State highways in California
The state highway system of the U. S. state of California is a network of highways that are owned and maintained by the Highway Division of the California Department of Transportation. Each highway is assigned a Route number in the Streets and Highways Code. Most of these are numbered in a statewide system, are known as State Route X. United States Numbered Highways are labeled US X, Interstate Highways are Interstate X. Under the code, the state assigns a unique Route X to each highway, does not differentiate between state, US, or Interstate highways; the California Highway Patrol is tasked with patrolling all state highways to enforce traffic laws. California's highway system is governed pursuant to Division 1 of the California Streets and Highways Code. Since July 1 of 1964, the majority of legislative route numbers, those defined in the Streets and Highways Code, match the sign route numbers. For example, Interstate 5 is listed as "Route 5" in the code. On the other hand, some short routes are instead signed as parts of other routes — for instance, Route 112 and Route 260 are signed as part of the longer State Route 61, Route 51 is part of Interstate 80 Business.
Concurrences are not explicitly codified in the Streets and Highways Code. The state may turn them over to local control. If the relinquished segment is in the middle of the highway's route, the local jurisdiction is required to install and maintain signs directing drivers to the continuation of that highway; the state may delete a highway and turn over an entire state route to local control. Business routes are not maintained by the state unless they are assigned legislative route numbers. A few routes or sections of routes are considered unrelinquished - a new alignment has been built, or the legislative definition has changed to omit the section, but the state still maintains the roadway — and are Route XU. There are two such unrelinqushed routes, with State Route 14U, an old alignment of State Route 14, as the most recent example of such, where the process to relinquish 14U started on January 1 of 2018, along with State Route 103U being the other unrelinquished route within the system; some new alignments are considered supplemental and have a suffix of S.
Both types of suffixed routes are considered spurs. Current or former unsigned suffixed routes include State Route 156U, signed as State Route 156 Business through Hollister, State Route 180S, the freeway replacement for State Route 180 in Fresno; the first legislative routes were defined by the State Highway Bond Act in 1909, passed by the California State Legislature and signed by Governor James Gillett. These, extensions to the system, were numbered sequentially. No signs were erected for these routes; the United States Numbered Highways were assigned by the American Association of State Highway Officials in November 1926, but posting did not begin in California until January 1928. These were assigned to some of the main legislative routes in California. Signs were posted by the Automobile Club of Southern California and California State Automobile Association, active in signing national auto trails and local roads since the mid-1900s. In 1934, after the major expansion of the state highway system in 1933 by the California Legislature, California sign route numbers were assigned by the California Division of Highways.
The California sign route numbers were assigned in a geographical system independent of the legislative routes. Odd-numbered routes ran north–south and even-numbered routes ran east–west; the routes were split among southern California and central and northern California as follows: 0 or 1 modulo 4: central and northern California 2 or 3 modulo 4: southern CaliforniaFor instance, State Route 1 and State Route 4 were in central and northern California, State Route 2 and State Route 3 were in southern California. A rough grid was used inside the two regions, with the largest numbers — all less than 200 - in eastern California and near the border between the two regions; the Interstate Highway System numbers were assigned by AASHO in late 1959. In 1963 and 1964, a total renumbering of the legislative routes was made, aligning them with the sign routes; some changes were made to the sign routes related to decommissionings of U. S. Routes in favor of Interstates. Since the 1990s, many non-freeway routes in urban areas, have been deleted and turned over to local control.
This transfers the cost of maintaining them from state to local budgets, but gives local governments direct control over urban arterial roads th
Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two programs, the Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway Program, its role had been performed by the Office of Road Inquiry, Office of Public Roads and the Bureau of Public Roads. The organization has a complicated history; the Office of Road Inquiry was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the name was changed again to the Bureau of Public Roads in 1915 and to the Public Roads Administration in 1939. It was shifted to the Federal Works Agency, abolished in 1949 when its name reverted to Bureau of Public Roads under the Department of Commerce. With the coming of the bicycle in the 1890s, interest grew regarding the improvement of streets and roads in America; the traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was inadequate.
New York State took the lead in 1898, by 1916 the old system had been discarded everywhere area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic; the American Association for Highway Improvement was organized in 1910. Funding came from automobile registration, taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. In 1916, federal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, promote general commerce. Congress appropriated $75 million over a five-year period, with the Secretary of Agriculture in charge through the Bureau of Public Roads, in cooperation with the state highway departments. There were 2.4 million miles of rural dirt rural roads in 1914. The increasing speed of automobiles, trucks, made maintenance and repair high-priority item. Concrete was first used in 1893, expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the 1930s. Federal aid began in 1917.
From 1917 through 1941, 261,000 miles of highways were built with federal aid, cost $5.31 billion. Federal funds totaled $3.17 billion, state-local funds were $2.14 billion. The FHWA was created on October 15, 1966. In 1967 the functions of the Bureau of Public Roads were transferred to the new organization, it was one of three original bureaus along with the'Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety' and the'National Highway Safety Bureau'. The FHWA’s role in the Federal-aid Highway Program is to oversee federal funds used for constructing and maintaining the National Highway System; this funding comes from the federal gasoline tax and goes to state departments of transportation. FHWA oversees projects using these funds to ensure that federal requirements for project eligibility, contract administration and construction standards are adhered to. Under the Federal Lands Highway Program, the FHWA provides highway design and construction services for various federal land-management agencies, such as the Forest Service and the National Park Service.
In addition to these programs, the FHWA performs and sponsors research in the areas of roadway safety, highway materials and construction methods, provides funding to local technical assistance program centers to disseminate research results to local highway agencies. The FHWA publishes the “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices”, used by most highway agencies in the United States; the MUTCD specifies such things as the size and height of traffic signs, traffic signals and road surface markings. The Federal Highway Administration is overseen by an Administrator appointed by the President of the United States by and with the consent of the United States Senate; the Administrator works under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation and Deputy Secretary of Transportation. The internal organization of the FHWA is as follows: Administrator Executive Director Office of Infrastructure Office of Research and Technology Public Roads magazine Office of Planning and Realty Office of Policy and Government Affairs Office of the Chief Financial Officer Office of Administration Office of Operations Office of Safety Office of Federal Lands Highway Office of Chief Counsel Office of Civil Rights Office of Public Affairs Long-Term Pavement Performance is a program supported by FHWA to collect and analyse road data.
The LTPP program was initiated by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council in the early 1980s. Federal Highway Administration with the cooperation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials sponsored the program; as a result of this program, FHWA has collected a huge database of road performance. FHWA and ASCE hold an annual contest known as LTPP International Data Analysis Contest, based on challenging researchers to answer a question based on the LTPP data. Current: Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Deputy Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Executive Director: Thomas Everett Alph Bartelsmeyer August 10, 1970- January 25, 1974 Alinda Burke - January 1, 1980 -? J. Richard Capka August 5, 2002 - May 31, 2006 Gregory G. Nadeau July 8, 2009 – July 30, 2014 Brandye Hendrickson July 24, 2017 - Present Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Hi
New Cuyama, California
New Cuyama is a census-designated place in the Cuyama Valley, in Santa Barbara County, California, in the United States. It was named after the Chumash Indian word for "clams", most due to the millions of petrified prehistoric clamshell fossils that are found in the surrounding areas; the town is home to the majority of the utility infrastructure for its residents, including nearby neighbor Cuyama, California. New Cuyama is located close to the intersection points for Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Kern counties; the town is served by the public-use New Cuyama Airport. The population was 517 at the 2010 census; the area was considered territory of the Yokuts people, but Chumash Indians from the Pacific Coast are known to have frequented the area. The imprint of an old Indian trail can still be seen leading over the hills of present-day Ventura County to the headwaters of Piru Creek; the name "Cuyama" comes from an Indian village named for the Chumash word kuyam, meaning "clam" or "freshwater mollusk".
The area's recorded history dates to 1822 when Mexico won independence from Spain and took over the Spanish colony of Alta California. Two Mexican land grants, the Rancho Cuyama and Rancho Cuyama, were granted in the 1840s by Governors Manuel Micheltorena and Pío Pico in the lower Cuyama Valley along the Cuyama River, where current New Cuyama is, privatizing ownership of the land. Following the 1949 discovery of oil at the South Cuyama Oil Field, in 1952 the Atlantic Richfield Company settled and developed the town of New Cuyama, building housing and associated commercial business – including the New Cuyama Airport, reopened in May 2015, which bears the distinction of being the only public-use paved airport within easy flying range of Los Angeles for more than 50 miles. Much of the infrastructure from ARCO's settling of the town still exists today and is used by town residents; the original ARCO-built gas processing plant is still in use and seen due south of New Cuyama, though ARCO has since sold off interest in the facility.
The town of New Cuyama, when founded, was considered the pearl of eastern Santa Barbara County, due to the flow of oil, coming out of the region. During this time Richfield Oil Company built the town funded schools and provided all the important utilities other than electricity. Now that oil and gas production have declined, the principal industry is once again agriculture. New Cuyama is located at 34°56′53″N 119°41′21″W, it is situated in the Cuyama Valley. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 0.7 square miles, all of it land. This region experiences hot and dry summers, with the warmest month having a daily mean of 75 degrees; the 2010 United States Census reported that New Cuyama had a population of 517. The population density was 732.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of New Cuyama was 418 White, 3 African American, 14 Native American, 3 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 53 from other races, 26 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 234 persons.
The Census reported that 517 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 177 households, out of which 69 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 95 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 15 had a female householder with no husband present, 12 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 15 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 1 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 45 households were made up of individuals and 20 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92. There were 122 families; the population was spread out with 160 people under the age of 18, 43 people aged 18 to 24, 125 people aged 25 to 44, 126 people aged 45 to 64, 63 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. There were 215 housing units at an average density of 304.7 per square mile, of which 119 were owner-occupied, 58 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.7%. 313 people lived in 204 people lived in rental housing units. Ranchos of California Cuyama Joint Unified School District Wandering Lizard Cuyama Valley Photographs Ranchos of Santa Barbara County Map
Caliente Mountain is a mountain located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California. The summit, at 5,106 feet, is the highest point in the Caliente Range; the mountain receives a little snowfall during the winter months. List of highest points in California by county Highpointing Caliente Mountain quadrangle, California. 1:24000. 7.5 Minute Topographic. USGS. Retrieved 2009-12-09
The Cuyama River is a 118-mile-long river in southern San Luis Obispo County, northern Santa Barbara County, northern Ventura County, in the U. S. state of California. It joins the Sisquoc River forming the Santa Maria River; the river's name comes from an Indian village named for the Chumash word kuyam, meaning "clam" or "freshwater mollusk". The Cuyama River's source is in San Emigdio Mountains, within the Chumash Wilderness area of the Los Padres National Forest at an altitude above 8,000 feet; the river's upper reaches are in Ventura County, where several tributaries join before the mainstem river exits Los Padres National Forest. After leaving the national forest the river enters Santa Barbara County and flows through the 45-mile-long Cuyama Valley, which lies between the Caliente Range and the Sierra Madre Mountains; the river flows past the towns of New Cuyama. Through most of the Cuyama Valley and downriver to its confluence with the Sisquoc River the Cuyama River forms the approximate boundary between Santa Barbara County and San Luis Obispo County.
Downstream from the Cuyama Valley the river enters Twitchell Reservoir, after which it flows another 6 miles to its confluence with the Sisquoc River. The joined streams are called the Santa Maria River, which flows about 20 miles to the Pacific Ocean; the river's course has evolved over its history by fault displacement. About 66 miles from its source the river reaches Twitchell Reservoir, formed by Twitchell Dam; the dam provides flood control and allows water to be released so that as much of it as possible will seep into the soil and recharge the groundwater aquifer. The water is released as as possible while still allowing it to percolate into the ground, so the reservoir is empty; the river and the reservoir are dry during the summer, when there is little or no rain. However, large flows can occur following winter storms. List of rivers of California Scheideck, California, in the Cuyama Valley U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cuyama River Floods in Cuyama Valley, February 1998, United States Geological Survey Cuyama Valley Photos, United States Geological Survey
San Luis Obispo County, California
San Luis Obispo County the County of San Luis Obispo, is a county located in the southern region of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 269,637; the county seat is San Luis Obispo. San Luis Obispo County comprises the San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located along the Pacific Ocean in Central California, between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa in 1772 and the Mission is today an active part of downtown San Luis Obispo; the small size of the county's communities, scattered along the beaches, coastal hills, mountains of the Santa Lucia range, provides a wide variety of coastal and inland hill ecologies to support many kinds of fishing and tourist activities. The mainstays of the economy are California Polytechnic State University with its 20,000 students and agriculture. San Luis Obispo County is the third largest producer of wine in California, surpassed only by Sonoma and Napa Counties.
Wine grapes are the second largest agricultural crop in the county, the wine production they support creates a direct economic impact and a growing wine country vacation industry. The town of San Simeon is located at the foot of the ridge where newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst built Hearst Castle. Other coastal towns include Cambria, Morro Bay, Los Osos -Baywood Park; these cities and villages are located northwest of San Luis Obispo city, Avila Beach and the Five Cities Region to the south which were originally: Arroyo Grande, Grover Beach, Fair Oaks and Halcyon. Today, the Five Cities Region consists of Pismo Beach, Grover Beach and Oceano the area from Pismo Beach to Oceano. Nipomo, just south of the Five Cities, borders northern Santa Barbara County. Inland, the cities of Paso Robles and Atascadero lie along the Salinas River, near the Paso Robles wine region. San Luis Obispo lies north of the Five Cities region; the prehistory of San Luis Obispo County is influenced by the Chumash people who had significant settlement here at least as early as the Millingstone Horizon thousands of years before the present age.
Important settlements existed, in many coastal areas such as Morro Bay and Los Osos. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was founded on September 1, 1772 in the area, now the city of San Luis Obispo; the namesake of the mission and county is Saint Louis of Toulouse, the young bishop of Toulouse in 1297. San Luis Obispo County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the Salinas River Valley, a region that figures in several Steinbeck novels, stretches north from San Luis Obispo County. The remote California Valley near Soda Lake is the region most untouched by modernity. Travels through this area and the hills east of highway 101 during wildflower season are beautiful and can be incorporated with wine tasting at local vineyards. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,616 square miles, of which 3,299 square miles is land and 317 square miles is water. Carrizo Plain National Monument Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge Los Padres National Forest Piedras Blancas State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area Cambria State Marine Conservation Area White Rock State Marine Conservation Area Morro Bay State Marine Recreational Management Area and Morro Bay State Marine Reserve Point Buchon State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area The 2010 United States Census reported that San Luis Obispo County had a population of 269,637.
The racial makeup of San Luis Obispo County was 222,756 White, 5,550 African American, 2,536 Native American, 8,507 Asian, 389 Pacific Islander, 19,786 from other races, 10,113 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 55,973 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 246,681 residents, 92,739 households, 58,611 families in the county. The population density was 75 people per square mile. There were 102,275 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.6% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.2% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. 16.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.9% were of German, 11.4% English, 9.7% Irish, 6.1% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 85.7% spoke English and 10.7% Spanish as their first language. There were 92,739 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.40% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families.
26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 105.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a