Riverside County, California
Riverside County is one of fifty-eight counties in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the 4th-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States; the name was derived from the city of Riverside, the county seat. Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area known as the Inland Empire; the county is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. There is a high concentration of sprawling tract housing communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10, 15, 215 freeways. Rectangular, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles in Southern California, spanning from the Greater Los Angeles area to the Arizona border. Geographically, the county is desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county; the resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of central Riverside County.
Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years to take advantage of affordable housing. Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the state prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into Southwest Riverside County from the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area; the cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007. Riverside County was named for the Santa Ana River in 1870; the indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. The Luiseño lived in the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County; the Cahuilla lived to the east and north of the Luiseño in the inland valleys, in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains and the desert of the Salton Sink. The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm, at the Luiseño village of Temecula.
Grain and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal. Following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, El Rincon in 1839, Rancho San Jacinto Viejo in 1842, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio in 1843, Ranchos La Laguna, Temecula in 1844, Ranchos Little Temecula, Potreros de San Juan Capistrano in 1845, Ranchos San Jacinto Sobrante, La Sierra, La Sierra, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero in 1846. New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the northern extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843; when the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850, the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853, the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County.
Between 1891 and 1893, several proposals and legislative attempts were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893; the new county was created from parts of San Diego County. On May 2, 1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County. Voters chose the city of Riverside as the county seat by a large margin. Riverside County was formed on May 9, 1893, when the Board of Commissioners filed the final canvass of the votes. Riverside County is the birthplace of lane markings, thanks to Dr. June McCarroll in 1915 when she suggested her idea to the state government; the county is the location of the March Air Reserve Base, one of the oldest airfields continuously operated by the United States military. Established as the Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918, it was one of thirty-two U.
S. Army Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917; the airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr. the deceased son of the then-Army Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. March, killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. March Field remained an active Army Air Service U. S. Army Air Corps installation throughout the interwar period becoming a major installation of the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Renamed March Air Force Base in 1947 following the establishment of the U. S. Air Force, it was a major Strategic Air Command installation throughout the Cold War. In 1996, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve Command and gained its current name as a major base for the Air Force Reserve and the California Air National Guard. Riverside county was a major focal point of the Civil Rights Movements in the US the African-American sections of Riverside and Mexican-American communities of the Coachella Valley visited by Cesar Chavez of the farm labor union struggle.
Riverside county has been a focus of modern Native American Gaming enterprises. In the early 1980s, the county government attempted to shut down small bingo halls operated by the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission In
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
The Chuckwalla Valley is a large valley in eastern Riverside County, named for a large lizard, the chuckwalla found in the arid Southwestern United States deserts. The region of the valley in southeast California, is the low elevation section of the Mojave Desert transitioning into the Colorado Desert, the northwest extension of the Sonoran Desert; the region is notable for valleys containing bajadas, sand dunes, intermittent, dry, or saline lakes. Chuckwalla Valley contains Ford Lake in the east-southeast; the south end of the valley expands northwest-by-southeast, contains Danby Dry Lake, a 13-mi Desert Center, California Valleys of Riverside County Ford Lake, coordinates & elevation at topozone.com Media related to Chuckwalla Valley at Wikimedia Commons
Annual average daily traffic
Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used in transportation planning, transportation engineering and retail location selection. Traditionally, it is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful, measurement of how busy the road is. Newer advances from GPS traffic data providers are now providing AADT counts by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance and improvement of highways. In the United States the amount of federal funding a state will receive is related to the total traffic measured across its highway network; each year on June 15, every state in the United States submits a Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS report. The HPMS report contains various information regarding the road segments in the state based on a sample of the road segments. In the report, the AADT is converted to vehicle miles traveled.
VMT is the AADT multiplied by the length of the road segment. To determine the amount of traffic a state has, the AADT cannot be summed for all road segments since an AADT is a rate; the VMT is summed and is used as an indicator of the amount of traffic a state has. For federal-funding, formulas are applied to include the VMT and other highway statistics. In the United Kingdom AADT is one of a number of measures of traffic used by local highway authorities, Highways England and the Department for Transport to forecast maintenance needs and expenditure. To measure AADT on individual road segments, traffic data is collected by an automated traffic counter, hiring an observer to record traffic or licensing estimated counts from GPS data providers. There are two different techniques of measuring the AADTs for road segments with automated traffic counters. One technique is called continuous count data collection method; this method includes sensors that are permanently embedded into a road and traffic data is measured for the entire 365 days.
The AADT is the sum of the total traffic for the entire year divided by 365 days. There can be problems with calculating the AADT with this method. For example, if the continuous count equipment is not operating for the full 365 days due to maintenance or repair; because of this issue, seasonal or day-of-week biases might skew the calculated AADT. In 1992, AASHTO released the AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, which identified a way to produce an AADT without seasonal or day-of-week biases by creating an "average of averages." For every month and day-of-week, a Monthly Average Day of Week is calculated. Each day-of-week's MADW is calculated across months to calculate an Annual Average Day of Week; the AADWs are averaged to calculate an AADT. The United States Federal Highway Administration has adopted this method as the preferred method in the. While providing the most accurate AADT, installing and maintaining continuous count stations method is costly. Most public agencies are only able to monitor a small percentage of the roadway using this method.
Most AADTs are generated using short-term data collection methods sometimes known as the coverage count data collection method. Traffic is collected with portable sensors that are attached to the road and record traffic data for 2 – 14 days; these are pneumatic road tubes although other more expensive technology such as radar, laser, or sonar exist. After recording the traffic data, the traffic counts on the same road segment are taken again in another three years. FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide recommends performing a short count on a road segment at a minimum of every three years. There are many methods used to calculate an AADT from a short-term count, but most methods attempt to remove seasonal and day-of-week biases during the collection period by applying factors created from associated continuous counters. Short counts are taken either by local government, or contractors. For the years when a traffic count is not recorded, the AADT is estimated by applying a factor called the Growth Factor.
Growth Factors are statistically determined from historical data of the road segment. If there is no historical data, Growth Factors from similar road segments are used. Annual average weekday traffic only includes Monday to Friday data. Public holidays are excluded from the AAWT calculation. Average summer daily traffic is a similar measure to the annual average daily traffic. Data collecting methods of the two are the same, however the ASDT data is collected during summer only; the measure is useful in areas where there are significant seasonal traffic volumes carried by a given road. Average daily traffic or ADT, sometimes mean daily traffic, is the average number of vehicles two-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period measured throughout a year. ADT is not as referred to as the engineering standard of AADT, the standard measurement for vehicle traffic load on a section of road, the basis for most decisions regarding transport planning, or to the environmental hazards of pollution related to road transport.
The 1992 Edition of the AASHTO Guidelines is out of date. The current edition is from 2018; the Gary Davis article was published in Transportation Research Record 1593, 1997. The date shown in the article is the date of an on-line posting. Florida New York State - Traffic Data Viewer - interactive map program graphically displays traffic data Oklahoma Virginia FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide New Zealand State Highway AADTs Louisiana AADTs
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California. Named after California Governor Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. the over 400-mile aqueduct is the principal feature of the California State Water Project. The aqueduct begins at the Clifton Court Forebay at the southwestern corner of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the aqueduct heads south splitting into three branches: the Coastal Branch, ending at Lake Cachuma in Santa Barbara County. The Department of Water Resources operates and maintains the California Aqueduct, including one pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, Gianelli Power Plant. Gianelli is located at the base of San Luis Dam, which forms San Luis Reservoir, the largest offstream reservoir in the United States; the Castaic Power Plant, while similar and, owned and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, is located on the northern end of Castaic Lake, while Castaic Dam is located at the southern end.
The aqueduct begins at the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta at the Banks Pumping Plant, which pumps from the Clifton Court Forebay. Water is pumped by the Banks Pumping Plant to the Bethany Reservoir; the reservoir serves as a forebay for the South Bay Aqueduct via the South Bay Pumping Plant. From the Bethany Reservoir, the aqueduct flows by gravity 60 mi to the O'Neill Forebay at the San Luis Reservoir. From the O'Neill Forebay, it flows 16 mi to the Dos Amigos Pumping Plant. After Dos Amigos, the aqueduct flows about 95 mi to where the Coastal Branch splits from the "main line"; the split is 16 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City. After the coastal branch, the line continues by gravity another 66 mi to the Buena Vista Pumping Plant. From the Buena Vista, it flows 27 mi to the Teerink Pumping Plant. After Teerink it flows about 2.5 mi to the Chrisman Pumping Plant. Chrisman is the last pumping plant before Edmonston Pumping Plant, 13 mi from Chrisman. South of the plant the west branch splits off in a southwesterly direction to serve the Los Angeles Basin.
At Edmonston Pumping Plant it is pumped 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. Water flows through the aqueduct in a series of abrupt rises and gradual falls; the water flows down a long segment, built at a slight grade, arrives at a pumping station powered by Path 66 or Path 15. The pumping station raises the water, where it again flows downhill to the next station. However, where there are substantial drops, the water's potential energy is recaptured by hydroelectric plants; the initial pumping station fed by the Sacramento River Delta raises the water 240 ft, while a series of pumps culminating at the Edmonston Pumping Plant raises the water 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Edmonston Pumping station requires so much power that several power lines off of Path 15 and Path 26 are needed to ensure proper operation of the pumps. A typical section has a concrete-lined channel 40 feet at the base and an average water depth of about 30 ft; the widest section of the aqueduct is 110 feet and the deepest is 32 feet.
Channel capacity is 13,100 cubic feet per second and the largest pumping plant capacity at Dos Amigos is 15,450 cubic feet per second. From its beginning until its first branch, the aqueduct passes through parts of Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Merced and Kings counties; the aqueduct divides into three branches: the Coastal Branch in the Central Valley, the East and West Branches after passing over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Coastal Branch splits from the main line 11.3 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City transiting Kings County, Kern County, San Luis Obispo County, Santa Barbara County to deliver water to the coastal cities of San Luis Obispo, Santa Maria, Santa Barbara. Coastal Branch is 116 mi and five pump stations. Phase I, an above ground aqueduct totals 15 mi from where it branches from the California Aqueduct, was completed in 1968. With construction beginning in 1994, Phase II consists of 101 mi of a 42–57-inch diameter buried pipeline extending from the Devils Den Pump Plant, terminates at Tank 5 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in Santa Barbara County.
The Central Coast Water Authority extension, completed in 1997, is a diameter pipeline that travels 42 mi from Vandenberg through Vandenberg Village, Lompoc and Solvang where it terminates at Lake Cachuma in Los Padres National Forest. Las Perillas Pumping Plant Badger Hill Pumping Plant Devil's Den Pumping Plant Bluestone Pumping Plant Polonia Pass Pumping Plant Polonio Pass Water Treatment Plant Cuesta Tunnel Santa Ynez Pumping Facility The aqueduct splits off into the East Branch and West Branch in extreme southern Kern County, north of the Los Angeles County line; the East Branch supplies Lake Palmdale and terminates at Lake Perris, in the area of the San Gorgonio Pass. It passes through parts of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside counties. Pearblossom Pumping Plant Alamo Power Plant Mojave Siphon Power Plant San Bernardino Tunnel Devil Canyon Power Plant Greenspot Pump Station Crafton Hills Reservoir Crafton Hills Pump Station Cherry Valley Pump Station The West Branch continues to head towards its terminus at Pyramid Lake and Castaic Lake in the Angeles National Forest to supply the western
California uses a postmile highway location marker system on all of its state highways, including U. S. Routes and Interstate Highways; the postmile markers indicate the distance a route travels through individual counties, as opposed to milestones that indicate the distance traveled through a state. The postmile system is the only route reference system used by the California Department of Transportation. California was the last state in the country to adopt mile markers, exit numbers were not implemented until 2002; the state started the Cal-NExUS program in 2002, which would create a uniform exit numbering system for freeways. Included was a pilot program for the placing of mile markers along rural freeways. Three freeway segments are a part of the experimental program: the Route 14 Freeway, the Route 58 Freeway in Kern County, State Route 180 in Fresno. Caltrans has not decided. Regardless, Caltrans will still maintain the postmile system on all freeways. A postmile marker is placed along the state highway.
Each marker is stenciled with the route and postmile at that location. One of the common formats for postmiles are located on a freeway on bridges over cross streets. According to Caltrans, it displays the name of the bridge, the county and route number, the postmile; the postmile is painted onto the piers and/or abutments of bridges and overpasses. These are the white metal paddle markers placed at one-mile intervals, with additional markers placed at significant features along the highway such as bridges and overpasses, junctions, or culverts; the markers are the same size as a standard milepost used elsewhere, but they are white with black text. These markers indicate turnouts and cross streets ahead. Postmiles are shown on callboxes. A blue placard is mounted on each of the state's callboxes, the top of which shows which county the callbox is in, on the bottom, it shows the 2-letter county abbreviation, along with the route number and the location's postmile. Postmiles on callboxes are approximate due to a convention that all callboxes on the northbound or eastbound side of a divided roadway are assigned numbers while all those on the southbound or westbound side are assigned odd numbers though the call boxes are located directly across from one another.
Alphabetic prefixes on postmile markers and bridges differ from callbox prefixes because the callbox system is maintained by each county, while Caltrans maintains postmile markers and bridge signs. The following table lists callbox prefixes by county. Listed in miles, postmile values increase from south to north or west to east depending upon the general direction the route follows within the state; the postmile values increase from the beginning of a route within a county to the next county line. The postmile values start over again at each county line. Enforcement officers, maintenance forces and others use the postmile markers in the field to locate specific incidents or features with reference to the postmile system. On some stretches of road, the following prefixes may precede the mileage on a postmile marker: Sonoma County, California uses a postmile system on its county roads, but the numbering starts at 10.00 rather than at a zero point. Los Angeles County uses a postmile system similar to the state’s, but their postmile markers contain a red bar on its topThe states of Nevada and Ohio use reference markers similar to California's postmile markers.
Like California, these two states record mileages through individual counties in their respective route logs. Ohio's system is nearly identical to California's with its reference markers listing the route number, 3-letter county abbreviation, mileage through the county; the Nevada system is similar, utilizing 2-letter county abbreviations. However, Ohio uses standard mileposts in addition to reference markers on freeways, while Nevada uses standard mileposts in conjunction with postmile panels on Interstate highways only. All non-Interstates in Illinois and Kentucky have markers showing mileage from the western or southern border of the county. California Roads portal Milestone Reference marker Caltrans Postmile Services