Interstate 405 (California)
Interstate 405 known as the San Diego Freeway is a major north–south Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass auxiliary route of Interstate 5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north; the entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway, passes the Los Angeles International Airport. The 405 is a traveled thoroughfare by both commuters and by freight haulers along its entire length and is the busiest and most congested freeway in the United States; the freeway's annual average daily traffic between exits 21 and 22 in Seal Beach reached 374,000 in 2008, making it the highest count in the nation. It has played a crucial role in the development of dozens of cities and suburbs along its route through Los Angeles and Orange counties. Interstate 405 begins at the El Toro Y interchange with Interstate 5 in southeastern Irvine, it runs northwest through Orange County to Long Beach in Los Angeles County.
The freeway roughly follows the outline of the Pacific coast, varying between five and ten miles inland before crossing over the Sepulveda Pass in the Santa Monica Mountains. I-405 travels through the San Fernando Valley, before its termination with I-5 in the Mission Hills district of Los Angeles. Large portions of the route parallel Sepulveda Boulevard; the freeway's congestion problems are legendary, leading to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at "four or five" miles per hour, or because drivers had spent "four or five" hours to travel anywhere. Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 mph are recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway and with the Santa Monica Freeway each rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the United States; as a result of these congestion problems, delays passing through the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area using this bypass route instead of using the primary route I-5 through Downtown may be present.
Of the major reasons for the excessively heavy traffic on the freeway, I-405 is the only major north–south freeway in the densely populated areas between West Los Angeles and Downtown, crossing the Santa Monica Mountains and connecting San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles basin. Another parallel freeway is proposed to connect the Valley and the LA basin, but has faced upper class home-owner opposition. Despite 4 years of construction disruptions, billions of dollars of public money, LA Times commentary claims traffic with the lane expansions is just as bad or worse. I-405 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the freeway from present-day I-10 to I-5 near San Fernando is known as the San Diego Freeway, less as the Sepulveda Freeway. There are a number of points of interest that I-405 connects to. For transportation, these include John Wayne Airport in Orange County, Long Beach Municipal Airport and Los Angeles International Airport.
With connections, it is very close to the Port of Long Beach, the Port of Los Angeles and Burbank Airport. Some of the educational institutions it passes include the California state universities at Dominguez Hills, Long Beach, Northridge. I-405 passes cultural facilities such as the Getty Center, the Skirball Cultural Center and the Segerstrom Center for the Arts. In addition, several shopping malls such as Sherman Oaks Galleria, Westfield Culver City, The Promenade at Howard Hughes Center, Westminster Mall, South Coast Plaza and the Irvine Spectrum Center are located along I-405; the route passes by or through many recreation and commercial destinations. These include more than ten California state beaches, several other beaches owned by counties and municipalities, many of the beach cities favored by tourists, as well as Century City and Marina del Rey. I-405 was approved as a chargeable interstate in 1955. Construction began in 1957 with the first section north of LAX Airport being completed in 1961 followed by sections west of Interstate 605 within the following few years.
The highway was renumbered to Interstate 405 during the 1964 renumbering. The final section covering most of Orange County opened in 1969. Construction required the existing Mulholland Highway to be re-routed 1.1 miles to the south along a new 579-foot-long bridge, the Mulholland Drive Bridge, to span Interstate 405. A section of I-405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011 as part of the Sepulveda Pass Improvements Project. Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as "Carmageddon" and "Carpocalypse", parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would impact traffic. In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. California Department of Transportation reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, those who did travel by road arrived more than on a normal weekend; the Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991.
Interstate 5 in California
Interstate 5 is a major north–south route of the Interstate Highway System in the U. S. state of California. It begins at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro crossing, goes north across the length of California, crosses into Oregon south of the Medford-Ashland metropolitan area, it is the more important and most-used of the two major north–south routes on the Pacific Coast, the other being U. S. Route 101, coastal; this highway links the major California cities of San Diego, Santa Ana, Los Angeles, Stockton and Redding. Among the major cities not directly linked by I-5, but which are connected by local highways to it, are San Francisco and San Jose, all of which are about 80 miles west of the highway. I-5 is referred to as "5" in Northern California, is called "the 5" in the Southern California area. I-5 has several named portions: the Montgomery Freeway, San Diego Freeway, Santa Ana Freeway, Golden State Freeway, West Side Freeway. I-5 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.
It is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System. I-5 begins at the San Ysidro Port of Entry from Mexico in the San Ysidro neighborhood of San Diego. After the border, I-805 splits off to the northeast and serves as a bypass of I-5 that avoids the downtown San Diego area. I-5 itself continues northwest and meets the western end of SR 905, a route that connects with the Otay Mesa border crossing. I-5 continues northward and joins the southern end of SR 75, a highway connecting to Coronado via the Silver Strand. I-5 enters Chula Vista leaving the San Diego city limits, it continues along the east side of San Diego Bay where it intersects with SR 54 and enters National City. From there, I-5 reenters the city limits of San Diego. I-5 subsequently intersects with four state routes: the southern end of SR 15, SR 75 and the Coronado Bay Bridge, the western end of SR 94, SR 163. In addition to serving downtown San Diego, I-5 provides access to Balboa Park from the Pershing Drive exit; the portion of I-5 from the Mexican border to downtown San Diego is named the Montgomery Freeway in honor of John J. Montgomery, a pioneer aviator who flew a glider from a location near Chula Vista in 1884.
I-5 continues northwest from downtown as the San Diego Freeway until it reaches its junction with I-8 turns to the north while passing SeaWorld and Mission Bay. Thereafter, I-5 intersections the western end of SR 52 near La Jolla before entering University City. At Nobel Drive, the San Diego LDS Temple towers over I-5. Shortly afterward, I-5 passes through the UC San Diego campus and intersects the northern terminus of I-805 before continuing north and intersecting the western end of SR 56. At this interchange, there is a local bypass that provides the only access to Carmel Mountain Road from both directions and provides the only direct access to SR 56 going northbound. North of the San Diego city limits, I-5 enters the city limits of Solana Beach, three incorporated cities to the north: Encinitas and Oceanside. In Oceanside, I-5 intersects the SR 78 freeway and the SR 76 expressway and continues through Camp Pendleton, it follows the Pacific Ocean coastline for the next 18 miles. Toward the northern end of its routing through Camp Pendleton, I-5 passes through San Onofre State Beach and near the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station.
This is near the site of the once-proposed interchange with the SR 241 toll road near Trestles, a result of the planned Foothill Toll Road extension. I-5 enters Orange County at the Christianitos Road exit. Upon entering Orange County, I-5 goes through San Clemente. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland. I-5 heads due north through San Juan Capistrano and Mission Viejo, intersecting the SR 73 toll road heading northwest. I-5 continues to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine, splitting into lanes for regular traffic as well as for truck traffic. From that point, I-405 takes over the San Diego Freeway designation, while I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest. After the El Toro Y junction, I-5 intersects SR 133, a toll road that connects to SR 241. Just before the Tustin city limits, I-5 passes over SR 261, the final toll road of the Eastern Transportation Corridor, but traffic must use Jamboree Road to access the latter. I-5 intersects SR 55 and enters Santa Ana, the county seat of Orange County.
Towards the northern side of Santa Ana, I-5 intersects both SR 57 and SR 22 in what is known as the Orange Crush interchange. Following this, I-5 enters the city of Orange and traverses Anaheim, passing along the north side of Disneyland. I-5 intersects SR 91, passes through Buena Park and crosses into Los Angeles County. After crossing the county line, I-5 goes through several cities southeast of Los Angeles, including La Mirada, Santa Fe Springs, Norwalk. In Downey, I-5 intersects I-605, which serves as a north-south connector route between the cities east of Los Angeles, including those in the San Gabriel Valley. I-5 passes through Commerce and intersects I-710 before entering the large unincorporated community of East Los Angeles and the city proper of Los Angeles; when the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east
California State Route 20
State Route 20 is a state highway in the northern-central region of the state of California, running east–west north of Sacramento. Its west end is at SR 1 in Fort Bragg, from where it heads east past Clear Lake, Yuba City and Nevada City to I-80 near Emigrant Gap, where eastbound traffic can continue on other routes to Lake Tahoe or Nevada. Portions of SR 20 are built near the routing of what was first a wagon road and a turnpike in the late 19th century; this road was extended through the state highway system all the way to Ukiah in the early 20th century, the missing link near Clear Lake was completed in 1932 before the official designation of this highway as SR 20 in 1934. There have been subsequent improvements to the road, such as the conversion of the Grass Valley portion of the route to freeway standards. State Route 20 begins at SR 1 less than 1 mile from the Pacific Ocean, it heads east climbing into the Mendocino Range along a ridge and crossing through Dunlap Pass. The highway continues to rise alongside the North Fork Big River and tributaries, crossing another summit and descending to Willits in the Little Lake Valley via Broaddus Creek.
An overlap with US 101 begins in Willits and heads southeasterly to Calpella, north of Ukiah in Redwood Valley. There SR 20 turns east again, crossing the Russian River, passing the north shore of Lake Mendocino, rising to a summit via the East Fork Russian River and Cold Creek; the roadway again descends alongside the Blue Lakes and Scotts Creek to the junction with SR 29 and the settlement of Upper Lake in the Clear Lake Basin. SR 20 follows the northeast shore of Clear Lake, staying right above the water line to avoid the adjacent hills. Where the lake ends, SR 20 continues east, intersecting SR 53 and following the North Fork Cache Creek and tributaries to the Lake-Colusa County line. During its final descent into the Sacramento Valley, SR 20 intersects SR 16 and curves north and back east, entering the valley via Salt Creek. Once it enters the flat Sacramento Valley, SR 20 takes a straight path, crossing I-5 in Williams, overlapping SR 45 near the west bank of the Sacramento River southeast from Colusa, turning back east to cross the Sacramento River and Sutter Bypass on its way to Yuba City.
The route crosses SR 99 west of central Yuba City, runs east through northern Yuba City to the Feather River, which it crosses on the 10th Street Bridge into Marysville. Within the central part of that city, SR 20 makes several turns, first turning south from 10th Street onto E Street east on 9th Street, north on B Street, east on 12th Street; the highway leaves Marysville to the northeast, paralleling the Yuba River on its north side as it enters the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. SR 20 rises into the Sierra along the north side of the Yuba River, crossing to the south side near Smartsville and climbing through several ravines to the Penn Valley; the current alignment, built in the mid-1980s as a two-lane freeway, continues east across rugged terrain to the city of Grass Valley, where it joins SR 49 on the Golden Center Freeway. The two routes travel northeast to Nevada City, where SR 49 turns northwest and SR 20 resumes its eastward course as a two-lane highway; the roadway climbs from Nevada City and follows Harmony Ridge and Washington Ridge before descending into the Bear Valley via a series of hairpin turns, climbing, just north of Emigrant Gap, to its end at I-80 at Yuba Pass.
The Pioneer Trail, a National Recreation Trail, parallels SR 20 from a point on Harmony Ridge to the Bear Valley, includes parts of a branch of the California Trail first used in 1850. SR 20 east of US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, although it is a two-lane surface road. All of SR 20 is on the Interregional Road System, a highway system that connects major economic centers of the state, has been selected by the California Department of Transportation as a High Emphasis Route and Focus Route from US 101 to SR 29 and SR 53 to I-80, with the designated corridor following SR 29 and SR 53 around the south side of Clear Lake, it is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System from SR 1 to SR 16 and SR 49 to I-80, has been designated as such for 6 miles near the east end. The east end of SR 20, from Bear Valley to Nevada City follows a branch of the Truckee Route of the California Trail, first used by California-bound emigrants in 1850. A turnpike was built here by the same company that opened the Pacific Turnpike in 1864.
By the end of the 1910s, a passable dirt and gravel road connected Ukiah and Nevada City via the south side of Clear Lake and Marysville. The portion between Lower Lake and Wilbur Springs was impassable in wet weather, at which times the Bartlett Springs and Bear Valley Toll-road via Upper Lake and Bartlett Springs was available for $1.50 each way or $2.50 round trip. This route followed the present SR 20, except around Clear Lake and between Marysville and Rough and Ready. Beyond Nevada City to Emigrant Gap, the old turnpike was not passable. Between Williams and Colusa, the road was paved in concrete, as it had been added to the state highway system as part
California State Route 55
State Route 55 is an 18-mile long north–south highway in the U. S. state of California. The portion of the route built to freeway standards is known as the Costa Mesa Freeway. SR 55 runs between Via Lido south of Pacific Coast Highway in Newport Beach and the Riverside Freeway in Anaheim to the north, intersecting other major Orange County freeways such as SR 22, SR 73, Interstate 405; the freeway passes through suburban Orange County. SR 55 was first added to the state highway system in 1931, known as part of Legislative Route 43, was routed on surface streets, it was renumbered SR 55 in 1959, the construction of the freeway portion began in the 1960s and continued until 1992. Due to congestion, several alternatives are being discussed to expand the freeway portion past its current end in Newport Beach. SR 55 received the first carpool lane in Orange County in 1985, the first direct carpool ramp in 1995. Starting at Via Lido on Newport Boulevard in Newport Beach, 0.3 miles south of SR 1, SR 55 is a four-lane expressway for 0.75 miles to its intersection with 17th Street in Costa Mesa.
It follows a traditional street routing through a retail and commercial section of Costa Mesa until its intersection with 19th Street. The segment on Newport Boulevard includes a limited-access interchange at SR 1. Following the 19th Street intersection, SR 55 becomes an eight-lane below-grade freeway that bisects the northbound and southbound lanes of Newport Boulevard until the Mesa Drive undercrossing. North of Fair Drive, SR 55 is an at-grade or above-grade freeway, with the exception of a 1 mile stretch between the 1st Street/4th Street exit and the 17th Street exit in Santa Ana, below-grade. SR 55 intersects I-405 next to John Wayne Airport; the freeway continues north into Santa Ana and Tustin, where there is an interchange with I-5. The southbound side of the Costa Mesa Freeway does not have a direct link to northbound I-5. SR 55 continues north into Orange, where it meets the eastern terminus of SR 22. Following this, the freeway continues due north until turning northeast to merge with SR 91 eastbound, intersecting ramps for SR 91 westbound near the Santa Ana River.
After the last exit, Lincoln Avenue and Nohl Ranch Road, there is an entrance to a toll road from the HOV lane called the 91 Express Lanes. Today, SR 55 is a travelled corridor linking southern Orange County with SR 91, the main corridor between the Inland Empire and the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, as well as I-5, the main north–south corridor for California. A HOV lane has been built along the entire freeway portion, with some off- and on-ramps, including one for I-5. However, congestion is still prevalent throughout the day, as is the norm with many Orange County freeways. SR 55 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 55 from SR 91 to Costa Mesa is known as the Costa Mesa Freeway, as named by Assembly Concurrent Resolution 177, Chapter 86 in 1976. SR 55 was built in 1931 and numbered Route 43, it was built from the southern terminus of SR 1 and continued northbound on the same route it follows today, following Newport Road northeast to Tustin, Tustin Avenue north to near its current terminus at SR 91.
From here, Route 43 continued east on. In 1959, the highway was renumbered as Route 55, its route was shortened from Route 1 to the also-renumbered Route 91; the freeway portion from Chapman Avenue to SR 91 opened on January 18, 1962, at a cost of $4.6 million. The segment between SR 73 and Chapman Avenue opened in 1966. SR 55 was the first freeway in Orange County to receive carpool lanes, opened in October 1985 between I-405 and SR 91; the stretch of SR 55 between Mesa Drive and 19th Street in Costa Mesa was opened in 1992. In 1995, the direct carpool lane ramps between I-5 and SR 55 were completed; the year saw further widening of SR 55 between SR 22 and McFadden Avenue. Between 1996 and 2002, the fifth lane in both directions was constructed between I-5 and SR 91, funded with a sales tax of half a cent approved by Measure M. In April 2007, the Orange County Transportation Authority approved funds to study the feasibility of extending the Costa Mesa Freeway south to 17th Street via tunnels or flyover ramps.
The segment of SR 55 from Finley Street to the Newport Channel bridge was authorized to be turned over to the city of Newport Beach in 2009. In the mid 2000s, Caltrans began adding the city of Anaheim as a control city on State Route 55 North. Signs that mention State Route 55 North would have the newer reflective posting pasted over the button sign or would be replaced with a new one that says "Anaheim/Riverside" to reflect this change. SR 55 was called the Newport Freeway. In 2010, the stretch between Chapman and Katella avenues in the City of Orange was renamed the Paul Johnson Freeway for longtime local radio television traffic reporter Paul Johnson, who died the same year; the entire route is in Orange County. California Roads portal California @ AARoads.com - State Route 55 Caltrans: Route 55 highway conditions California Highways: SR 55
California State Route 39
State Route 39 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California that travels through Orange and Los Angeles counties. Its southern terminus is in Huntington Beach. SR 39's northern terminus is at Islip Saddle on Angeles Crest Highway in the Angeles National Forest, but its northernmost 4.5-mile segment has been closed to the public since 1978 due to a massive mud and rockslide. A portion of SR 39 from Stanton Avenue in Buena Park to Interstate 5 is now under the city of Buena Park's control, as Caltrans relinquished that portion in 2013. Since 2001, a portion of SR 39 that runs through the city of Stanton is being considered to be relinquished to the city. If so, the portion that runs through the city of Anaheim will still be state controlled. Major places of interest that SR 39 passes through are Knott's Berry Farm, an amusement park, Adventure City, another amusement park targeted for children, Huntington Beach, a local beach, a Medieval Times location, the Buena Park Auto Center, the Westridge Golf Course in La Habra.
State Route 39 runs along Beach Boulevard, with the exception of the segment between Interstate 5 and the southern city limit of Buena Park, relinquished to the city in 2013. At Beach Boulevard's northerly terminus, Whittier Boulevard, Route 39 turns east to the intersection of Whittier Boulevard with Harbor Boulevard, taking over a former segment of Route 72. Route 72 remains on Whittier Boulevard west of Beach Boulevard. From 0.1-mile north of Grovecenter Street to the north limit of Azusa, 0.7-mile northeast of Rock Springs Way adopted Route 39 has been relinquished. However, to aid motorists wishing to continue on Route 39, California Route 39 shields remain through the relinquished area, it is noted that the portion of Route 39 within West Covina was relinquished to that city in accordance with Section 339 of the California Streets and Highways Code in 2005. In the city of Azusa from just north of Interstate 210 to just north of Sierra Madre Ave. Former Route 39 is a couplet: northbound traffic is on Azusa Ave..
At the north limit of Azusa, adopted Route 39 begins again as San Gabriel Canyon Road. Route 39 winds through the San Gabriel Mountains in the Angeles National Forest for 22.6 miles until it reaches a gate barring the road 0.25 miles north of Crystal Lake Road in the Crystal Lake Recreation Area. The last six miles of the route, including the connection to Route 2, are closed to public highway traffic, as the roadbed has been closed since 1978, due to major rock slides that year and again in 2005 which damaged more of the remaining roadbed; as of 2019, Google Maps lists this section of the road as an "available" route to connect to Route 2, but the section is, in fact, closed. A replacement of the section north of East Fork Road, in the next canyon to the east, was built in 1936 and 1961, but was never completed; the section includes two tunnels. In one local hiking guide the section is identified as the "Road to Nowhere" and the "Convict Road", although the official name is the Shoemaker Road and was planned to be an escape route in times of nuclear warfare.
A ca. 1967 replacement, much closer to the existing alignment, was stopped prematurely, so the middle of the segment between East Fork Road and the closure gate, with its many hairpin curves, still exists. SR 39 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, the urban portions of SR 39 are part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 39 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. Although defined to be a continuous route, there is a break in adopted Route 39 at the intersection of Whittier Boulevard with Harbor Boulevard, where an "END 39" sign appears. Since 1992, when the Harbor Boulevard extension opened, the California Streets and Highways Code defines the continuation of Route 39 as "Harbor Boulevard to the vicinity of Fullerton Road, Colima Road west, Azusa Avenue north" through southwestern Rowland Heights.
After the overlap on Beach Boulevard, Route 39 used to turn north on Hacienda Road to the junction with the I-10 and followed for a mile before separating on Azusa Avenue, but that portion has since been relinquished to Los Angeles County and Route 39 was relocated to end on Harbor Boulevard. The planned alignment of Route 39 continues its northward progress on Azusa Avenue to the northwest in Hacienda Heights. Adopted Route 39 resumes and signs for Route 39 appear on Azusa Avenue after the junction with the San Bernardino Freeway, Interstate 10 in West Covina; the adopted route continues for 1.0-mile to the Covina/West Covina city limit, 0.1-mile north of Grovecenter Street. Prior to the present before reaching Harbor Boulevard, SR 39 continued north from Whittier Boulevard along Hacienda Road to the Los Angeles/Orange County line north on Hacienda Boulevard and Glendora Avenue to US 60, 70, 99 in West Covina, it continued east with US 60, 70, 99 to Azusa Avenue where it turned north to follow the present alignment as described beginning in the fourth paragraph of the preceding section.
The Hacienda Glendora segment can still be seen as Route 39 on some maps. Prior to 1991, Harbor Boulevard would become Fullerton Road heading northward at the Los Angeles/Orange County Line, would continue north as Ful
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
Orange is a city located in Orange County, California. It is 3 miles north of the county seat, Santa Ana. Orange is unusual in this region because many of the homes in its Old Town District were built before 1920. While many other cities in the region demolished such houses in the 1960s, Orange decided to preserve them; the small city of Villa Park is surrounded by the city of Orange. The population was 139,812 as of 2014. Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño ethnic group long inhabited this area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá, an expedition out of San Blas, Mexico, led by Father Junípero Serra, named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain. In 1801, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres to José Antonio Yorba, which he named Rancho San Antonio. Yorba's great rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today.
Smaller ranchos evolved from this large rancho, including the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, a retired known Spanish soldier and the area's first landowner, was granted permission in 1809 by the Spanish colonial government to establish a rancho in "the place of the Arroyo de Santiago." After the Mexican–American War, Alta California was ceded to the United States by México with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, though many Californios lost titles to their lands in the aftermath, Grijalva's descendants retained ownership through marriages to Anglo-Americans. Since at least 1864, Los Angeles attorneys Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell together and separately, held about 5,400 acres along both sides of the Santiago Creek. Water was the key factor for the location of their townsite. Glassell needed a spot he could irrigate, bringing water down from the Santa Ana Canyon and the quality of the soil may have influenced his choice; the community was named Richland, but in 1873 Richland got a new name.
In the book, "Orange, The City'Round The Plaza" by local historian Phil Brigandi, it states, "In 1873 the town had grown large enough to require a post office, so an application was sent to Washington. It was refused, however, as there was a Richland, California in Sacramento County. Undaunted, the Richlanders proposed a new name – Orange." The small town was incorporated on April 1888, under the general laws of the state of California. Orange was the only city in Orange County to be planned and built around a plaza, earned it the nickname Plaza City. Orange was the first developed town site to be served by the California Southern Railroad when the nation's second transcontinental rail line reached Orange County; the town experienced its first growth spurt during the last decade of the 19th century, thanks to ever-increasing demands for California-grown citrus fruits, a period some refer to as the "Orange Era." Southern California's real estate "boom" of 1886–1888, fueled by railroad rate wars contributed to a marked increase in population.
Like most cities in Orange County, agriculture formed the backbone of the local economy, growth thereafter was slow and steady until the 1950s, when a second real estate boom spurred development. Inspired by the development of a region-wide freeway system which connected Los Angeles' urban center with outlying areas like Orange, large tracts of housing were developed from the 1950s to the early 1970s, this continues today, albeit at a much slower pace, at the eastern edge of the city; the city has a total area of 25.2 square miles, 24.8 square miles of, land and 0.4 square miles of, water. The total area is 1.75% water. Southern California is well known for year-round pleasant weather: – On average, the warmest month is August. – The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F in June 2016. – On average, the coolest month is December. – The lowest recorded temperature was 29 °F in December 1990. – The maximum average precipitation occurs in January. The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 74 to 84 °F and lows of 52 to 64 °F.
Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Orange County, where temperatures exceed 90 °F and reach 100 °F. The period of November through March is somewhat rainy; the Orange County area is subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over 1 °F per mile from the coast inland. California has a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom" or "May Gray," which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, but gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer; the Orange County area averages 15 in of precipitation annually, which occurs during the winter and spring with light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. Coastal Torrance receives less rainfall, while the mountains receive more. Snowfall is rare in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits receive snowfall every winter.
Old Towne, Orange Historic District