United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection is the State of California's agency responsible for fire protection in State Responsibility Areas of California totaling 31 million acres, as well as the administration of the state's private and public forests. In addition, the Department provides varied emergency services in 36 of the State's 58 counties via contracts with local governments, it is called the California Department of Forestry, the name of the department before the 1990s. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection is the largest full service all risk fire department in the Western United States and operates more fire stations year round than the New York, Los Angeles, Chicago fire departments combined, it is the second largest municipal fire department in the United States, behind only the New York Fire Department. Cal Fire is a department of the California Natural Resources Agency, a state cabinet-level department, comprised, in part, of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the California Department of Water Resources.
The department is responsible for the fire protection and stewardship of over 31 million acres of California's owned wildlands. In addition, the Department provides varied emergency services in 36 of the State's 58 counties via contracts with local governments; the Department's firefighters, fire engines, aircraft respond to an average of more than 5,600 wildland fires each year. Those fires burn more than 172,000 acres annually. Along with over 350,000 annual calls for service, only 2% of which are wildland fires. Cal Fire uses inmate handcrews in conjunction with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation to assist with fire suppression and logistics. Cal Fire works with employees of the California Conservation Corps for logistics and vegetation management. Programs to control wood boring insects and diseases of trees are under forestry programs managed by Cal Fire; the vehicle fleet is managed from an office in California. The Department's Director is Thom Porter, appointed by Governor Gavin Newsom.
Cal Fire operations can be viewed as fitting into two categories: Schedule "A" and Schedule "B". Schedule "B" is defined as Resources Agency/Cal Fire-funded, it is the wildland side of Cal Fire responsible for protecting the SRA. Schedule "A" activities include county and municipal fire departments, as well as fire protection districts run by Cal Fire under contracts with local governments. From north to south, Napa, San Mateo, Merced, San Luis Obispo and San Diego counties are examples of county fire departments operated by Cal Fire under contract; the primary job of Cal Fire is to provide fire protection for the State Responsibility Area or SRA. SRA lands are defined by the Public Resource Code of the state first, as, "covered wholly or in part by forests or by trees producing or capable of producing forest products. Second, they are "those covered wholly or in part by timber, undergrowth, or grass, whether of commercial value or not, which protect the soil from excessive erosion, retard runoff of water or accelerate water percolation, if such lands are sources of water, available for irrigation or for domestic or industrial use."
They are "lands in areas which are principally used or useful for range or forage purposes, which are contiguous to" the lands described above. The State Board of Forestry and Fire Protection determines what lands are included in the SRA and their decisions have the force of law. Cal Fire resources are available to federal and local agencies for all disaster related incidents such as floods and other weather related situations. Bulldozers and inmate handcrews are very valuable for protecting lives and property. Inmate crews are available these agencies for construction and maintenance projects; these resources come with a complete supervision and logistical organization, among the nation's best. Starting on January 24, 2007, CDF has changed its "informal" name to Cal Fire; the purpose of the name change was to more represent the all risk nature of the department. Firefighters employed by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection are represented by IAFF affiliate, Cal Fire Local 2881, which represents 4,000 members within Cal Fire Local 2881 and is associated with the California Professional Firefighters and the International Association of Firefighters.
The largest and most visible part of Cal Fire operations is fire suppression. Operations are divided into 21 Operational Units; each unit consists of the area of one to three counties. Operational Units are grouped under two regions: Sierra-South; the Office of the State Fire Marshal is part of Cal Fire and oversees activities including fire prevention, regulation of fire safety, pipeline safety. All gas cans sold in California, for example, must be approved by the Office of the State Fire Marshal and marked with the Office's seal. Cal Fire owns and operates its own fleet of air tankers, tactical aircraft and helicopters, which are managed under the Aviation Management Program, additional aviation resources are leased by the department when needed; the Cal Fire Air Program is one of the largest non-military air programs in the country, consisting of 23 Grumman S-2T 1,200 gallon airtankers, 14 OV-10A airtactical aircraft and 12 UH-1H Super Huey helicopters. From the 13 air attack and 10 helitack bases located statewide, aircraft can reach most fires within 20 minutes.
California Department of Justice
The California Department of Justice is both a statewide investigative law enforcement agency and state legal department in the California executive branch under the elected leadership of the California Attorney General which carries out complex criminal & civil investigations and other legal services throughout the state. As California's top-level investigative law enforcement agency & legal department, CA DOJ has statewide authority with over 4700 employees and a budget of $754 million; the department has a long history within the state, its law enforcement personnel have a reputation of being some of the best in the country. Besides its support of the California Attorney General, the department is mentioned in the newsmedia for: Its assistance to federal law enforcement agencies, for example, CA DOJ Special Agents working alongside their federal counterparts on cases and while federalized on several different task forces, its forensic laboratory work. Its statistics, for example, on weapons sales in California.
Its assistance to local law enforcement agencies, for example, on cases too large or complex for local agencies to handle alone, or use of CA DOJ databases. The sworn law enforcement personnel of CA DOJ, consists of 500 law enforcement officers, they make up a group a criminal investigators with varied backgrounds in law enforcement and intelligence agencies. This small, but elite, group of sworn peace officers are better educated and more experienced than many of their law-enforcement counterparts, are called upon for their expertise and ability to coordinate joint activities between local and federal agencies throughout the state. Special Agents are a force multiplier, assisting agencies with expertise and personnel. Whether running a narcotic task force, investigating a murder, uncovering political corruption, or disrupting violent gangs, CA DOJ Special Agents conduct a variety of law enforcement investigative activities at multiple levels. Additionally, CA DOJ Special Agents are federally deputized/cross-sworn as federal agents in order to allow them to complete cases outside of California or to participate in federal task forces.
They are frequently chosen by their peer agencies as the lead group in multi-jurisdictional cases. Small and large law enforcement agencies within California can request assistance from CA DOJ as necessary in today's tight economic realities. While the California Office of the Attorney General was created in 1850, the law enforcement and criminal investigative capabilities of the CA DOJ were not established until the early 20th century. However, the mission of CA DOJ Special Agents mirrors that of the original California Rangers. Although the California Rangers were disbanded, their special law enforcement capabilities and statewide investigative mission now reside within the Special Agents of CA DOJ. Special Agent Trainee Special Agent Special Agent Supervisor Special Agent-In-Charge Assistant Director Bureau Director Deputy Chief Division Chief The Division of Law Enforcement is the primary law enforcement branch of the California Department of Justice; the division is not only the largest within the department, but one of the largest statewide investigative law enforcement agencies in the United States.
Its staff consists of sworn law enforcement officers, criminalists/forensic scientists and other professional personnel. The primary mission of the Division of Law Enforcement is to enhance public safety by conducting criminal investigations, regulatory oversight, forensic analysis of evidence for criminal proceedings; the division assists local and federal agencies by providing services in specialized areas including: Investigation of complex crimes Collection and analysis of evidence Training and education Enforcing state gambling and firearm laws and regulations Computer forensic training The California Bureau of Investigation, was established in 1927 as the Division of Criminal Investigations, with the now disbanded California Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement. The CBI provides statewide expert investigative services through special agents combating multi-jurisdictional criminal organizations, operates several programs including a Special Investigations Team handling high-profile investigations, the state task force program, a Special Operations unit, LA CLEAR, the state anti-terrorism program.
As the state's FBI counterpart, the CBI investigates a wide-variety of crimes including homicides, sexual predators, violent/repeat offenders, serial crimes, internet crimes against children, money laundering, public corruption, false imprisonment and much more. The California Bureau of Firearms, "is responsible for identifying individuals who are ineligible to acquire or possess firearms" and other weapons targeting felons and others that may be in possession of illegal weapons/explosives; the BOF conducts a variety of operations, including undercover investigations for violations of state firearms laws, training local law-enforcement officials on firearms law and regulations, inspecting licensed firearms dealers, lending safety assistance to gun show promoters and arresting felons in possession of firearms, testifying as expert witnesses. The BOF works closely
California Business, Consumer Services and Housing Agency
The Business, Consumer Services, Housing Agency is the California government cabinet-level agency that assists and educates consumers regarding the licensing and enforcement of professionals and businesses. Department of Consumer Affairs Department of Fair Employment and Housing Department of Housing and Community Development Department of Business Oversight Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control Alcoholic Beverage Control Appeals Board California Horse Racing Board California Seismic Safety Commission Official website
California Coastal Commission
The California Coastal Commission is a state agency in the U. S. state of California with quasi-judicial regulatory oversight over land use and public access in the California coastal zone. The California Coastal Commission's mission is "To protect, conserve and enhance the environment of the California coastline"; the Commission's current agenda can be found on their website. The California Coastal Commission was established in 1972 by voter initiative via Proposition 20; this was in response to the controversy surrounding the development of Sea Ranch, a planned coastal community in Sonoma County. Al Boeke, Sea Ranch's developer-architect envisioned a community that would preserve the area's natural beauty, but the plan for Sea Ranch grew to encompass 10 miles of the Sonoma County coastline that would have been reserved for private use. This and other similar coastal projects prompted opponents, wanting more public access along the coast, to form activist groups, their efforts led to putting Proposition 20 on the ballot.
Proposition 20 gave the Coastal Commission permit authority for four years. The California Coastal Act of 1976 extended the Coastal Commission's authority indefinitely; the agency is tasked with protection of coastal resources, including shoreline public access and recreation, lower cost visitor accommodations and marine habitat protection, visual resources, landform alteration, agricultural lands, commercial fisheries, industrial uses, water quality, offshore oil and gas development, development design, power plants and public works. The Commission's responsibilities are described in the California Coastal Act the Chapter 3 policies; the state authority controls construction along the state's 1,100 miles of shoreline. The Commission is composed of 12 voting members, 6 chosen from the general public, 6 appointed elected officials; the panelists are not paid salary nor stipend for their work, however being on the Commission can carry responsibilities which are politicized. Accounting for 164 percent inflation, the commission's total funding declined 26 percent from $22.1 million in 1980 to $16.3 million in 2010.
The commission's full-time staff fell from 212 in 1980 to 125 in 2010. There are 11 enforcement officers. Development activities are broadly defined by the Coastal Act to include construction of buildings, divisions of land, activities that change the intensity of use of land or public access to coastal waters. Development requires a Coastal Development Permit from either the Coastal Commission or the local government if such development would occur within the Coastal Zone; the Coastal Zone is defined by law as an area that extends from the State's seaward boundary of jurisdiction, inland for a distance from the Mean High Tide Line of between a couple of hundred feet in urban areas, to up to five miles in rural areas. State Route 1 is prohibited from being widened beyond one lane in each direction within rural areas inside the Coastal Zone, per Public Resources Code section 30254; the Commission is the primary agency. However, once a local agency has a Local Coastal Program, certified by the Commission, that agency takes over the responsibility for issuing Coastal Development Permits.
For areas with Certified LCP's, the Commission does not issue Coastal Development permits, is instead responsible for reviewing amendments to a local agency's LCP, or reviewing Coastal Development Permits issued by local agencies which have been appealed to the Commission. A Local Coastal Program is composed of an Implementation Plan. A Land Use Plan details the Land Uses which are permissible in each part of the local government's area, specifies the general policies which apply to each Land Use; the Land Use can be a part of a local government's general plan. The Implementation Plan is responsible for implementing the policies contained in the Land Use Plan; the Implementation Plan is a part of the City's Zoning code. The agency has sought enforcement through the courts as it did not have the power to issue fines on its own to alleged violators. A bill in the California legislature to grant the commission a broad power to issue fines was defeated in September 2013; however legislation attached to the state budget in the summer of 2014 granted the authority to impose fines on violators of public-access which could apply to about a third of the backlog of over 2,000 unresolved enforcement cases.
The first notable fines were issued in December 2016 against Malibu property owners Dr. Warren M. Lent and his wife, for 4.2 million dollars, Simon and Daniel Mani, owners of the Malibu Beach Inn, who settled amicably for $925,000. The difference in severity of the fines were attributed to the "egregious" nature of the Lent case; the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the 1987 case of Nollan v. California Coastal Commission that a requirement by the agency was a taking in violation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments; the Coastal Commission had required that a lateral public easement along the Nollans' beachfront lot be dedicated to facilitate pedestrian access to public beaches as a condition of approval of a permit to demolish an existing bungalow and replace it with a three-bedroom house. The Coastal Commission had asserted that the public-easement condition was imposed to promote the legitimate state interest of diminishing the "blockage of t