California State Capitol
The California State Capitol is home to the government of the U. S. state of California. The building houses the office of the governor; the grounds of the capitol form the Capitol Park. Located in Sacramento, the Neoclassical structure was completed between 1861 and 1874 at the west end of Capitol Park, framed by L Street to the north, N Street to the south, 10th Street to the west, 15th Street to the east; the Capitol and grounds were listed on the office of the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, listed as a California Historical Landmark in 1974, with a re-dedication on January 9, 1982 to commemorate the close of the bicentennial restoration project. The building had undergone a major renovation, known as the California State Capitol Restoration, from 1975 until 1982 to restore the Capitol to its former beauty and to retrofit the structure for earthquake safety. Although not considered earthquake country, Sacramento was hit by two earthquakes within days of each other in 1892 which damaged the Capitol.
The building is based on the U. S. Capitol building in Washington, D. C; the west facade ends in projecting bays, a portico projects from the center of the building. At the base of the portico, seven granite archways support the porch above. Eight fluted Corinthian columns line the portico. A cornice supports the pediment above depicting Minerva surrounded by Education, Justice and Mining. Above the flat roof with balustrade are two drums supporting a dome; the first drum consists of a colonnade of Corinthian columns. Large arched windows line the drum walls; the dome is 64 m high, supports a lantern with a smaller dome capped with a gold-leafed orbed finial. The California Senate chamber seats its forty members in a large chamber room decorated in red, a reference to the British House of Lords the upper house of a bicameral legislature; the chamber is entered through a second floor corridor. From the coffered ceiling hangs an electric reproduction of the original gas chandelier. A hand-carved dais caps off a recessed bay framed by Corinthian columns.
The Latin phrase "Senatoris est civitatis libertatem tueri" lines the cornice. A portrait of George Washington by Jane Stuart, the daughter of Gilbert Stuart, is on the wall above; the State Seal hangs above. Statues of the Roman goddess Minerva once overlooked both chambers. Today, sculpted by Michael H. Casey, appears only in the senate chambers. Gilded Corinthian columns support the gallery above, dark red curtains that can be drawn for privacy are tied back along the columns. High arched windows run along the bottom below rectangular pane windows. Behind the rostrum, there are two chairs with red velvet cushions, reserved for the president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the assembly, but are never used; the California Assembly chamber is located at the opposite end of the building. Its green tones are based on those of the British House of the lower house; the dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with the central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a quotation from Abraham Lincoln in Latin: legislatorum est justas leges condere.
Every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. The capitol's grounds are known as Capitol Park, an area of 10 undivided city blocks running from 10th to 16th and from L to N Streets; the entire Capitol Park area is included in the National Register historic district listing. The park is managed by the California State Capitol Museum. California State Capitol History of Sacramento, California National Register of Historic Places listings in Sacramento County, California California Historical Landmarks in Sacramento County, California List of state and territorial capitols in the United States California State Capitol Museum
Politics of California
The recent and current politics of the U. S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests.. The Big Five is an informal institution of the legislative leadership role in California's government, consisting of the governor, the Assembly speaker, the Assembly minority leader, the Senate president pro tempore, the Senate minority leader. Members of the Big Five meet in private to discuss bills pending in the legislature; because the party caucus leaders in California's legislature control the party's legislative campaign funds, the leaders wield tremendous power over their caucus members. They are thus able to exert some influence in their caucus's votes in Big Five meetings. Only the Democratic Party and Republican Party have representation in the State Legislature. However, for a brief period around the turn of the 21st century, one member of the Green Party was a member of the State Assembly, representing the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. California uses the plurality voting system in its elections, but some municipalities such as San Francisco and Berkeley have opted to use a system of preferential voting used in Australia and Ireland, more popularly known in the United States as instant-runoff voting or ranked choice voting.
Local elections in California at the county and city level are non-partisan and political party affiliations are not included on local election ballots. The two major political parties in California that have representation in the State Legislature and U. S. Congress are the Republican Party. There are four other parties that qualify for official ballot status: the American Independent Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, Peace and Freedom Party. Of the 19,696,371 California voters registered for the November 6, 2018, general election: 43.5% were Democrats 24.0% were Republicans 5.0% were affiliated with other political parties 27.5% were unaffiliated voters Many of California's governmental agencies and programs have been established in the Constitution of California. Additionally, the state constitution establishes mandatory funding levels for some agencies and institutions; this issue came to the forefront when Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and the California Legislature attempted to cut spending to close the state's multibillion-dollar budget deficits during the 2000s.
Affected agencies with support from special interest groups pressed the California Supreme Court to order the restoration of funding to a number of agencies and programs, cut. There have been several events, many dubbed "constitutional crises" by their opponents, over the last thirty-two years including: the passage of term limits for the California legislature and elected constitutional officers, hotly argued statewide, debated in the Supreme Court of California. A failure to pass a budget until three months after the constitutional deadline. Northern California's inland areas, the Central Valley, Southern California outside Los Angeles County are Republican areas. Coastal California, including such areas as the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County and as well as Sacramento are Democratic areas; as most of the population is in Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area, California as a whole tends to be liberal. California was a Republican stronghold in presidential elections from 1952 until 1992.
During this period, the Republicans won California in every election except the election of 1964. In these years, the GOP nominated Californians as presidential candidates: Richard Nixon in 1960 and 1972, Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984. Since however, the Democrats have carried the electoral rich state since 1992; the immigration of Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans and migration of northern liberals, who tend to vote Democratic, the flight of white and upper-middle class suburbanites out of the state shifted the balance in favor of the Democratic Party. Among the state's divisive issues are water and water rights, resulting in the California Water Wars. Lacking reliable dry season rainfall, water is limited and available surface sources are extensively developed through dams and pipelines; the principal water sources are mountain runoff from wet season rains and higher altitude snowpack and some Colorado River water supplying southern California. Waste water reclamation in California is routine.
Most water is in the north of the State, while agriculture, the largest user of stored water in California, is most prevalent in the central and southern areas. Additionally, the majority of the state's population is in the south. Water viewed as excess by the south is viewed by the north as environmentally essential for agriculture and wildlife. While the southern electorate has a greater portion of the population it is not as unified in its viewpoint as is that of the north, so ballot propositions such as those promoting a P
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
California Legislative Analyst's Office
The Legislative Analyst's Office, located in Sacramento, California, is a nonpartisan government agency that has provided fiscal and policy advice to the California Legislature since 1941. The office is known for analyzing the state budget with the aim of making government programs more effective and less costly; the LAO was the first such institution in the United States, designed to help both houses of a legislature manage the state budget in a nonpartisan fashion. The LAO should not be confused with the California Legislative Counsel which does not focus on the budget; the LAO is overseen by a 16-member bipartisan committee. The office has a staff of 43 analysts and 13 support staff; the analytical staff is divided into four subject areas: Corrections and Transportation. The Office was founded when the JLBC appointed the first "Legislative Auditor" on October 8, 1941 to assist with the state budgeting process; because it was confused with the state auditor, the title was changed to "Legislative Analyst" in 1957.
The office has had five Legislative Analysts since its creation. Rolland Vandegrift served from 1941 to 1949, A. Alan Post served from 1949 to 1977, William Hamm served from 1977 to 1986, Elizabeth Hill served from 1986 to 2008, Mac Taylor served from 2008-2018, Gabriel Petek serves as legislative analyst. One of the most important responsibilities of the LAO has been to analyze the annual Governor's budget and publish a detailed review at the end of February; the office has presented a series of analyses from the beginning to the end of the budget process on overarching fiscal issues and specific departmental budget proposals and offered its recommendations for legislative action. In order to provide the Legislature with timely advice on these matters, the LAO has published its budget comments and advice in the form of separate written reports, handouts for hearings, entries on a Web-based online list, all of which are available at its website; these documents help set the agenda for the work of the Legislature's fiscal committees in developing a state budget.
Staff of the office work with these committees throughout the budget process and provide public testimony on the office's recommendations. More the office is a staff resource to all legislators; the LAO performs the following functions: Budget "Control." The LAO reviews requests by the administration to make changes to the budget. These reviews are used by members of the JLBC and the fiscal committees. Special Reports. Throughout the year, the office prepares special reports on the state budget and topics of interest to the Legislature. Initiatives and Ballot Measures; the office estimates the fiscal effect on state and local government of all proposed initiatives and prepares analyses of all measures that qualify for the statewide ballot. Forecasting; the LAO forecasts the state expenditures. California Legislative Analyst's Office website
Law of the United States
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States. The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of Acts of Congress, treaties ratified by the Senate, regulations promulgated by the executive branch, case law originating from the federal judiciary; the United States Code is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory law. Federal law and treaties, so long as they are in accordance with the Constitution, preempt conflicting state and territorial laws in the 50 U. S. in the territories. However, the scope of federal preemption is limited because the scope of federal power is not universal. In the dual-sovereign system of American federalism, states are the plenary sovereigns, each with their own constitution, while the federal sovereign possesses only the limited supreme authority enumerated in the Constitution.
Indeed, states may grant their citizens broader rights than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional rights. Thus, most U. S. law consists of state law, which can and does vary from one state to the next. At both the federal and state levels, with the exception of the state of Louisiana, the law of the United States is derived from the common law system of English law, in force at the time of the American Revolutionary War. However, American law has diverged from its English ancestor both in terms of substance and procedure, has incorporated a number of civil law innovations. In the United States, the law is derived from five sources: constitutional law, statutory law, administrative regulations, the common law. Where Congress enacts a statute that conflicts with the Constitution, state or federal courts may rule that law to be unconstitutional and declare it invalid. Notably, a statute does not automatically disappear because it has been found unconstitutional.
Many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. However, under the principle of stare decisis, no sensible lower court will enforce an unconstitutional statute, any court that does so will be reversed by the Supreme Court. Conversely, any court that refuses to enforce a constitutional statute will risk reversal by the Supreme Court. Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law legal tradition of English law. Certain practices traditionally allowed under English common law were expressly outlawed by the Constitution, such as bills of attainder.</ref> and general search rrts. As common law courts, U. S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. American judges, like common law judges elsewhere, not only apply the law, they make the law, to the extent that their decisions in the cases before them become precedent for decisions in future cases; the actual substance of English law was formally "received" into the United States in several ways.
First, all U. S. states except Louisiana have enacted "reception statutes" which state that the common law of England is the law of the state to the extent that it is not repugnant to domestic law or indigenous conditions. Some reception statutes impose a specific cutoff date for reception, such as the date of a colony's founding, while others are deliberately vague. Thus, contemporary U. S. courts cite pre-Revolution cases when discussing the evolution of an ancient judge-made common law principle into its modern form, such as the heightened duty of care traditionally imposed upon common carriers. Second, a small number of important British statutes in effect at the time of the Revolution have been independently reenacted by U. S. states. Two examples are the Statute of 13 Elizabeth; such English statutes are still cited in contemporary American cases interpreting their modern American descendants. Despite the presence of reception statutes, much of contemporary American common law has diverged from English common law.
Although the courts of the various Commonwealth nations are influenced by each other's rulings, American courts follow post-Revolution Commonwealth rulings unless there is no American ruling on point, the facts and law at issue are nearly identical, the reasoning is persuasive. Early on, American courts after the Revolution did cite contemporary English cases, because appellate decisions from many American courts were not reported until the mid-19th century. Lawyers and judges used English legal materials to fill the gap. Citations to English decisions disappeared during the 19th century as American courts developed their own principles to resolve the legal problems of the American people; the number of published volumes of American reports soared from eighteen in 1810 to over 8,000 by 1910. By 1879 one of the delegates to the California constitutional convention was complaining: "Now, when we require them to state the reasons for a decision, we do not mean they shall write a hundred pages of detail.
We not mean that they shall include the small cases, impose on the country all this fine judici
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a