California Department of Transportation
The California Department of Transportation is an executive department of the US state of California. The department is part of the cabinet-level California State Transportation Agency. Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. Caltrans manages the state's highway system, which includes the California Freeway and Expressway System, is involved with public transportation systems throughout the state, it supports Amtrak's Capitol Corridor. In 2015, Caltrans released a new mission statement: "Provide a safe, sustainable and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability." The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, created by the California Legislature and signed into law by Governor James Budd in 1895. This agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no state highway system. California's roads consisted of crude dirt roads maintained by county governments, as well as some paved roads within city boundaries, this ad hoc system was no longer adequate for the needs of the state's growing population.
After the commissioners submitted their report to the governor on November 25, 1896, the legislature replaced the Bureau with the Department of Highways. Due to the state's weak fiscal condition and corrupt politics, little progress was made until 1907, when the legislature replaced the Department of Highways with the Department of Engineering, within which there was a Division of Highways. California voters approved an US$18 million bond issue for the construction of a state highway system in 1910, the first California Highway Commission was convened in 1911. On August 7, 1912, the department broke ground on its first construction project, the section of El Camino Real between South San Francisco and Burlingame, which became part of California State Route 82; the year 1912 saw the founding of the Transportation Laboratory and the creation of seven administrative divisions, which are the predecessors of the 12 district offices in use as of 2018. The original seven division headquarters were located in: Willits Mercantile Building for Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties Redding C.
R. Briggs Building for Lassen, Shasta, Siskiyou and Trinity counties Sacramento Forum Building for Alpine, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Nevada, Plumas, San Joaquin, Solano, Sutter, Tuolumne and Yuba counties San Francisco Rialto Building for Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Sonoma counties San Luis Obispo Union National Bank Building for Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties Fresno Forsythe Building for Fresno, Kern, Madera, Merced and Tulare counties Los Angeles Union Oil Building for Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura countiesIn 1913, the California State Legislature began requiring vehicle registration and allocated the resulting funds to support regular highway maintenance. In 1921, the state legislature turned the Department of Engineering into the Department of Public Works; the history of Caltrans and its predecessor agencies during the 20th century was marked by many firsts. It was one of the first agencies in the United States to paint centerlines on highways statewide.
In late 1972, the legislature approved a reorganization, suggested by a study initiated by then-Governor Ronald Reagan, in which the Department of Public Works was merged with the Department of Aeronautics to become the modern California Department of Transportation. For administrative purposes, Caltrans divides the State of California into 12 districts, supervised by district offices. Most districts cover multiple counties; the largest districts by population are District 4 and District 7. Like most state agencies, Caltrans maintains its headquarters in Sacramento, covered by District 3. Transportation in California State highways in California United States Department of Transportation List of roads and highways Official website Named Highways, Freeways and Other Appurtenances in California
State Scenic Highway System (California)
The State Scenic Highway System is a list of highways state highways, that have been designated by the California Department of Transportation as scenic highways. The California State Legislature makes state highways eligible for designation as a scenic highway. For a highway to be declared scenic, the government with jurisdiction over abutting land must adopt a "scenic corridor protection program" that limits development, outdoor advertising, earthmoving, Caltrans must agree that it meets the criteria; the desire to create such a designation has at times been in conflict with the property rights of abutters, for example on State Route 174. Scenic highways are marked by a California poppy, inside a rectangle or pentagon. State Route 1I-5 in San Juan Capistrano to SR 19 in Long Beach SR 187 near Santa Monica to US 101 near El Rio US 101 at Las Cruces to SR 246 in Lompoc Designated 1971-12-14 in Santa Barbara County: US 101 at Las Cruces to Lompoc SR 227 near Oceano to US 101 in Pismo Beach US 101 in San Luis Obispo to SR 35 in Daly City Designated 1999-08-13 in San Luis Obispo County: San Luis Obispo to Monterey County Designated 1965-06-07 in Monterey County: San Luis Obispo County to Carmel River Designated 1970-05-21 in Monterey County: Carmel River to SR 68 in Monterey Designated 1976-06-25 in San Mateo County: Santa Cruz County to Half Moon Bay SR 35 to US 101 in San Francisco US 101 near Marin City to US 101 at LeggettState Route 2I-210 in La Cañada Flintridge to SR 138 near Wrightwood Designated 1971-05-12 in Los Angeles County: La Cañada Flintridge to San Bernardino CountyState Route 3SR 36 near Peanut to MontagueState Route 4SR 160 in Antioch to SR 84 near Brentwood SR 49 in Angels Camp to SR 89 near Markleeville Designated 1971-11-09 in Calaveras County: Arnold to Alpine County Designated 1970-09-14 in Alpine County: Calaveras County to SR 89 near MarkleevilleInterstate 5Mexico to SR 75 in southern San Diego SR 75 near Downtown San Diego to SR 74 in San Juan Capistrano I-210 in Sylmar to SR 126 in Santa Clarita SR 152 near Los Banos to I-580 near Tracy Designated 1968-10-25 in Merced County: SR 152 near Los Banos to Stanislaus County Designated 1968-10-25 in Stanislaus County: Merced County to San Joaquin County Designated 1974-06-07 in San Joaquin County: Stanislaus County to I-580 near Tracy SR 44 in Redding to Shasta Lake SR 89 near Mount Shasta to US 97 in Weed SR 3 in Yreka to OregonInterstate 8Sunset Cliffs Boulevard in San Diego to SR 98 near OcotilloState Route 9SR 1 in Santa Cruz to SR 17 in Los Gatos Designated 1979-10-18 in Santa Clara County: SR 35 at Saratoga Gap to Saratoga Sunnyvale Road in Saratoga Designated 1968-05-02 in Santa Clara County: Saratoga Sunnyvale Road in Saratoga to Los GatosInterstate 10SR 38 in Redlands to SR 62 near White WaterState Route 12US 101 in Santa Rosa to SR 121 near Sonoma Designated 1974-12-17 in Sonoma County: Santa Rosa to Agua Caliente State Route 14SR 58 near Mojave to US 395 near Little LakeInterstate 15SR 76 near Pala to SR 91 in Corona SR 58 in Barstow to SR 127 at BakerState Route 16SR 20 near Rumsey to CapayState Route 17SR 1 in Santa Cruz to SR 9 in Los GatosState Route 18SR 138 at Crestline to SR 247 at Lucerne ValleyState Route 20SR 1 in Fort Bragg to SR 16 near Rumsey SR 49 in Grass Valley to I-80 near Emigrant Gap Designated 1971-03-12 in Nevada County: Relief to Bear ValleyState Route 24Caldecott Tunnel near Oakland to I-680 in Walnut Creek Designated 1982-10-22 in Contra Costa County: Caldecott Tunnel near Oakland to I-680 in Walnut CreekState Route 25SR 198 near Priest Valley to SR 156 near HollisterState Route 27SR 1 at Topanga Beach to Mulholland Drive in Los AngelesState Route 28SR 89 in Tahoe City to NevadaState Route 29SR 37 in Vallejo to SR 221 near Napa Trancas Street in Napa to SR 20 near Upper LakeState Route 33US 101 in Ventura to SR 166 near Cuyama Designated 1972-02-18 in Ventura County: Wheeler Springs to near Sespe Gorge Designated 1988-07-11 in Ventura County: near Sespe Gorge to near Pine Mountain Ridge Road Designated 1972-02-18 in Ventura County: near Pine Mountain Ridge Road to near Lockwood Valley Road Designated 1988-07-11 in Ventura County: near Lockwood Valley Road to Santa Barbara CountyState Route 35SR 17 near Redwood Estates to SR 1 in San Francisco Designated 1968-09-13 in San Mateo County: Santa Cruz County to near Page Mill Road Designated 1968-01-22 in San Mateo County: near Page Mill Road to SR 92 near Crystal Springs ReservoirState Route 36US 101 near Fortuna to SR 3 near PeanutState Route 37SR 251 near Nicasio to SR 29 in VallejoState Route 38I-10 in Redlands to SR 18 at Big Bear Dam Designated 1968-03-19 in San Bernardino County: Santa Ana River to State Lane near SugarloafState Route 39I-210 in Azusa to SR 2 at Islip SaddleInterstate 40Barstow to NeedlesState Route 41SR 1 in Morro Bay to US 101 in Atascadero SR 46 near Cholame to SR 33 at Reef Station SR 49 at Oakhurst to Yosemite National ParkState Route 44I-5 in Redding to SR 89 near Old StationState Route 46SR 1 near Cambria to SR 41 near CholameState Route 49SR 41 at Oakhurst to SR 89 at Sattley Designated 1971-07-14 in Sierra County: Yuba County to Yuba PassU.
S. Route 50SR 49 in Placerville to Nevada Designated 1985-04-02 in El Dorado County: Placerville Drive in Placerville to Echo Summit Designated 1986-04-01 in El Dorado County: Echo Summit to South Lake TahoeState Route 52I-5 in San Diego to SR 67 in SanteeState Route 53SR 29 at Lower Lake to SR 20 near ClearlakeState Route 57SR 90 in Brea to SR 60 near IndustryState Route 58SR 14 near Mojave to I-15 in BarstowState Route 62I-10 near White Water to Arizona Designated 1972-09-14 in Riverside County: I-10 near White Water to San Bernardino CountyState Route 68Monterey to US 101 in Salinas Designated 1968-06-19 in Monterey County: SR 1 in Monterey to Salinas Rive
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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California uses a postmile highway location marker system on all of its state highways, including U. S. Routes and Interstate Highways; the postmile markers indicate the distance a route travels through individual counties, as opposed to milestones that indicate the distance traveled through a state. The postmile system is the only route reference system used by the California Department of Transportation. California was the last state in the country to adopt mile markers, exit numbers were not implemented until 2002; the state started the Cal-NExUS program in 2002, which would create a uniform exit numbering system for freeways. Included was a pilot program for the placing of mile markers along rural freeways. Three freeway segments are a part of the experimental program: the Route 14 Freeway, the Route 58 Freeway in Kern County, State Route 180 in Fresno. Caltrans has not decided. Regardless, Caltrans will still maintain the postmile system on all freeways. A postmile marker is placed along the state highway.
Each marker is stenciled with the route and postmile at that location. One of the common formats for postmiles are located on a freeway on bridges over cross streets. According to Caltrans, it displays the name of the bridge, the county and route number, the postmile; the postmile is painted onto the piers and/or abutments of bridges and overpasses. These are the white metal paddle markers placed at one-mile intervals, with additional markers placed at significant features along the highway such as bridges and overpasses, junctions, or culverts; the markers are the same size as a standard milepost used elsewhere, but they are white with black text. These markers indicate turnouts and cross streets ahead. Postmiles are shown on callboxes. A blue placard is mounted on each of the state's callboxes, the top of which shows which county the callbox is in, on the bottom, it shows the 2-letter county abbreviation, along with the route number and the location's postmile. Postmiles on callboxes are approximate due to a convention that all callboxes on the northbound or eastbound side of a divided roadway are assigned numbers while all those on the southbound or westbound side are assigned odd numbers though the call boxes are located directly across from one another.
Alphabetic prefixes on postmile markers and bridges differ from callbox prefixes because the callbox system is maintained by each county, while Caltrans maintains postmile markers and bridge signs. The following table lists callbox prefixes by county. Listed in miles, postmile values increase from south to north or west to east depending upon the general direction the route follows within the state; the postmile values increase from the beginning of a route within a county to the next county line. The postmile values start over again at each county line. Enforcement officers, maintenance forces and others use the postmile markers in the field to locate specific incidents or features with reference to the postmile system. On some stretches of road, the following prefixes may precede the mileage on a postmile marker: Sonoma County, California uses a postmile system on its county roads, but the numbering starts at 10.00 rather than at a zero point. Los Angeles County uses a postmile system similar to the state’s, but their postmile markers contain a red bar on its topThe states of Nevada and Ohio use reference markers similar to California's postmile markers.
Like California, these two states record mileages through individual counties in their respective route logs. Ohio's system is nearly identical to California's with its reference markers listing the route number, 3-letter county abbreviation, mileage through the county; the Nevada system is similar, utilizing 2-letter county abbreviations. However, Ohio uses standard mileposts in addition to reference markers on freeways, while Nevada uses standard mileposts in conjunction with postmile panels on Interstate highways only. All non-Interstates in Illinois and Kentucky have markers showing mileage from the western or southern border of the county. California Roads portal Milestone Reference marker Caltrans Postmile Services
Santa Barbara County, California
Santa Barbara County, California the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895; the county seat is Santa Barbara, the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the county's economy include engineering, resource extraction, winemaking and education; the software development and tourism industries are important employers in the southern part of the county. Southern Santa Barbara County is sometimes considered the northern cultural boundary of Southern California; the Santa Barbara County area, including the Northern Channel Islands, was first settled by Native Americans at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence has been found in the form of a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara Coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s.
For thousands of years, the area was home to the Chumash tribe of Native Americans, complex hunter-gatherers who lived along the coast and in interior valleys leaving rock art in many locations, including Painted Cave. Europeans first contacted the Chumash in AD 1542, when three Spanish ships under the command of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo explored the area; the Santa Barbara Channel received its name from Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno when he sailed along the California coast in 1602. Spanish ships associated with the Manila Galleon trade made emergency stops along the coast during the next 167 years, but no permanent settlements were established; the first land expedition to explore California, led by Gaspar de Portolà explored the coastal area in 1769, on its way to Monterey Bay. The party traveled the same route on the return to San Diego in January 1770; that same year, a second expedition to Monterey again passed through the area. The DeAnza expeditions of 1774-76 followed Portola's trail.
The Presidio of Santa Barbara was established in 1782, followed by Mission Santa Barbara in 1786 – both in what is now the city of Santa Barbara. The presidio and mission kept Vizcaino's denomination, as did the city and county – a common practice which has preserved the names of many of the 21 California Missions. European contacts had devastating effects on the Chumash people, including a series of disease epidemics that drastically reduced Chumash population; the Chumash survived and thousands of Chumash descendants still live in the Santa Barbara area or surrounding counties. A tribal homeland was established in the Santa Ynez Reservation. Following the Mexican secularization of the missions in the 1830s, the mission pasture lands were broken up into large ranchos and granted to prominent local citizens who lived in the area. 604 of these land grants were confirmed by the state of California, with 36 in Santa Barbara County. Santa Barbara County was one of the 27 original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood.
The county's territory was divided to create Ventura County in 1873. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,789 square miles, of which 2,735 square miles is land and 1,054 square miles is water. Four of the Channel Islands – San Miguel Island, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Rosa Island and Santa Barbara Island – are in Santa Barbara County, they form the largest part of the Channel Islands National Park. Santa Barbara County has a mountainous interior abutting several coastal plains on the west and south coasts of the county; the largest concentration of population is on the southern coastal plain, referred to as the "south coast" – meaning the part of the county south of the Santa Ynez Mountains. This region includes the cities of Santa Barbara and Carpinteria, as well as the unincorporated areas of Hope Ranch, Mission Canyon and Isla Vista, along with stretches of unincorporated area such as Noleta/Nanta Barbara. North of the Santa Ynez range in the Santa Ynez Valley are the towns of Santa Ynez, Buellton, Lompoc.
North of the Santa Ynez Valley are the cities of Santa Maria and Guadalupe, the unincorporated towns of Orcutt, Los Alamos, Casmalia and Sisquoc. In the extreme northeastern portion of the county are the small cities of New Cuyama and Ventucopa; as of January 1, 2006, Santa Maria has become the largest city in Santa Barbara County. The principal mountain ranges of the county are the Santa Ynez Mountains in the south, the San Rafael Mountains and Sierra Madre Mountains in the interior and northeast. Most of the mountainous area is within the Los Padres National Forest, includes two wilderness areas: the San Rafael Wilderness and the Dick Smith Wilderness; the highest elevation in the county is 6820 feet at Big Pine Mountain in the San Rafaels. North of the mountains is the arid and sparsely populated Cuyama Valley, portions of which are in San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Oil production and agriculture dominate the land use in the owned parts of the Cuyama Valley.
A viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans for crossing a valley, dry or wetland, or forming an overpass or flyover. The term is conventional for a rail flyover as opposed to a flying junction or a rail bridge which crosses one feature; the term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for ducere, to lead. The ancient Romans did not use the term. Like the Roman aqueducts, many early viaducts comprised a series of arches of equal length; the longest in antiquity may have been the Pont Serme. At its longest point, it measured 2,679 meters with a width of 22 meters. Viaducts are used in many cities that are railroad centers, such as Chicago, Birmingham and Manchester; these viaducts cross the large railroad yards that are needed for freight trains there, cross the multi-track railroad lines that are needed for heavy railroad traffic. These viaducts keep highway and city street traffic from having to be continually interrupted by the train traffic; some viaducts carry railroads over large valleys, or they carry railroads over cities with many cross-streets and avenues.
Many viaducts over land connect points of similar height in a landscape by bridging a river valley or other eroded opening in an otherwise flat area. Such valleys had roads descending either side that become inadequate for the traffic load, necessitating a viaduct for "through" traffic; such bridges lend themselves for use by rail traffic, which requires straighter and flatter routes. Some viaducts have more than one deck, such that one deck has vehicular traffic and another deck carries rail traffic. One example of this is the Prince Edward Viaduct in Toronto, Canada, that carries motor traffic on the top deck as Bloor Street, metro as the Bloor-Danforth subway line on the lower deck, over the steep Don River valley. Others were built to span settled areas, crossing over roads beneath—the reason for many viaducts in London. Viaducts over water make use of successive arches, they are combined with other types of bridges or tunnels to cross navigable waters as viaduct sections, while less expensive to design and build than tunnels or bridges with larger spans lack sufficient horizontal and vertical clearance for large ships.
See the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel. The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the river Tarn near Millau in southern France. Designed by the French bridge engineer Michel Virlogeux, in collaboration with architect Norman Robert Foster, it is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world, with one pier's summit at 343 metres —slightly taller than the Eiffel Tower and only 38 m shorter than the Empire State Building, it was formally opened to traffic two days later. The viaduct Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge in China is the longest bridge in the world according to Guinness World Records as of 2011. Where a viaduct is built across land rather than water, the space below the arches may be used for businesses such as car parking, vehicle repairs, light industry and nightclubs. In the United Kingdom, many railway lines in urban areas have been constructed on viaducts, so the infrastructure owner Network Rail has an extensive property portfolio in arches under viaducts. In Berlin the space under the arches of elevated subway lines is used for several different purposes, including small eateries or bars.
A notable exception to this trend is in the U. S. City of Chicago, where parking regulations forbid parking in a viaduct/underpass; this is worth noting for anybody traveling to Chicago, since the law is irregular and there is no signage or notice of the rule. Elevated expressways were built in major cities such as Boston, Tokyo, Toronto; some were demolished because they were divided the city. However, in developing nations such as Thailand, China, Pakistan, Nicaragua elevated expressways have been built and more are under construction to improve traffic flow as a workaround of land shortage when built atop surface roads. In Indonesia viaducts are used for railways in Java and for highways such as the Jakarta Inner Ring Road; the Coulée verte René-Dumont in Paris, France is a disused viaduct, converted to an urban park in 1993. On January 11, 2019 the Viaduct closed for good after so many years