Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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California State Controller
The State Controller of California is the Chief Financial Officer of the U. S. state of California. The post has broader responsibilities and authority than the California State Treasurer. Responsibilities include investigative authority for every dollar spent by the state, being an ex-officio member of the state's Board of Equalization; the State Controller is limited to two terms. The current state controller is Betty Yee; as the state’s chief fiscal officer, acts as the state’s accountant and bookkeeper of all public funds. Administers the state payroll system and unclaimed property laws. Serves on 76 boards and commissions, including the Board of Equalization, Franchise Tax Board, CalPERS, CalSTRS. Conducts audits and reviews of state operations; the office performs a multitude of financial compliance audits and attestations. The areas of government audited and reviewed by the State Controller include California School Districts, the California State Lottery and Gas Lease Royalties, State Agencies, RDAs, a multitude of local governments.
It is considered one of the premiere audit agencies of the State of California. The Office has a staff of Deputy State Controllers that help the State Controller fulfill her elected duties, including sitting on the Board of Equalization and other boards for the State Controller in absentia. Noted former Deputy State Controllers include Barrett McInerney, James Burton, Laurette Healey. Official website
Lieutenant Governor of California
The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer and vice-executive of the U. S. state of California. The lieutenant governor can serve a maximum of two terms. In addition to ceremonial roles, serving as acting governor in the absence of the Governor of California and as President of the California State Senate, the lieutenant governor either sits on many of California's regulatory commissions and executive agencies. California is one of eighteen states where the governor and lieutenant governor do not run as running mates on the same ticket: in California the governor and lieutenant governor are elected separately, although both are up for election in the same year every four years; as a result, California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties. California has had 41 lieutenant governors and five acting lieutenant governors since achieving statehood in 1850; the current lieutenant governor is Eleni Kounalakis, a Democrat, sworn into office on January 7, 2019.
She is the first female to occupy the office in California history. The California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the State of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the Governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the administration of Jerry Brown, when Brown was out of the state. Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state; the lieutenant governor is the President of the California State Senate. The Lieutenant Governor sits on the Board of Regents of the University of California, California State University Board of Trustees, Ocean Protection Council, California Emergency Council, State Lands Commission.
The Lieutenant Governor of California chairs the Commission for Economic Development, responsible for fostering economic growth in California by developing and implementing strategies for attracting new business to the state, increasing state exports, creating new jobs, stimulating industries statewide. Many California projects created through gubernatorial executive orders, or through the initiative process, include a role for the Lieutenant Governor. For example, the Lieutenant Governor serves on the Agriculture-Water Transition Task Force, five of the twenty-nine members of the oversight committee of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor; some academics and scholars such as Roger E. Noll and Bruce Cain in Constitutional Reform in California have criticized constitutional offices like the Lieutenant Governor because of their low visibility among the electorate that can make it difficult for the electorate to hold constitutional officers like the Lieutenant Governor responsible for their actions.
Although the Lieutenant Governor of California's powers and responsibilities are lesser than those of the Governor, the ability to make appointments to, decisions on, the boards of executive agencies does allow the Lieutenant Governor to make policy decisions that, due to their separate election, might well conflict with the agenda of the Governor. Thus, it is argued, California might benefit if the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor ran on the same ticket; the Lieutenant Governor would be more to help the Governor –, subject to a greater degree of voter scrutiny – to implement his or her policies, but, unlikely. In 2003, although Lt. Governor Cruz Bustamante and Governor Gray Davis were both Democrats, they had an icy relationship and had not spoken in months before the 2003 California recall election approached. Bustamante's decision to run in the recall election was controversial, as many supporters of Governor Davis had urged prominent Democrats not to run, in an attempt to undermine the legitimacy of the event.
Despite being the second highest-ranking office in California, the Lieutenant Governor has no real responsibility or power to represent the governor on issues such as trade negotiations or a legislative agenda, so the job has been jokingly defined by political insiders as "get up, read the paper, see if the governor is dead, if not, go back to sleep." Despite its prestige, it has not been a strong springboard to higher political office. Furthermore, the Lieutenant Governor's office budget has suffered considerable cutbacks in recent times. By contrast the Attorney General of California oversees 5,300 employees, including 1,110 state attorneys, its 2010 budget was over $700 million. List of lieutenant governors of California List of current United States lieutenant governors Official website