Sequoia National Park
Sequoia National Park is an American national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California. The park was established on September 25, 1890 to protect 404,064 acres of forested mountainous terrain. Encompassing a vertical relief of nearly 13,000 feet, the park contains the highest point in the contiguous United States, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet above sea level; the park is south of, contiguous with, Kings Canyon National Park. UNESCO designated the areas as Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976; the park is notable for its giant sequoia trees, including the General Sherman tree, the largest tree on Earth. The General Sherman tree grows in the Giant Forest, which contains five of the ten largest trees in the world; the Giant Forest is connected by the Generals Highway to Kings Canyon National Park's General Grant Grove, home of the General Grant tree among other giant sequoias. The park's giant sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.
The parks preserve a landscape that still resembles the southern Sierra Nevada before Euro-American settlement. Many park visitors enter Sequoia National Park through its southern entrance near the town of Three Rivers at Ash Mountain at 1,700 ft elevation; the lower elevations around Ash Mountain contain the only National Park Service-protected California Foothills ecosystem, consisting of blue oak woodlands, foothills chaparral, yucca plants, steep, mild river valleys. The region is home to abundant wildlife: bobcats, ground squirrels and mule deer are seen in this area, more reclusive mountain lions and the Pacific fisher are seen as well; the last California grizzly was killed in this park in 1922. The California Black Oak is a key transition species between the chaparral and higher elevation conifer forest. At higher elevations in the front country, between 5,500 and 9,000 feet in elevation, the landscape becomes montane forest-dominated coniferous belt. Found here are Ponderosa, Jeffrey and lodgepole pine trees, as well as abundant white and red fir.
Found here too are the giant sequoia trees, the most massive living single-stem trees on earth. Between the trees and summer snowmelts sometimes fan out to form lush, though delicate, meadows. In this region, visitors see mule deer, Douglas squirrels, American black bears, which sometimes break into unattended cars to eat food left by careless visitors. There are plans to reintroduce the bighorn sheep to this park; the vast majority of the park is roadless wilderness. 84 percent of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks is designated wilderness and is accessible only by foot or by horseback. Sequoia's backcountry offers a vast expanse of high-alpine wonders. Covering the highest-elevation region of the High Sierra, the backcountry includes Mount Whitney on the eastern border of the park, accessible from the Giant Forest via the High Sierra Trail. On a traveler's path along this 35-mile backcountry trail, one passes through about 10 miles of montane forest before reaching the backcountry resort of Bearpaw Meadow, just short of the Great Western Divide.
Continuing along the High Sierra Trail over the Great Western Divide via Kaweah Gap, one passes from the Kaweah River Drainage, with its characteristic V-shaped river valleys, into the Kern River drainage, where an ancient fault line has aided glaciers in the last ice age to create a U-shaped canyon, perfectly straight for nearly 20 miles. On the floor of this canyon, at least two days hike from the nearest road, is the Kern Canyon hot spring, a popular resting point for weary backpackers. From the floor of Kern Canyon, the trail ascends again over 8,000 ft to the summit of Mount Whitney. At Mount Whitney, the High Sierra Trail meets with the John Muir Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail, which continue northward along the Sierra crest and into the backcountry of Kings Canyon National Park; the area which now comprises Sequoia National Park was first home to "Monachee" Native Americans, who resided in the Kaweah River drainage in the Foothills region of the park, though evidence of seasonal habitation exists as high as the Giant Forest.
In the summertime, Native Americans would travel over the high mountain passes to trade with tribes to the East. To this day, pictographs can be found at several sites within the park, notably at Hospital Rock and Potwisha, as well as bedrock mortars used to process acorns, a staple food for the Monachee people. By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, smallpox had spread to the region, decimating Native American populations; the first European settler to homestead in the area was Hale Tharp, who famously built a home out of a hollowed-out fallen giant sequoia log in the Giant Forest next to Log Meadow. Tharp allowed his cattle to graze the meadow, but at the same time had a respect for the grandeur of the forest and led early battles against logging in the area. From time to time, Tharp received visits from John Muir. Tharp's Log can still be visited today in its original location in the Giant Forest. However, Tharp's attempts to conserve the giant sequoias were at first met with only limited success.
In the 1880s, white settlers seeking to create a utopian society founded the Kaweah Colony, which sought economic success in trading Sequoia timber. However, Giant Sequoia trees, unlike
State Scenic Highway System (California)
The State Scenic Highway System is a list of highways state highways, that have been designated by the California Department of Transportation as scenic highways. The California State Legislature makes state highways eligible for designation as a scenic highway. For a highway to be declared scenic, the government with jurisdiction over abutting land must adopt a "scenic corridor protection program" that limits development, outdoor advertising, earthmoving, Caltrans must agree that it meets the criteria; the desire to create such a designation has at times been in conflict with the property rights of abutters, for example on State Route 174. Scenic highways are marked by a California poppy, inside a rectangle or pentagon. State Route 1I-5 in San Juan Capistrano to SR 19 in Long Beach SR 187 near Santa Monica to US 101 near El Rio US 101 at Las Cruces to SR 246 in Lompoc Designated 1971-12-14 in Santa Barbara County: US 101 at Las Cruces to Lompoc SR 227 near Oceano to US 101 in Pismo Beach US 101 in San Luis Obispo to SR 35 in Daly City Designated 1999-08-13 in San Luis Obispo County: San Luis Obispo to Monterey County Designated 1965-06-07 in Monterey County: San Luis Obispo County to Carmel River Designated 1970-05-21 in Monterey County: Carmel River to SR 68 in Monterey Designated 1976-06-25 in San Mateo County: Santa Cruz County to Half Moon Bay SR 35 to US 101 in San Francisco US 101 near Marin City to US 101 at LeggettState Route 2I-210 in La Cañada Flintridge to SR 138 near Wrightwood Designated 1971-05-12 in Los Angeles County: La Cañada Flintridge to San Bernardino CountyState Route 3SR 36 near Peanut to MontagueState Route 4SR 160 in Antioch to SR 84 near Brentwood SR 49 in Angels Camp to SR 89 near Markleeville Designated 1971-11-09 in Calaveras County: Arnold to Alpine County Designated 1970-09-14 in Alpine County: Calaveras County to SR 89 near MarkleevilleInterstate 5Mexico to SR 75 in southern San Diego SR 75 near Downtown San Diego to SR 74 in San Juan Capistrano I-210 in Sylmar to SR 126 in Santa Clarita SR 152 near Los Banos to I-580 near Tracy Designated 1968-10-25 in Merced County: SR 152 near Los Banos to Stanislaus County Designated 1968-10-25 in Stanislaus County: Merced County to San Joaquin County Designated 1974-06-07 in San Joaquin County: Stanislaus County to I-580 near Tracy SR 44 in Redding to Shasta Lake SR 89 near Mount Shasta to US 97 in Weed SR 3 in Yreka to OregonInterstate 8Sunset Cliffs Boulevard in San Diego to SR 98 near OcotilloState Route 9SR 1 in Santa Cruz to SR 17 in Los Gatos Designated 1979-10-18 in Santa Clara County: SR 35 at Saratoga Gap to Saratoga Sunnyvale Road in Saratoga Designated 1968-05-02 in Santa Clara County: Saratoga Sunnyvale Road in Saratoga to Los GatosInterstate 10SR 38 in Redlands to SR 62 near White WaterState Route 12US 101 in Santa Rosa to SR 121 near Sonoma Designated 1974-12-17 in Sonoma County: Santa Rosa to Agua Caliente State Route 14SR 58 near Mojave to US 395 near Little LakeInterstate 15SR 76 near Pala to SR 91 in Corona SR 58 in Barstow to SR 127 at BakerState Route 16SR 20 near Rumsey to CapayState Route 17SR 1 in Santa Cruz to SR 9 in Los GatosState Route 18SR 138 at Crestline to SR 247 at Lucerne ValleyState Route 20SR 1 in Fort Bragg to SR 16 near Rumsey SR 49 in Grass Valley to I-80 near Emigrant Gap Designated 1971-03-12 in Nevada County: Relief to Bear ValleyState Route 24Caldecott Tunnel near Oakland to I-680 in Walnut Creek Designated 1982-10-22 in Contra Costa County: Caldecott Tunnel near Oakland to I-680 in Walnut CreekState Route 25SR 198 near Priest Valley to SR 156 near HollisterState Route 27SR 1 at Topanga Beach to Mulholland Drive in Los AngelesState Route 28SR 89 in Tahoe City to NevadaState Route 29SR 37 in Vallejo to SR 221 near Napa Trancas Street in Napa to SR 20 near Upper LakeState Route 33US 101 in Ventura to SR 166 near Cuyama Designated 1972-02-18 in Ventura County: Wheeler Springs to near Sespe Gorge Designated 1988-07-11 in Ventura County: near Sespe Gorge to near Pine Mountain Ridge Road Designated 1972-02-18 in Ventura County: near Pine Mountain Ridge Road to near Lockwood Valley Road Designated 1988-07-11 in Ventura County: near Lockwood Valley Road to Santa Barbara CountyState Route 35SR 17 near Redwood Estates to SR 1 in San Francisco Designated 1968-09-13 in San Mateo County: Santa Cruz County to near Page Mill Road Designated 1968-01-22 in San Mateo County: near Page Mill Road to SR 92 near Crystal Springs ReservoirState Route 36US 101 near Fortuna to SR 3 near PeanutState Route 37SR 251 near Nicasio to SR 29 in VallejoState Route 38I-10 in Redlands to SR 18 at Big Bear Dam Designated 1968-03-19 in San Bernardino County: Santa Ana River to State Lane near SugarloafState Route 39I-210 in Azusa to SR 2 at Islip SaddleInterstate 40Barstow to NeedlesState Route 41SR 1 in Morro Bay to US 101 in Atascadero SR 46 near Cholame to SR 33 at Reef Station SR 49 at Oakhurst to Yosemite National ParkState Route 44I-5 in Redding to SR 89 near Old StationState Route 46SR 1 near Cambria to SR 41 near CholameState Route 49SR 41 at Oakhurst to SR 89 at Sattley Designated 1971-07-14 in Sierra County: Yuba County to Yuba PassU.
S. Route 50SR 49 in Placerville to Nevada Designated 1985-04-02 in El Dorado County: Placerville Drive in Placerville to Echo Summit Designated 1986-04-01 in El Dorado County: Echo Summit to South Lake TahoeState Route 52I-5 in San Diego to SR 67 in SanteeState Route 53SR 29 at Lower Lake to SR 20 near ClearlakeState Route 57SR 90 in Brea to SR 60 near IndustryState Route 58SR 14 near Mojave to I-15 in BarstowState Route 62I-10 near White Water to Arizona Designated 1972-09-14 in Riverside County: I-10 near White Water to San Bernardino CountyState Route 68Monterey to US 101 in Salinas Designated 1968-06-19 in Monterey County: SR 1 in Monterey to Salinas Rive
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Fresno is a city in California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern portion of California's Central Valley. Named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885; the city has since become an economic hub of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley, with much of the surrounding areas in the Metropolitan Fresno region predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. The population of Fresno grew from a 1960 census population of 134,000 to a 2000 census population of 428,000. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 527,438, Fresno is the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous city in the Central Valley, the most populous inland city in California, the 34th-most populous city in the nation. Fresno is near the geographical center of California.
It lies 220 miles north of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, 185 miles southeast of San Francisco. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, Sequoia National Park is 75 miles to the southeast; the original inhabitants of the San Joaquin Valley region were the Yokuts people and Miwok people, who engaged in trading with other Californian tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. The first European to enter the San Joaquin Valley was Pedro Fages in 1772; the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River; the county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings and Mono counties.
Millerton on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry and Elkhorn Springs; the San Joaquin River flooded on December 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQueen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.
Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew into the town of Fresno Station called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track. In 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. In carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno; when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires ravaged American frontier towns.
The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded. Fresno entered the ranks of the 100 most populous cities in the United States in 1960 with a population of 134,000. Thirty years in the 1990 census, it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, in the census of 2000, it achieved 37th place with 428,000; the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund site. Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, Chinatown. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Fresno's population as 94.0% white, 3.3% black and 2.7% Asian..
During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps. The Fresno Fairgrounds were utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development in the perio
California County Routes in zone J
There are 45 routes assigned to the "J" zone of the California Route Marker Program, which designates county routes in California. The "J" zone includes county highways in Alameda, Contra Costa, Kern, Mariposa, Sacramento, San Benito, San Joaquin and Tulare counties. County Route J1 is a county road in San Fresno counties; the route begins in Paicines, San Benito County, at State Route 25. Between Paicines and Panoche Valley, J1 is known as Panoche Road, its north–south portion between Panoche Valley and Fresno County is called Little Panoche Road. In Fresno County, the route intersects with Interstate 5 and terminates in Mendota at State Route 33 near State Route 180 in the Central Valley. East of Interstate 5, the alignment of J1 follows Fresno County's West Shields Avenue. Shields Avenue ends at North Fairfax Avenue. J1 continues south 2 miles on Fairfax Avenue to West Belmont Avenue, at which location J1 proceeds east on Belmont Avenue until its end at State Routes 33 and 180. Panoche Road lies within the corridor of an unbuilt Route 180 segment.
No current plan exists to extend Route 180 westward from Mendota past Interstate 5 and into San Benito County. Parts of J1 just west of I-5 are gravel rather than paved. County Route J2 is a series of streets and roads in the California counties of Alameda and San Joaquin. J2 begins at Interstate 580's interchange with Portola Avenue in Livermore; the route follows Portola to Livermore Avenue, where J2 turns southward to pass through Livermore's downtown. The highway continues past the southeast edge of Livermore to become Tesla Road and rise into the Diablo Range, which separates the outer San Francisco Bay Area from the San Joaquin Valley. At the Alameda-San Joaquin county line, J2 becomes Corral Hollow Road and enters the narrow valley of the same name. Upon approaching the San Joaquin Valley, the road turns northward, meeting Interstate 580 again and arriving at the southern subdivisions of Tracy. After passing through this city, the road intersects Interstate 205, shifts onto Lammers Road, soon turns northward onto Tracy Boulevard.
Here J2 crosses the sea-level Union and Roberts Islands in the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta before terminating at State Route 4. County Route J3 is a county road in central California that runs 35 miles north-south through Stanislaus and San Joaquin Counties; the route begins 2 miles east of Vernalis as Kasson Road, running northward from the road's intersection with State Route 132. After 3 miles the route meets Airport Way and follows it northward 21 miles past Manteca and French Camp into Stockton. J3 follows West Lane 10 miles out from Stockton and becomes Hutchins Street for the route's last 1 mile; the route reaches its northern end at State Route 12 near Lodi. The highway is known as Stanislaus County Route J3 and San Joaquin County Route J3, though all but 1 mile of the route is within San Joaquin County. County Route J4 is a county road in central California that runs 28 miles nominally north–south across portions of San Joaquin County, Alameda County and Contra Costa County that are growing in population and suburbanization.
The highway connects the suburbs of the far outer East Bay and the Sacramento River Delta with the northern San Joaquin Valley. The route begins 9 miles southeast of Tracy at County Route J3, passes through Tracy and Byron, terminates at State Route 4 between Discovery Bay and Brentwood; the portion between Tracy and Brentwood lies along the unconstructed corridor of State Route 239. SAFETEA-LU, federal legislation enacted in 2005, authorized $14 million in federal appropriations toward construction of the route. County Route J5 is a county road in California that runs for about 30 miles, it begins at State Route 99's interchange with Jack Tone Road in Ripon. Following Jack Tone Road, CR J5 passes through SR 120 east of Manteca and State Routes 4 and 26 east of Stockton, it curves northwest where it is co-routed with SR 88 at a right turn in Lockeford for a short distance before leaving SR 88 at a left turn at Elliot Road. It leads to Peltier Road, where CR J5 ends. County Road J6 is a county road in Stanislaus Counties.
Its northern terminus is at Route 26 at Bellota, 4 miles east of Linden. South of Highway 26, it carries the name Escalon-Bellota Road, runs due south, crossing Route 4 at Farmington; the route continues due south to a junction with Route 120 at Escalon, where it continues due south as McHenry Avenue before ending at a junction with Route 108 near Del Rio. County Route J7 parallels State Route 99 to the east and follows the Santa Fe Railroad between Merced and Stockton, it connects several smaller communities including Atwater, Cressey, Denair, Empire, Riverbank and French Camp. Route Description The southern terminus for County Route J7 is at SR 59 in Merced, locally known as The Snelling Highway; the route is locally signed as Santa Fe Drive. From this point, it travels north for 12 mi through Merced County, passing by the former site of Castle Air Force Base in Atwater. Upon crossing the Merced River, the route continues in Stanislaus County for another 20 mi until it reaches the community of Empire.
In Empire, the route co-signs with SR 132 for just over 1 mi before turning onto Claus Road, where it skirts the eastern edge of Modesto. The route follows Claus Road for 6.5 mi, passing the former site of the Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant as well as the Rainbow Fields sports park. County Route J7 follows locally
Visalia is a city situated in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley of California 230 miles southeast of San Francisco, 190 miles north of Los Angeles, 36 miles west of Sequoia National Park and 43 miles south of Fresno. The population was 130,104 as of a 2015 U. S. Census Bureau estimate. Visalia is the 5th largest city in the San Joaquin Valley after Fresno, Bakersfield and Modesto; as the county seat of Tulare County, Visalia serves as the economic and governmental center to one of the most productive single agricultural counties in the country. Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks are located in the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains, the highest mountain range in the contiguous United States; the area around Visalia was first settled by the Yokuts and Mono Native American tribes hundreds of years ago. It is unknown when the first Europeans arrived, but the first to make a written record of the area was Pedro Fages in 1722; when California achieved statehood in 1850, Tulare County did not exist.
The land, now Tulare County was part of the huge County of Mariposa. In 1852, some pioneers settled in the area called Four Creeks; the area got its name from the many watershed creeks and rivers flowing from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. All the water resulted in a widespread swampy area with a magnificent oak forest; the industrious group of settlers petitioned the state legislature for county status and on July 10 of that same year, Tulare County became a reality. One of the first inhabitants of a fort built by the settlers was Nathaniel Vise. Nathaniel was responsible for surveying the new settlement. In November 1852, he wrote, "The town contains from 60–80 inhabitants, 30 of whom are children of school age; the town is located upon one of the subdivisions of the Kaweah River and is destined to be the county seat of Tulare." In 1853, that prediction became Visalia has remained the county seat since that time. Visalia is named for Nathaniel Vise's ancestral home, Kentucky. Early growth in Visalia can be attributed in part to the gold rush along the Kern River.
The gold fever brought many transient miners through Visalia along the way and when the lure of gold failed to materialize, many returned to Visalia to live their lives and raise families. In 1859 Visalia was added to John Butterfield's Overland Stage route from St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco. A plaque commemorating the location can be found at 116 East Main Street. Included in the early crop of citizens were some notorious and nasty individuals who preyed upon the travelers along the Butterfield Stage route. Many saloons and hotels sprouted up around the stage stop downtown and commerce was brisk if a bit risky; the next memorable event was the arrival of the telegraph in 1860. Visalians could get timely information of the events taking place on the East Coast which would develop into the American Civil War. During the Civil War, many citizens of Visalia couldn't decide whether Visalia should stand on the side of the North or the South, so they had a Mini Civil War of their own on Main Street.
No one knows the outcome of the war, but it was concluded to the satisfaction of the participants and life returned to normal. The federal government, was not so convinced, reacting to concern about sedition, banned Visalia's pro-South Equal Rights Expositor newspaper and established a military garrison. Camp Babbitt was built in 1862 to stop overt Southern support as well as maintain law and order in the community. During these Civil War years, Visalia was incorporated; the second incorporation in 1874 moved Visalia into city status with a common council and an ex-officio Mayor and President. In 1893, the train bandits and murderers John Sontag and Chris Evans were apprehended, badly wounded, outside Visalia in what is called the Battle of Stone Corral. Sontag died three weeks in police custody in Fresno. In 1904, the Visalia Electric Railroad was incorporated. In October 1933, Visalia was the site of a fact-finding committee appointed by Governor James Rolph and charged with investigating labor violence in the San Joaquin cotton strike.
Labor activist Caroline Decker led hundreds of strikers in a march on the courthouse, led the questioning of strikers during the investigation. In the mid-1970s, the area was known for the serial burglaries of the as yet unidentified Visalia Ransacker. More Visalia served as a host city for the Amgen Tour of California in 2009 and 2010; the city is divided into neighborhoods, some of which were incorporated communities. There are several independent cities around Visalia that are popularly grouped with the city of Visalia, due to its immediate vicinity; the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Visalia, North Visalia, The Eastside, Southwest Visalia, the Industrial Area and the Westside. Visalia has a rich architectural history including many extant buildings dating to the mid-late 1800s. Throughout the town center are many historic brick structures, including the Bank of Italy and the Art Deco/Beaux-Arts Visalia Town Center Post Office, both of which are registered with the National Register of Historic Places.
In addition to many other historic buildings and Victorian houses, Visalia is home to a distinctive Fox Theatre, restored by a community group known as "Friends of the Fox" and serves as a live venue for music and stage performances. Visalia is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of 36.3 square miles, of which 36.3 square miles is land
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a