented college programs to the remainder.
A Mother Jones article mentioned that Kerr's achievements in this field earned him international acclaim. In 1959, Kerr along with Chancellor Glenn T. Seaborg helped found the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory. Controversy exploded in 1964 when Berkeley students led the Free Speech Movement in protest of regulations limiting political activities on campus, including Civil Rights advocacy and protests against the Vietnam War, it culminated in hundreds of arrested students at a sit-in. Kerr's initial decision was to not expel University of California students that participated in sit-ins off campus; that decision evolved into reluctance to expel students who would protest on campus in a series of escalating events on the Berkeley campus in late 1964. Kerr was criticized both by students for not agreeing to their demands and by conservative UC Regent Edwin Pauley and others for responding too leniently to the student unrest. In 2002, the FBI released documents used to blacklist Kerr as part of a government campaign to suppress subversive viewpoints at the University.
This information had been classified by the FBI and was only released after a fifteen-year legal battle that the FBI appealed up to the Supreme Court, but agreed to settle before the Supreme Court decided on hearing the matter. President Lyndon Johnson had picked Kerr to become Secretary of Health and Welfare but withdrew the nomination after the FBI background check on Kerr included damaging information the agency knew to be false. Edwin Pauley approached CIA Director John McCone for assistance. McCone in turn met with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. Hoover agreed to supply Pauley with confidential FBI information on "ultra-liberal" regents, faculty members, students, to assist in removing Kerr. Pauley received dozens of briefings from the FBI to this end; the FBI assisted Pauley and Ronald Reagan in painting Kerr as a dangerous "liberal." Kerr's perceived leniency was key in Reagan's election as Governor of California in 1966 and in Kerr's dismissal as president in 1967. Shortly thereafter, Kerr's old friend Thomas M. Storke insisted that Kerr should be allowed to participate, as scheduled, in the dedication of a building on the Santa Barbara campus in Storke's honor.
At the dedication ceremony Kerr stated that he had left the presidency of the university just as he had entered it: "fired with enthusiasm."Kerr's second memoir, The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949-1967 Volume Two: Political Turmoil details what he refers to as his greatest blunders in dealing with the Free Speech Movement that led to his firing. Following his dismissal, Kerr served on the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education until 1973 and was chairman of the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education from 1974 to 1979. Kerr served as Chair of the 1984 USPS National Agreement Arbitration Panel, after which he joined the USPS panel of national contract arbitrators. Kerr was married to Catherine "Kay" Spaulding on Christmas Day, 1934. Kay along with friends founded the Save San Francisco Bay Association in 1961, which became Save the Bay; the couple had three children. He died in his sleep on December 1, 2003 in El Cerrito, following complications from a fall.
There are Kerr Halls on the campuses of U. C. Davis, U. C. Santa Barbara, U. C. Santa Cruz, U. C. Berkeley. A large student resi
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System; the University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960. In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.
Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll graduate students. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is autonomous from the rest of the system; the University of California manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U. S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Collectively, the colleges and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university.
Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds. Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California; the initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland. In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860; the College's trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.
But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres of land to the south of the future campus; the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short. Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the nonfunctional state college, went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.
On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be an "Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight on March 23, 1868. However, as constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an new institution which inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them; the University