California Charter Academy
The California Charter Academy was the largest charter school operator in California, with multiple campuses located throughout the state. CCA opened under the leadership of a former insurance executive. During the charter school's tenure, it ran into many legal confrontations with the California Department of Education. At one instance, CCA lost a lawsuit regarding withholding of student funding by the CDE due to the passage of a bill which imposed retro-active limitations on educational programs initiated six months before the law went into effect. California Charter Academy and EASC were unable to pursue the appeal of this decision once the program was forced to shut down in August, 2004. In 2004, the Superintendent of the California Department of Education, Jack O'Connell, launched an imaginative audit into CCA alleging financial irregularities. CCA halted operations in August 2004; the closing of CCA caused chaos among chartering school districts, leaving them to deal with student transcripts and landlords who were left with CCA's assets.
Students and former employees were impacted by the close leaving them without schools and jobless shortly before the beginning of the 2004-05 school year. On April 14, 2005, MGT of America and the Fiscal Crisis and Management Team released their version of a financial audit of CCA performed on behalf of the CDE, claiming $23 million in taxpayer money paid to the private management corporation EASC was misappropriated. CCA and its affiliates launched a separate audit with independent accountants, not affiliated with the CDE, alleging the audit conducted by MGT of America and FCMAT was politically motivated; this audit is still in its infancy. A U. S. Bankruptcy Court judge denied a bankruptcy petition requested by the CDE for CCA's management company, Educational Administrative Services Corporation, Mr. Cox filed a $120 million lawsuit against the CDE. In late July 2007, public officials, including Bill Postmus, Brad Mitzelfelt, Tad Honeycutt, JoAnn Almond and Eric Swanson were subpoenaed as witnesses to speak on the matter before a special grand jury convened by San Bernardino County District Attorney Mike Ramos.
On September 4, 2007, Tad Honeycutt and Charles Steven Cox were arrested after being indicted by a special grand jury for their alleged roles in the collapse of the California Charter Academy. If convicted, Mr. Honeycutt could face up to 20 years in prison. Cox and Honeycutt were indicted on a total of 147 counts; some of the counts include misappropriation of grand theft. Cox's bail was set at $1 million, while Honeycutt's at $500,000. Law enforcement officials froze their assets. Mr. Cox requested a public defender. Mr. Honeycutt posted bail. California State Superintendent of Public Education Jack O'Connell, who initiated the original investigation into CCA and EASC, applauded the efforts of local county investigators. Superintendent O'Connell was unable to convince federal prosecutors to bring charges against EASC when both the US Justice Department and Federal Bureau of Investigation declined to prosecute based on the evidence provided and closed their investigations into EASC. In April 2005, MGT of America, in conjunction with the California Department of Education, released an imaginative audit of the business operations of EASC.
According to the audit, Mr. Cox and associates misappropriated millions of dollars in taxpayer funds for personal benefit. Jack O' Connell reacted to the audit stating that "The magnitude of waste of precious education funds outlined in the audit appalling"; the audit alleged several illegal practices including conflict-of-interest violations, converting private schools to public charter schools, falsifying claims to receive public funds." Numerous individuals implicated of wrongdoing in the MGT / CDE audit responded by stating that auditors, whose investigation was funded by the state of California, would not accept evidence which would clear any attributed wrongdoing. Steven Cox founded Educational Administrative Services Corporation in March 2000; this for-profit company was to manage the day-to-day operations of the charter schools in accordance with government regulations. CCA #262, chartered under Snowline-Joint Unified School District, signed a contract with EASC shortly after opening.
After being granted three more charters, despite alleged claims of conflict-of-interest, one from Snowline, one from Orange County, one from Oro Grande School District, all four charters were contracted with EASC. The individual rates charged by EASC were alleged to be inflated, suggesting that money which could have been used for education was instead used for administrative purposes. In addition to the money EASC accumulated, the MGT / CDE audit stated that EASC received payment for services rendered thirty seven times totaling an estimated $3.9 million. Out of the thirty seven transactions, thirty five were alleged to be made in violation of Education Code section 47633. EASC, as of September 2007, continues to run a charter school in Arizona. Steven Cox has relinquished his position as a board member and representative of the Morning Star Academy amidst the pending allegations and controversy surrounding the management company. Cox had submitted a request to change the management company's name from Educational Administrative Services Corporation to American Management Administrators due to the negative publicity created by the allegations against his company.
As head of EASC, Cox could contract the charter schools with any number of corporate entities to enrich the educational programs that were managed. This practice was exercised when EAS
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be
No Child Left Behind Act
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was a U. S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, it supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade levels; the act did not assert a national achievement standard—each state developed its own standards. NCLB expanded the federal role in public education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards, teacher qualifications, as well as significant changes in funding; the bill passed in the Congress with bipartisan support. By 2015, criticism from right and center had accumulated so much that a bipartisan Congress stripped away the national features of No Child Left Behind, its replacement, the Every Student Succeeds Act, turned the remnants over to the states.
It was coauthored by Representatives John Boehner, George Miller, Senators Ted Kennedy and Judd Gregg. The United States House of Representatives passed the bill on December 13, 2001, the United States Senate passed it on December 18, 2001. President Bush signed it into law on January 8, 2002. No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students. Schools that receive Title I funding through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 must make Adequate Yearly Progress in test scores. If the school's results are poor steps are taken to improve the school. Schools that miss AYP for a second consecutive year are publicly labeled as "In Need of Improvement," and must develop a two-year improvement plan for the subject that the school is not teaching well. Students have the option to transfer to a better school within the school district. Missing AYP in the third year forces the school to offer free tutoring and other supplemental education services to students who are struggling.
If a school misses its AYP target for a fourth consecutive year, the school is labelled as requiring "corrective action," which might involve wholesale replacement of staff, introduction of a new curriculum, or extending the amount of time students spend in class. A fifth year of failure results in planning to restructure the entire school. Common options include closing the school, turning the school into a charter school, hiring a private company to run the school, or asking the state office of education to run the school directly. States must create AYP objectives consistent with the following requirements of the law: States must develop AYP statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students and for specific groups: economically disadvantaged students, students with disabilities, students with limited English proficiency; the objectives must be set with the goal of having all students at the proficient level or above within 12 years. AYP must be based on state assessments, but must include one additional academic indicator.
The AYP objectives must be assessed at the school level. Schools that failed to meet their AYP objective for two consecutive years are identified for improvement. School AYP results must be reported separately for each group of students identified above so that it can be determined whether each student group met the AYP objective. At least 95% of each group must participate in state assessments. States may aggregate up to three years of data in making AYP determinations; the act requires states to provide "highly qualified" teachers to all students. Each state sets its own standards for what counts as "highly qualified." The act requires states to set "one high, challenging standard" for its students. Each state decides for itself what counts as "one high, challenging standard," but the curriculum standards must be applied to all students, rather than having different standards for students in different cities or other parts of the state; the act requires schools to let military recruiters have students' contact information and other access to the student, if the school provides that information to universities or employers, unless the students opt out of giving military recruiters access.
This portion of the law has drawn lots of criticism and has led to political resistance. For instance, in 2003 in Santa Cruz, student-led efforts forced school districts to create an "opt-in" policy that required students affirm they wanted the military to have their information; this successful student organizing effort was copied in various other cities throughout the United States. Supporters of the NCLB claim one of the strong positive points of the bill is the increased accountability, required of schools and teachers. According to the legislation, schools must pass yearly tests that judge student improvement over the fiscal year; these yearly standardized tests are the main means of determining whether schools live up to required standards. If required improvements are not made, the schools face decreased funding and other punishments that contribute to the increased accountability. According to supporters, these goals help teachers and schools realize the significance and importance of the educational system and how it affects the n
Politics of California
The recent and current politics of the U. S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests.. The Big Five is an informal institution of the legislative leadership role in California's government, consisting of the governor, the Assembly speaker, the Assembly minority leader, the Senate president pro tempore, the Senate minority leader. Members of the Big Five meet in private to discuss bills pending in the legislature; because the party caucus leaders in California's legislature control the party's legislative campaign funds, the leaders wield tremendous power over their caucus members. They are thus able to exert some influence in their caucus's votes in Big Five meetings. Only the Democratic Party and Republican Party have representation in the State Legislature. However, for a brief period around the turn of the 21st century, one member of the Green Party was a member of the State Assembly, representing the eastern San Francisco Bay Area. California uses the plurality voting system in its elections, but some municipalities such as San Francisco and Berkeley have opted to use a system of preferential voting used in Australia and Ireland, more popularly known in the United States as instant-runoff voting or ranked choice voting.
Local elections in California at the county and city level are non-partisan and political party affiliations are not included on local election ballots. The two major political parties in California that have representation in the State Legislature and U. S. Congress are the Republican Party. There are four other parties that qualify for official ballot status: the American Independent Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, Peace and Freedom Party. Of the 19,696,371 California voters registered for the November 6, 2018, general election: 43.5% were Democrats 24.0% were Republicans 5.0% were affiliated with other political parties 27.5% were unaffiliated voters Many of California's governmental agencies and programs have been established in the Constitution of California. Additionally, the state constitution establishes mandatory funding levels for some agencies and institutions; this issue came to the forefront when Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and the California Legislature attempted to cut spending to close the state's multibillion-dollar budget deficits during the 2000s.
Affected agencies with support from special interest groups pressed the California Supreme Court to order the restoration of funding to a number of agencies and programs, cut. There have been several events, many dubbed "constitutional crises" by their opponents, over the last thirty-two years including: the passage of term limits for the California legislature and elected constitutional officers, hotly argued statewide, debated in the Supreme Court of California. A failure to pass a budget until three months after the constitutional deadline. Northern California's inland areas, the Central Valley, Southern California outside Los Angeles County are Republican areas. Coastal California, including such areas as the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles County and as well as Sacramento are Democratic areas; as most of the population is in Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area, California as a whole tends to be liberal. California was a Republican stronghold in presidential elections from 1952 until 1992.
During this period, the Republicans won California in every election except the election of 1964. In these years, the GOP nominated Californians as presidential candidates: Richard Nixon in 1960 and 1972, Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984. Since however, the Democrats have carried the electoral rich state since 1992; the immigration of Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans and migration of northern liberals, who tend to vote Democratic, the flight of white and upper-middle class suburbanites out of the state shifted the balance in favor of the Democratic Party. Among the state's divisive issues are water and water rights, resulting in the California Water Wars. Lacking reliable dry season rainfall, water is limited and available surface sources are extensively developed through dams and pipelines; the principal water sources are mountain runoff from wet season rains and higher altitude snowpack and some Colorado River water supplying southern California. Waste water reclamation in California is routine.
Most water is in the north of the State, while agriculture, the largest user of stored water in California, is most prevalent in the central and southern areas. Additionally, the majority of the state's population is in the south. Water viewed as excess by the south is viewed by the north as environmentally essential for agriculture and wildlife. While the southern electorate has a greater portion of the population it is not as unified in its viewpoint as is that of the north, so ballot propositions such as those promoting a P
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a