Mark Leno is an American politician who served in the California State Senate until November 2016. A Democrat, he represented the 11th Senate district, which includes San Francisco and portions of San Mateo County. Before the 2010 redistricting, he represented the 3rd Senate district. A member of the California Legislative LGBT Caucus, Leno was the first gay man elected to the State Senate, he was one of the first two gay men to serve in the California State Assembly. Before being elected to the State Senate in 2008, Leno served in the California State Assembly, representing the 13th Assembly District. Before his time in the Legislature, he served as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors between 1998 and 2002. Leno is the owner of Budget Signs Inc. a small business, was a candidate in the San Francisco mayoral special election, held June 5, 2018. Leno is the grandson of Russian Jewish immigrants. A native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he attended Nicolet High School, the University of Colorado at Boulder.
He was valedictorian of his graduating class at the American College in Jerusalem, where he earned his Bachelor of Arts degree. Leno spent two years in rabbinical studies at Hebrew Union College in New York. Afterward, he moved to San Francisco on the invitation of his sister, he lived his first four years in the Tenderloin before moving to the Noe Valley neighborhood. In 1978, Leno started Budget Signs as operator; the business incorporated in 1982. Working with his life partner, Douglas Jackson, the business continued to grow and their involvement in community affairs expanded. Jackson died from complications related to AIDS in 1990. Prior to his election, his political background included raising money for candidates and causes such as AIDS services, the San Francisco LGBT Community Center, the U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Democratic Party. Leno was appointed to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors by Willie Brown in April 1998, he was elected citywide to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in November 1998 and re-elected in the reinstated district races of 2000.
Leno's district included The Castro, Noe Valley, Glen Park, Diamond Heights, Twin Peaks, Duboce Triangle, the westernmost part of the Mission District. Leno introduced legislation to allow tenants to replace a roommate without losing their lease, measures to aid those with HIV/AIDS, a measure to promote the federal Earned Income Tax Credit to help low income residents, he authored legislation to one of the first such proposals in the country. In 2000, as a supervisor, he supported Proposition L, the slow-growth measure and authored legislation to protect neighborhood business districts from big box retail, he was a statewide spokesman for the No on Proposition 22 campaign. In 2001, Leno introduced an ordinance providing equal access to the city's health plan for transgender employees of San Francisco, he was elected to the California State Assembly in 2002, was re-elected in 2004 and 2006. Leno was the chair of the Assembly's powerful Appropriations Committee, as well as the Select Committee on Childhood Obesity & Related Diabetes.
In 2005, Leno authored AB 849, a bill legalizing same-sex marriages that became the first bill of its kind to pass a legislative body in the United States. The bill was vetoed by Governor Schwarzenegger. In 2007, Leno introduced AB 43, the Religious Freedom and Civil Marriage Protection Act, that would have allowed for same-sex marriage; this bill was again vetoed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Same-sex marriage was legalized by the California Supreme Court in a May 2008 decision, becoming effective June 16, 2008. In 2006, Leno and Republican Assemblyman Chuck DeVore co-authored a bill that would legalize the cultivation of non-psychoactive hemp; the bill does not conflict with the federal Controlled Substances Act, would mandate that hemp be tested to ensure it is non-psychoactive. He authored California Assembly Bill Number AB 1668, on February 23, 2007 — a bill encouraging Open Document Formats ODF in California. In Leno's first two terms in the Assembly, 58 of his bills were signed into law.
Leno co-authored AB 32 to cap greenhouse emissions. He authored AB 706 to prohibit the use of fire retardants in upholstered furniture, he authored AB 2573 to allow San Francisco public utilities to install solar panels on public infrastructure. He authored Assembly Bill 1358, the California Complete Streets Act, to require cities and counties to consider including walking and bicycling in their general plans, he coauthored the AB 583, California Clean Money and Fair Elections Act, to bring public financing to political campaigns. In 2008, he won the Democratic Party nomination for California's 3rd Senate district with 43.8 percent of the vote, defeating incumbent Senator Carole Migden, who had 28.6 percent of the vote, former Assemblyman Joe Nation, who had 27.6 percent of the vote. Leno was a principal co-author of SB 840, the Single-Payer Universal Health Care Act, which would have provided health care coverage for all Californians and would have replaced hundreds of health insurance companies with state-provided coverage.
During his 14-year term in the State Legislature, Leno authored numerous bills including: SB 810, the California Universal Health Care Act. The Airline Passenger Bill of Rights; the bill requires airlines to provide basic needs for passengers, such as water, fresh air, sanitary restrooms, lights if a plane is delayed on a tarmac at a California airport. A state constitutional amendment regarding the Public Records Act; the amendment clarifies that local governments must c
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. is an American politician who served as the 34th and 39th Governor of California from 1975 to 1983 and from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, Brown served as California Attorney General from 2007 to 2011, he was both the oldest and sixth-youngest Governor of California as a consequence of the 28-year gap between his second and third terms. Jerry Brown was born in San Francisco as the son of Bernice Layne Brown and Pat Brown, who served as the 32nd Governor of California. After graduating from the University of California and Yale University, he began his political career as a member of the Los Angeles Community College District Board of Trustees, he was elected to serve as the 23rd Secretary of State of California from 1971 to 1975. At 36, Brown was elected to his first term as Governor of California in 1974, making him the youngest California Governor in 111 years. In 1978, he won his second term. During and following his first governorship, Brown ran as a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1976, 1980 and 1992.
He declined to pursue a third term in 1982, instead making an unsuccessful run for the United States Senate that same year. After traveling abroad, he returned to California and served as Chairman of the California Democratic Party, attempting to run for the Senate once more in 1992. After six years out of politics, Brown returned to public life, serving as Mayor of Oakland as Attorney General of California, he ran for his third and fourth terms as California Governor in 2010 and 2014, his eligibility to do so having stemmed from California's constitutional grandfather clause. On October 7, 2013, he became the longest-serving chief executive in the history of California, surpassing Earl Warren. Brown was born in San Francisco, the only son of four children born to District Attorney of San Francisco and Governor of California, Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. and his wife, Bernice Layne. Brown's father was of half half German descent, his great-grandfather August Schuckman, a German immigrant, settled in California in 1852 during the California Gold Rush.
Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, where he graduated in 1955. In 1955, Brown entered Santa Clara University for a year and left to attend Sacred Heart Novitiate, a Jesuit novice house in Los Gatos, intent on becoming a Catholic priest. Brown resided at the novitiate from August 1956 to January 1960 before enrolling at the University of California, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1961. With his tuition paid for by the Louis Lurie Foundation, including a $675 scholarship in 1963, Brown went on to Yale Law School and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1964. After law school, Brown worked as a law clerk for California Supreme Court Justice Mathew Tobriner. Returning to California, Brown passed on his second attempt, he settled in Los Angeles and joined the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor. In 1969, Brown ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw community colleges in the city, placed first in a field of 124.
In 1970, Brown was elected California Secretary of State. Brown argued before the California Supreme Court and won cases against Standard Oil of California, International Telephone and Telegraph, Gulf Oil, Mobil for election law violations. In addition, he forced legislators to comply with campaign disclosure laws. Brown drafted and helped to pass the California Political Reform Act of 1974, Proposition 9, passed by 70% of California's voters in June 1974. Among other provisions, it established the California Fair Political Practices Commission. In 1974, Brown ran in a contested Democratic primary for Governor of California against Speaker of the California Assembly Bob Moretti, San Francisco Mayor Joseph L. Alioto, Representative Jerome R. Waldie, others. Brown won the primary with the name recognition of his father, Pat Brown, whom many people admired for his progressive administration. In the General Election on November 5, 1974, Brown was elected Governor of California over California State Controller Houston I.
Flournoy. Brown succeeded Republican Governor Ronald Reagan. After taking office, Brown gained a reputation as a fiscal conservative; the American Conservative noted he was "much more of a fiscal conservative than Governor Reagan". His fiscal restraint resulted in one of the biggest budget surpluses in state history $5 billion. For his personal life, Brown refused many of the privileges and perks of the office, forgoing the newly constructed 20,000 square-foot governor's residence in the suburb of Carmichael and instead renting a $250-per-month apartment at the corner of 14th and N Streets, adjacent to Capitol Park in downtown Sacramento. Rather than riding as a passenger in a chauffeured limousine as previous governors had done, Brown walked to work and drove in a Plymouth Satellite sedan; as governor, Brown held a strong interest in environmental issues. He appointed J. Baldwin to work in the newly created California Office of Appropriate Technology, Sim Van der Ryn as State Architect, Stewart Brand as Special Advisor, John Bryson as chairman of the California State Water Board.
Brown reorganized the California Arts Council, boosting its funding by 1300 percent and appointing artists to the council, appointed more women and minorities to office than any other previous California governor. In 1977, he sponsored the "first-ever tax incentiv
Constitution of California
The Constitution of California is the primary organizing law for the U. S. state of California, describing the duties, powers and functions of the government of California. Following cession of the area from Mexico to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War, California's original constitution was drafted in both English and Spanish by delegates elected on August 1, 1849, to represent all communities home to non-indigenous citizens; the delegates wrote and adopted the constitution at the 1849 Constitutional Convention, held beginning on September 3 in Monterey, voters approved the new constitution on November 13, 1849. Adoption of the "state" constitution preceded California's Admission to the Union on September 9, 1850 by ten months. A second constitutional convention, the Sacramento Convention of 1878–79, amended the original document, ratifying the amended constitution on 7 May 1879; the Constitution of California is one of the longest collections of laws in the world due to provisions enacted during the Progressive Era limiting powers of elected officials, but due to additions by California ballot proposition and voter initiatives, which take form as constitutional amendments.
Initiatives can be proposed by the governor, legislature, or by popular petition, giving California one of the most flexible legal systems in the world. It is the 8th longest constitution in the world. Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the United States Bill of Rights in the Federal Constitution. An example is the case of Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, in which "free speech" rights beyond those addressed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution were found in the California Constitution by the California courts. One of California's most significant prohibitions is against "cruel or unusual punishment," a stronger prohibition than the U. S. Constitution's Eighth Amendment prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishment." This caused the California Supreme Court to find Capital Punishment unconstitutional on state Constitutional grounds in the 1972 case of People v. Anderson; the constitution has undergone numerous changes since its original drafting.
It was rewritten from scratch several times before the drafting of the current 1879 constitution, which has itself been amended or revised. In response to widespread public disgust with the powerful railroads that controlled California's politics and economy at the start of the 20th century, Progressive Era politicians pioneered the concept of aggressively amending the state constitution by initiative in order to remedy perceived evils. From 1911, the height of the U. S. Progressive Era, to 1986, the California Constitution was amended or revised over 500 times; the constitution became bloated, leading to abortive efforts towards a third constitutional convention in 1897, 1914, 1919, 1930, 1934 and 1947. By 1962, the constitution had grown to 75,000 words, which at that time was longer than any other state constitution but Louisiana's; that year, the electorate approved the creation of a California Constitution Revision Commission, which worked on a comprehensive revision of the constitution from 1964 to 1976.
The electorate ratified the Commission's revisions in 1966, 1970, 1972, 1974, but rejected the 1968 revision, whose primary substantive effect would have been to make the state's superintendent of schools into an appointed rather than an elected official. The Commission removed about 40,000 words from the constitution; the California Constitution is one of the longest in the world. The length has been attributed to a variety of factors, such as influence of previous Mexican civil law, lack of faith in elected officials and the fact that many initiatives take the form of a constitutional amendment. Several amendments involved the authorization of the creation of state government agencies, including the State Compensation Insurance Fund and the State Bar of California. Unlike other state constitutions, the California Constitution protects the corporate existence of cities and counties and grants them broad plenary home rule powers; the Constitution gives charter cities, in particular, supreme authority over municipal affairs allowing such cities' local laws to trump state law.
By enabling cities to pay counties to perform governmental functions for them, Section 8 of Article XI resulted in the rise of the contract city. Article 4, section 8 defines an "urgency statute" as one "necessary for immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety". Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the Bill of Rights in the federal constitution. Two examples include the Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins case involving an implied right to free speech in private shopping centers, the first decision in America in 1972 which found the death penalty unconstitutional, California v. Anderson, 6 Cal. 3d 628. This noted that under California's state constitution a stronger protection applies than under the U. S. Constitution's 8th Amendment.
Supreme Court of California
The Supreme Court of California is the highest and final court in the courts of the State of California. It resides in the State Building in San Francisco in Civic Center overlooking Civic Center Square along with City Hall, it holds sessions in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Its decisions are binding on all other California state courts. Under the original 1849 California Constitution, the Court started with a chief justice and two associate justices; the Court was expanded to five justices in 1862. Under the current 1879 constitution, the Court expanded to six associate justices and one chief justice, for the current total of seven; the justices are subject to retention elections. According to the California Constitution, to be considered for appointment, as with any California judge, a person must be an attorney admitted to practice in California or have served as a judge of a California court for 10 years preceding the appointment. To fill a vacant position, the Governor must first submit a candidate's name to the Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation of the State Bar of California, which prepares and returns a thorough, confidential evaluation of the candidate.
Next, the Governor nominates the candidate, who must be evaluated by the Commission on Judicial Appointments, which consists of the Chief Justice of California, the Attorney General of California, a senior presiding justice of the California Courts of Appeal. The Commission holds a public hearing and if satisfied with the nominee's qualifications, confirms the nomination; the nominee can immediately fill an existing vacancy, or replace a departing justice at the beginning of the next judicial term. If a nominee is confirmed to fill a vacancy that arose partway through a judicial term, the justice must stand for retention during the next gubernatorial election. Voters determine whether to retain the justice for the remainder of the judicial term. At the term's conclusion, justices must again undergo a statewide retention election for a full 12-year term. If a majority votes "no," the seat may be filled by the Governor; the electorate has exercised the power not to retain justices. Chief Justice Rose Bird and Associate Justices Cruz Reynoso and Joseph Grodin were staunchly opposed to capital punishment and were subsequently removed in the 1986 general election.
Newly reelected Governor George Deukmejian was able to elevate Associate Justice Malcolm M. Lucas to Chief Justice and appoint three new associate justices. Four current justices were appointed by three by Republicans. There is one Filipino-American justice, one Hispanic, one African-American, two East Asian-American justices, two non-Hispanic white justices; the justices do not publicly discuss their religious views or affiliations. One justice earned an undergraduate degree from a University of California school, four from private universities in California, two from out-of-state private universities. Two justices earned their law degrees from a University of California law school, one from a law school at a California private university, four from law schools at out-of-state private universities; the most recent addition to the court is Associate Justice Joshua Groban, replacing Associate Justice Kathryn M. Werdegar, who retired on August 31, 2017. Governor Jerry Brown nominated Groban on November 14, 2018.
He joined the court when it reconvened on January 8. Between 1879 and 1966, the court was divided into two three-justice panels, Department One and Department Two; the chief justice divided cases evenly between the panels and decided which cases would be heard en banc by the Court sitting as a whole. After a constitutional amendment in 1966, the Court sits "in bank" when hearing all appeals; when there is an open seat on the court, or if a justice recuses himself or herself on a given case, justices from the California Courts of Appeal are assigned by the chief justice to join the court for individual cases on a rotational basis. The procedure for when all justices recuse themselves from a case has varied over time. For a 1992 case, the chief justice requested the presiding justice of a Court of Appeal district to select six other Court of Appeal justices from his district, they formed an acting Supreme Court for the purpose of deciding that one case. However, in a case where all members of the Court recused themselves when Governor Schwarzenegger sought a writ of mandate, seven justices of the Courts of Appeal were selected based on the regular rotational basis, not from the same district, with the most senior one serving as the acting chief justice, that acting supreme court denied the writ petition.
In a yet more recent case where all members of the Court recused themselves on a petition for review by retired Court of Appeal justices on a matter involving those justices' salaries, the Court ordered that six superior court judges be selected from the pool that took office after July 1, 2017 to serve as the substitute justices for the six sitting justices, with the senior judge among that group serving as the acting Chief Justice.
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed