Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the H missions, targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation - originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. During the two lunar EVAs,42.80 kilograms of Moon rocks were collected, and several experiments were performed. Shepard hit two balls on the lunar surface with a makeshift club he had brought with him. Shepard and Mitchell spent 33½ hours on the Moon, with almost 9½ hours of EVA and he took several hundred seeds on the mission, many of which were germinated on return, resulting in the so-called Moon trees. Shepard and Mitchell landed in the Pacific Ocean on February 9, Shepard was the oldest U. S. astronaut when he made his trip aboard Apollo 14. He is the astronaut from Project Mercury to reach the Moon. The mission was a triumph for Shepard, who had battled back from Ménières disease which grounded him from 1964 to 1968.
He and his crew were originally scheduled to fly on Apollo 13 and this was done to allow Shepard more time to train for his flight, as he had been grounded for four years. NASAs long-range cameras, based 60 miles south in Vero Beach, had a shot of the remainder of the launch. Following the launch, the Launch Control Center at Kennedy Space Center was visited by U. S, vice President Spiro T. Agnew, Prince Juan Carlos of Spain, and his wife, Princess Sofía. At the beginning of the mission, the CSM Kitty Hawk had difficulty achieving capture, the sixth attempt was successful, and no further docking problems were encountered during the mission. After separating from the Command Module in lunar orbit, the LM Antares had two serious problems, the LM computer began getting an ABORT signal from a faulty switch. NASA believed that the computer might be getting erroneous readings like this if a ball of solder had shaken loose and was floating between the switch and the contact, closing the circuit. The immediate solution — tapping on the next to the switch — did work briefly.
The software modifications were transmitted to the crew via voice communication, after the astronauts cycled the landing radar breaker, the unit successfully acquired a signal near 18,000 feet, again just in time. Shepard manually landed the LM closer to its intended target than any of the other six Moon landing missions, Mitchell believed that Shepard would have continued with the landing attempt without the radar, using the LM inertial guidance system and visual cues. Shepard and Mitchell named their landing site Fra Mauro Base, shepards first words, after stepping onto the lunar surface were, And its been a long way, but were here
National Statuary Hall
National Statuary Hall is a chamber in the United States Capitol devoted to sculptures of prominent Americans. The hall, known as the Old Hall of the House, is a large, two-story and it is located immediately south of the Rotunda. The meeting place of the U. S. House of Representatives for nearly 50 years, the Hall is built in the shape of an ancient amphitheater and is one of the earliest examples of Neoclassical architecture in America. While most wall surfaces are painted plaster, the low gallery walls, around the rooms perimeter stand colossal columns of variegated breccia marble quarried along the Potomac River. The Corinthian capitals of white marble were carved in Carrara, Italy, a lantern in the fireproof cast-steel ceiling admits natural light into the Hall. The chamber floor is laid with black and white marble tiles, only two of the many statues presently in the room were commissioned for display in the original Hall of the House. Enrico Causicis neoclassical plaster Liberty and the Eagle looks out over the Hall from a niche above the colonnade behind what was once the Speakers rostrum, the sandstone relief eagle in the frieze of the entablature below was carved by Giuseppe Valaperta.
Above the door leading into the Rotunda is the Car of History by Carlo Franzoni and this neoclassical marble sculpture depicts Clio, the Muse of History, riding in the chariot of Time and recording events in the chamber below. The wheel of the chariot contains the clock, the works are by Simon Willard. It has been said that John Quincy Adams took advantage of the Halls acoustics to eavesdrop on other members conversing on the side of the room. To test the acoustics today, one party should stand near the floor plaque marking Adams desk on the West side of the Hall while the party stands at the corresponding spot on the East side. However, this is only a myth, as the current half dome, the Adams story began long after Adams death as a tourist gimmick, according to Capitol historian William C. Though echoes were a significant problem, there is no documentation of a whisper spot prior to the twentieth century. This chamber is the hall and third meeting place built for the House of Representatives in this location.
Prior to this, the House members met in a squat, temporary building known as the Oven, which had been hastily erected in 1801. The first permanent Hall, designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, was completed in 1807, the Hall was rebuilt in its present form by Latrobe and his successor, Charles Bulfinch, between 1815 and 1819. Unfortunately, the smooth, curved ceiling promoted annoying echoes, making it difficult to conduct business, various attempts to improve the acoustics, including hanging draperies and reversing the seating arrangement, proved unsuccessful. The only solution to this problem was to build an entirely new Hall, in 1850, a new Hall was authorized, and the House moved into its present chamber in the new House wing in 1857
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks.
Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden.
Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
Stuart Allen Stu Roosa, was an American aeronautical engineer, United States Air Force pilot, test pilot, and NASA astronaut, who was the Command Module Pilot for the Apollo 14 mission. The mission lasted from January 31 to February 9,1971 and was the mission to land astronauts on the Moon. While Shepard and Mitchell spent two days on the surface, Roosa conducted experiments from orbit in the Command Module Kitty Hawk. He was one of only 24 people to travel to the Moon, Roosa was born on August 16,1933, in Durango, Colorado, to parents Dewey Roosa and Lorine Roosa and grew up in Claremore, Oklahoma. Roosa began his career as a smokejumper with the U. S. Forest Service, dropping into at least four active fires in Oregon and California during the 1953 fire season. He was a graduate of the Aviation Cadet Program at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona and he attended the Aerospace Research Pilot School and was an experimental test pilot at Edwards Air Force Base in California before being selected for the astronaut class of 1966.
From July 1962 to August 1964, Roosa was a flight test pilot at Olmstead Air Force Base. He was a pilot at Langley Air Force Base, where he flew the F-84F. Following graduation from the University of Colorado, under the U. S. Air Force Institute of Technology Program, he served as Chief of Service Engineering at Tachikawa Air Base, Roosa was one of 19 people selected as part of the astronaut class of 1966. He was the CAPCOM at the Launch Complex 34 blockhouse during the Apollo 1 fire on 27 January 1967, in 1969, he served as a member of the astronaut support crew for the Apollo 9 mission. On Apollo 14 he spent 33 hours in orbit around the Moon. On the Apollo 14 mission Roosa carried seeds from pine, sweet gum, redwood. The seeds were germinated on his return and planted throughout the United States and he was assigned to the Space Shuttle program until his retirement as a Colonel from the Air Force in 1976. Roosa logged 5,500 hours of flying time,5,000 hours in jet aircraft and he logged 217 hours in space.
After leaving NASA and the Air Force, Roosa held a number of positions in international and U. S. businesses and he completed the Harvard Business Schools Advanced Management Program in 1973. On December 12,1994, Roosa died at age 61 in Washington D. C. from complications of pancreatitis and he was survived by his wife Joan, three sons and a daughter, and seven grandchildren. Son Jack Roosa attended the USAF Academy and became an F-16 squadron commander, Roosa is buried in section 7A of Arlington National Cemetery. His wife Joan died on October 30,2007 in Gulfport and she was interred at Arlington with her husband
Sacramento County, California
Sacramento County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,418,788 and its county seat is Sacramento, which has been the state capital of California since 1854. Sacramento County is included in the Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county covers about 994 square miles in the northern portion of the Central Valley, on into Gold Country. The southernmost portion of Sacramento County has direct access to San Francisco Bay, Sacramento County was one of the original counties of California, which were created in 1850 at the time of statehood. The county was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border, the river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santisimo Sacramento, referring to the Catholic Eucharist. Alexander Hamilton Willard, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, is buried in the old Franklin Cemetery. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 994 square miles.
Most of the county is at a close to sea level. The highest point in the county is Carpenter Hill at 828 feet, Carpenter Hill is the lowest high point of any county in California. Major watercourses in the county include the American River, Sacramento River, Cosumnes River, a tributary of the Mokelumne River and Dry Creek, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 306,196 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,223,499 people,453,602 households, the population density was 1,267 people per square mile. There were 474,814 housing units at a density of 492/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 64. 0% White,10. 6% Black or African American,1. 09% Native American,13. 5% Asian,0. 6% Pacific Islander,7. 5% from other races, and 5. 8% from two or more races. 19. 3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,10. 2% were of German,7. 0% English,6. 7% Irish and 5. 1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 75. 7% spoke only English at home,10. 0% spoke Spanish,1. 5% Hmong,1. 4% Chinese or Mandarin,1.
3% Vietnamese,1. 2% Tagalog and 1. 2% Russian. 26. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.24. In the county, the population was out with 27. 6% under the age of 18,9. 5% from 18 to 24,31. 0% from 25 to 44,20. 9% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 95.9 males
The Liberty Bell is an iconic symbol of American independence, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Formerly placed in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House, the bell today is located in the Liberty Bell Center in Independence National Historical Park. The bell first cracked when rung after its arrival in Philadelphia, in its early years the bell was used to summon lawmakers to legislative sessions and to alert citizens about public meetings and proclamations. While there is no account of the Liberty Bell ringing. After American independence was secured the bell fell into obscurity until, in the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies. The bell acquired its distinctive large crack some time in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835. The bell became famous after an 1847 short story claimed that an aged bellringer rang it on July 4,1776, despite the fact that the bell did not ring for independence on that July 4, the tale was widely accepted as fact, even by some historians.
Beginning in 1885, the City of Philadelphia, which owns the bell, allowed it to go to various expositions, the bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, additional cracking occurred and pieces were chipped away by souvenir hunters. The last such journey occurred in 1915, after which the city refused further requests, after World War II, the city allowed the National Park Service to take custody of the bell, while retaining ownership. The bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a site for protests in the 1960s. It was moved from its home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in 1976. The bell has been featured on coins and stamps, and its name, philadelphias city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the citys 1682 founding. The original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House and was said to have brought to the city by its founder. In 1751, with a tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality.
Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, gave orders to the colonys London agent, Robert Charles, let the bell be cast by the best workmen & examined carefully before it is Shipped with the following words well shaped around it vizt. By Order of the Assembly of the Povince of Pensylvania for the State house in the City of Philada 1752 and Underneath Proclaim Liberty thro all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof. -Levit. Charles duly ordered the bell from Thomas Lester of the London bellfounding firm of Lester and Pack for the sum of £150 13s 8d, including freight to Philadelphia and it arrived in Philadelphia in August 1752. Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, the bell was mounted on a stand to test the sound, and at the first strike of the clapper, the bells rim cracked
The rite of laying a cornerstone is an important cultural component of eastern architecture and metaphorically in sacred architecture generally. Some cornerstones include time capsules from, or engravings commemorating, the time a building was built. Often, the ceremony involved the placing of offerings of grain and these were symbolic of the produce and the people of the land and the means of their subsistence. This in turn derived from the practice in more ancient times of making an animal or human sacrifice that was laid in the foundations. The object of the sacrifice is to give strength and stability to the building and it is believed that the man will die within the year. Not long ago there were still shadow-traders whose business it was to provide architects with the necessary for securing their walls. In these cases the measure of the shadow is looked on as equivalent to the shadow itself, and to bury it is to bury the life or soul of the man, deprived of it, must die. Ancient Japan legends talk about Hitobashira, in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions as a prayer to ensure the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks and this person is usually asked to place their hand on the stone or otherwise signify its laying.
Often still, and certainly until the 1970s, most ceremonies involved the use of a manufactured and engraved trowel that had a formal use in laying mortar under the stone. Similarly, a hammer was often used to ceremonially tap the stone into place. Freemasons sometimes perform the public cornerstone laying ceremony for notable buildings and this ceremony was described by The Cork Examiner of 13 January 1865 as follows. After this, Bishop Gregg spread cement over the stone with a specially made for the occasion by John Hawkesworth, a silversmith. He gave the stone three knocks with a mallet and declared the stone to be duly and truly laid, the Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Munster poured offerings of corn and wine over the stone after Bishop Gregg had declared it to be duly and truly laid. The Provincial Grand Chaplain of the Masonic Order in Munster read out the prayer, May the Great Architect of the universe enable us as successfully to carry out. The choir and congregation sang the Hundredth Psalm.
In Freemasonry, which grew from the practice of stonemasons, the initiate is placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge as a foundation stone. This is intended to signify the unity of the North associated with darkness, a cornerstone will sometimes be referred to as a foundation-stone, and is symbolic of Christ, whom the Apostle Paul referred to as the head of the corner and is the Chief Cornerstone of the Church. Many of the ancient churches will place relics of the saints, especially martyrs
El Camino Real (California)
The meaning of the term Camino Real has in fact changed over time. In earlier Spanish colonial times, any road under the jurisdiction of the Spanish crown. Examples of such roads ran between principal settlements throughout Spain and its colonies such as New Spain, most caminos reales had names apart from the appended camino real. Once Mexico won its independence from Spain, no road in Mexico, the name was rarely used after that and was only revived in the American period in connection with the boosterism associated with the Mission Revival movement of the early 20th century. The original route began in Baja California Sur, Mexico, at the site of Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó. Today, many streets throughout California that either follow or run parallel to this route still bear the El Camino Real name. Some of the route has been continually upgraded until it is now part of the modern California freeway system. The original route is traced by a series of commemorative bell markers. Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of outposts from todays Baja California.
In Alta California, El Camino Real followed two routes, established by the first two Spanish exploratory expeditions of the region. The first was the Portolá Expedition of 1769, the expedition party included Franciscan missionaries, led by Junípero Serra. Starting from Loreto, Serra established the first of the 21 missions at San Diego, Serra stayed at San Diego and Juan Crespí continued the rest of the way with Gaspar de Portolá. Proceeding north, Portolá followed the coastline, except where forced inland by coastal cliffs, the expedition was prevented from going farther north by the entrance to San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate. Crespí identified several future mission sites which were not developed until later, on the return trip to San Diego, Gaspar de Portolá found a shorter detour around one stretch of coastal cliffs via Conejo Valley. Portolá journeyed again from San Diego to Monterey in 1770, where Junipero Serra founded the second mission (later moved a distance south to Carmel. Carmel became Serras Alta California mission headquarters, the second Juan Bautista de Anza expedition, entering Alta California from the southeast picked up Portolás trail at Mission San Gabriel.
De Anzas scouts found easier traveling in several valleys, rather than staying on the rugged coast. On his journey north, de Anza traveled the San Fernando Valley and this became the preferred route, and more closely corresponds to the officially recognized El Camino Real
Thomas Starr King
Thomas Starr King was an American Universalist and Unitarian minister, influential in California politics during the American Civil War, and Freemason. Starr King spoke zealously in favor of the Union and was credited by Abraham Lincoln with preventing California from becoming a separate republic and he is sometimes referred to as the orator who saved the nation. He was born on December 17,1824, in New York City to Rev. Thomas Farrington King, a Universalist minister, the sole support of his family at 15, he was forced to leave school. Inspired by men like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Ward Beecher, at the age of 20 he took over his father’s former pulpit at the Charlestown Universalist Church in Charlestown, Massachusetts. In 1849 he was appointed pastor of the Hollis Street Church in Boston and he vacationed in the White Mountains of New Hampshire and in 1859 published a book about the area entitled The White Hills, their Legends, Landscapes, & Poetry. In 1860 he accepted a call from the First Unitarian Church of San Francisco, in July of that year, he visited Yosemite and was moved spiritually by its splendor.
Yosemite would become a California State Park and eventually a National park, Starr King joined the Freemasons and was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason in Oriental Lodge No.144 in San Francisco, now Phoenix Lodge No. 144, and served as grand orator of the Grand Lodge of California in 1863, Starr Kings younger brother, Edward Starr King, served as captain of the clipper ship Syren. During the Civil War, Starr King spoke zealously in favor of the Union and was credited by Abraham Lincoln with preventing California from becoming a separate republic. At the urging of Jessie Benton Frémont, Starr King teamed up with writer Bret Harte, Starr King read original verses by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and James Russell Lowell which captured the imagination of the Californians. In a letter to Starr King wrote to James T. Fields, in addition, he organized the Pacific Branch of the United States Sanitary Commission, which raised money and medical materials for wounded soldiers and was the predecessor to the American Red Cross.
A fiery orator, he raised more than $1.5 million for the Sanitary Commission headquarters in New York City, the relentless lecture circuit exhausted him, and he died in San Francisco on March 4,1864, of diphtheria and pneumonia. His dying words were said to be, Keep my memory green, over twenty thousand people attended his funeral and several of his friends including Charles Stoddard, Bret Harte and Ina Coolbrith published tributes. King is interred at First Unitarian Church of San Francisco between Starr King and Geary Streets in San Francisco. When, in the 1940s, most of San Franciscos dead were disinterred and moved to new resting places outside city limits, mountain peaks in the White Mountains and in Yosemite National Park are named in his honor. A giant Sequoia in the Calaveras Grove. F, & A. M. a Masonic lodge founded in 1864 in Salem, Massachusetts Thomas Starr King Statue in Golden Gate Park, facing JFK Drive, close to the De Young Museum. King’s church, the First Unitarian Church and his sarcophagus in San Francisco are designated historical monuments, as part of honors originally paid to Rev.
King, he was judged worthy of representing California in the National Statuary Hall Collection displayed in the United States Capitol. In 1913 King was voted one of Californias two greatest heroes and funds were appropriated for a statue, in 1931, California officially donated a bronze statue of King to be mounted in Statuary Hall
Governor of California
The position was created in 1849, the year before California became a state. The current governor is Jerry Brown, a Democrat who was inaugurated January 3,2011, in October 2013, Jerry Brown surpassed Earl Warren for the longest cumulative period of time served as governor. Governors are elected by ballot and serve terms of four years. Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election, there are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office. Impeachment and removal by the legislature The governor can be impeached for misconduct in office by the State Assembly, recall by the voters Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election. The voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor. If a majority of the voters in the vote to recall the governor. The 2003 California recall began with a drive that successfully forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election.
It marked the first time in the history of California that a governor faced a recall election and he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921. He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years, the lieutenant governor is the President of the California State Senate. In practice, there is an agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the Governor is away from the state. This agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state. Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governors right to perform the duties, peter Burnett had the longest post-governorship,44 years.
He left office in 1851 and died in 1895, excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship. He died on April 12,1891, a three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858, sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown became the oldest governor in 2011. Earl Warren was the governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864