California Department of Transportation
The California Department of Transportation is an executive department of the US state of California. The department is part of the cabinet-level California State Transportation Agency. Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. Caltrans manages the state's highway system, which includes the California Freeway and Expressway System, is involved with public transportation systems throughout the state, it supports Amtrak's Capitol Corridor. In 2015, Caltrans released a new mission statement: "Provide a safe, sustainable and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability." The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, created by the California Legislature and signed into law by Governor James Budd in 1895. This agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no state highway system. California's roads consisted of crude dirt roads maintained by county governments, as well as some paved roads within city boundaries, this ad hoc system was no longer adequate for the needs of the state's growing population.
After the commissioners submitted their report to the governor on November 25, 1896, the legislature replaced the Bureau with the Department of Highways. Due to the state's weak fiscal condition and corrupt politics, little progress was made until 1907, when the legislature replaced the Department of Highways with the Department of Engineering, within which there was a Division of Highways. California voters approved an US$18 million bond issue for the construction of a state highway system in 1910, the first California Highway Commission was convened in 1911. On August 7, 1912, the department broke ground on its first construction project, the section of El Camino Real between South San Francisco and Burlingame, which became part of California State Route 82; the year 1912 saw the founding of the Transportation Laboratory and the creation of seven administrative divisions, which are the predecessors of the 12 district offices in use as of 2018. The original seven division headquarters were located in: Willits Mercantile Building for Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties Redding C.
R. Briggs Building for Lassen, Shasta, Siskiyou and Trinity counties Sacramento Forum Building for Alpine, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Nevada, Plumas, San Joaquin, Solano, Sutter, Tuolumne and Yuba counties San Francisco Rialto Building for Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Sonoma counties San Luis Obispo Union National Bank Building for Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties Fresno Forsythe Building for Fresno, Kern, Madera, Merced and Tulare counties Los Angeles Union Oil Building for Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura countiesIn 1913, the California State Legislature began requiring vehicle registration and allocated the resulting funds to support regular highway maintenance. In 1921, the state legislature turned the Department of Engineering into the Department of Public Works; the history of Caltrans and its predecessor agencies during the 20th century was marked by many firsts. It was one of the first agencies in the United States to paint centerlines on highways statewide.
In late 1972, the legislature approved a reorganization, suggested by a study initiated by then-Governor Ronald Reagan, in which the Department of Public Works was merged with the Department of Aeronautics to become the modern California Department of Transportation. For administrative purposes, Caltrans divides the State of California into 12 districts, supervised by district offices. Most districts cover multiple counties; the largest districts by population are District 4 and District 7. Like most state agencies, Caltrans maintains its headquarters in Sacramento, covered by District 3. Transportation in California State highways in California United States Department of Transportation List of roads and highways Official website Named Highways, Freeways and Other Appurtenances in California
A state highway, state road, or state route is a road, either numbered or maintained by a sub-national state or province. A road numbered by a state or province falls below numbered national highways in the hierarchy. Roads maintained by a state or province include both nationally numbered highways and un-numbered state highways. Depending on the state, "state highway" may be used for one meaning and "state road" or "state route" for the other. In some countries such as New Zealand, the word "state" is used in its sense of a sovereign state or country. By this meaning a state highway is a road maintained and numbered by the national government rather than local authorities. Australia's State Route system covers urban and inter-regional routes that are not included in the National Route or the National Highway systems; these routes are marked with a blue shield. Sometimes a state route may be formed. Most states and territories have introduced an alphanumeric route numbering system, either or replacing the previous systems.
Brazil is another country, divided into states and has state highways. Canada is divided into provinces and territories, each of which maintains its own system of provincial or territorial highways, which form the majority of the country's highway network. There is the national transcontinental Trans-Canada Highway system, marked by distinct signs, but has no uniform numeric designation across the country. In some provinces, for instance, an unnumbered Trans-Canada route marker is posted below a numbered provincial sign, with the provincial route continuing alone outside the Trans-Canada Highway section. In others, Trans-Canada routes are co-signed with major provincial highways, displayed as a single numbered Trans-Canada route marker. Canada has a designated National Highway System, but the system is unsigned, aside from the Trans-Canada routes. In Germany, state roads are a road class, ranking below the federal road network; the responsibility for road planning and maintenance is vested in the federal states of Germany.
Most federal states use the term Landesstraße, while for historical reasons Saxony and Bavaria use the term Staatsstraße. The appearance of the shields differs from state to state; the term Lande-s-straße should not be confused with Landstraße, which describes every road outside built-up areas and is not a road class. Italy's Strade Statali extend for some 18,000 km, overseen by the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade founded in 1946, replacing the A. A. S. S. of 1928. State highways in India are numbered highways that are maintained by state governments. Mexico's State Highway System is a system of urban and state routes constructed and maintained by each Mexican state; the main purpose of the state networks is to serve as a feeder system to the federal highway system. All states except the Federal District operate a road network; each state marks these routes with a white shield containing the abbreviated name of the state plus the route number. New Zealand state highways are national highways – the word "state" in this sense means "government" or "public", not a division of a country.
New Zealand's state highway system is a nationwide network of roads covering the North Island and the South Island. As of 2006, just under 100 roads have a "State Highway" designation; the NZ Transport Agency administers them. The speed limit for most state highways is 100 km/h, with reductions when one passes through a densely populated area; the highways in New Zealand were designated on a two-tier system and provincial, with national highways having a higher standard and funding priorities. Now all of them are state highways, the network consists of SH 1 running the length of both main islands, SH 2–5 and 10–58 in the North Island, SH 6–8 and 60–99 in the South Island. National and provincial highways are numbered north to south. State Highway 1 runs the length of both islands. Local highways are the next important roads under the National highways; the number has three, or four dights. Highways with two-digit numbers routes are called State-funded local highways. State highways are a mixture of primary and secondary roads, although some are freeways.
Each state has its own system for its own marker. The default marker is a white circle containing a black sans serif number, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices; however each state is free to choose a different marker, most states have. States may choose a design theme relevant to its state to distinguish state route markers from interstate, county, or municipal route markers. Roads portal List of longest state highways in the United States List of numbered highways in the United States Interstate Highway System, U. S. Highway System Missouri supplemental route County highway Highways in Australia Numbered street
Nevada State Route 28
State Route 28 is a 16.3-mile road that runs along the northeastern shore of Lake Tahoe. SR 28 starts at US 50 and ends at the California state line at Crystal Bay, continuing across the border as SR 28. SR 28 is part of the National Scenic Byway system since September 1996, the state scenic byway system since June 1994; the highway serves Washoe County as well as a rural part of Carson City. SR 28 was designated in 1948, has not changed since it was first paved. SR 28 begins at U. S. Route 50 in Douglas County, Nevada, it heads north from there, forming part of the boundary of Lake Tahoe – Nevada State Park until crossing into Carson City. The highway enters Washoe County, where the highway enters Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, it turns northwest, running through Incline Village. In western Incline Village, SR 28 junctions with SR 431, a direct link to Reno to the northeast. Just short of the California state line, it turns south to run parallel to the line and crosses into California at Crystal Bay.
The road continues west of the California border as California State Route 28. The route has been designated as the north piece of the Lake Tahoe–Eastshore Drive Scenic Byway, as part of the National Scenic Byway program. SR 28 was designated as a state scenic byway. SR 28 is not part of the National Highway System. Around 11,300 cars use SR 28 on average each day; the road that became SR 28 was paved around 1932, has been used for flumes in the timber industry since 1880. The route first appeared with the same general alignment as it has today; the highway gained fame for many years as the location of the Ponderosa Ranch, filming location of the television series Bonanza. On June 7, 1994, the Nevada Department of Transportation designated SR 28 as a scenic byway, named North Shore Road. In September 1996, SR 28 and part of US 50 was designated as Lake Tahoe - Eastshore Drive, a National Scenic Byway. Note: Mileposts in Nevada reset at county lines. Nevada portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Nevada State Route 28 at Wikimedia Commons AARoads: Nevada 28
Kings Beach, California
For the suburb & beach in Queensland, see Kings Beach, Queensland. Kings Beach is a census-designated place in Placer County, United States on the north shore of Lake Tahoe, it is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 3,796 at the 2010 census, down from 4,037 at the 2000 census; the town's post office was erected in 1937. It was shut down between the years of 1942-1945; the area's name is after Joe King. Kings Beach is located at 39°14′28″N 120°1′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.4 square miles, all of it land. California State Route 28 passes through Kings Beach along the Lake Tahoe shore. California State Route 267 meets Route 28 in Kings Beach and connects the town to Northstar and Interstate 80. Kings Beach has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, characterized by warm dry summers, snowy winters. Due to its high elevation Kings Beach winters tend to fall below freezing for many days during the winter.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Kings Beach had a population of 3,796. The population density was 1,103.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Kings Beach was 3,216 White, 15 African American, 20 Native American, 14 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 409 from other races, 120 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,115 persons; the Census reported that 3,717 people lived in households, 79 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,362 households, out of which 487 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 589 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 106 had a female householder with no husband present, 81 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 134 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 381 households were made up of individuals and 72 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73. There were 776 families.
The population was spread out with 924 people under the age of 18, 400 people aged 18 to 24, 1,405 people aged 25 to 44, 842 people aged 45 to 64, 225 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 125.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.8 males. There were 2,372 housing units at an average density of 689.7 per square mile, of which 552 were owner-occupied, 810 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.3%. 1,379 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,338 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,037 people, 1,411 households, 788 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,176.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,284 housing units at an average density of 665.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 70.03% White, 0.72% Black or African American, 1.88% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 23.61% from other races, 3.34% from two or more races.
48.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,411 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.1% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.69. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 38.0% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 122.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $35,507, the median income for a family was $37,837. Males had a median income of $25,880 versus $21,571 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,556. About 17.1% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over.
In November, 2009 non-native California Golden beavers were caught in snares underwater and exterminated in Griff Creek, a stream in King's Beach, California when Placer County Department of Public Works ordered their removal for fear that the beaver would cause flooding. Although an invasive species to the area, recent studies of two other Lake Tahoe tributaries, Taylor Creek and Ward Creek, showed that beaver dam removal decreased wetland habitat, increased stream flow, increased total phosphorus pollutants entering Lake Tahoe - all factors which negatively impact the clarity of the lake's water. Beavers improve water quality. Flow devices such as "Beaver Deceivers" are used to control water heights in beaver ponds instead of killing beavers, as the latter is only a temporary remedy, for beavers recolonize prime habitat quickly. In fact, in October 2010 Placer County officials again exterminated non-native beavers at King's Beach only to have schoolchildren protest and suggest more contemporary management solutions.
Placer County, California
Placer County the County of Placer, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 348,432; the county seat is Auburn. Placer County is included in the Greater Sacramento metropolitan area, it is in what is known as the Gold Country. The county stretches 65 miles from Sacramento's suburbs at Roseville to the Nevada border and the shore of Lake Tahoe; the discovery of gold in 1848 brought tens of thousands of miners from around the world during the California Gold Rush. In addition, many more thousands came to provide services to the miners. Only three years after the discovery of gold, the fast-growing county was formed from portions of Sutter and Yuba counties on April 25, 1851, with Auburn as the county seat. Placer County took its name from the Spanish word for gravel deposits containing gold. Miners washed away the gravel, leaving the heavier gold, in a process known as "placer mining". Gold mining was a major industry through the 1880s, but the new residents turned to farming the fertile foothill soil, harvesting timber and working for the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Auburn was settled when Claude Chana discovered gold in Auburn Ravine in May 1848 and became a shipping and supply center for the surrounding gold camps. The cornerstone of Placer's beautiful and historic courthouse, visible from Interstate 80 through Auburn, was laid on July 4, 1894; the building itself was renovated during the late 1980s and continues to serve the public today with courtrooms, a historic sheriff's office and the Placer County Museum. Roseville, once a small agricultural center, became a major railroad center and grew to the county's most populous city after Southern Pacific Railroad moved its railroad switching yards there in 1908. Loomis and Newcastle began as mining towns, but soon became centers of a booming fruit-growing industry, supporting many local packing houses. Penryn was founded by a Welsh miner, Griffith Griffith, who turned from mining to establish a large granite quarry. Rocklin became home to a number of granite quarries. Lincoln and Sheridan continue to support farming.
Lincoln is the home of one of the county's oldest businesses, the Gladding, McBean terra cotta clay manufacturing plant established in 1875. The 1960 Winter Olympics were hosted in Squaw Valley, located in Placer County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,502 square miles, of which 1,407 square miles is land and 95 square miles is water. Watercourses in Placer County include the American Bunch Creek. Lake Tahoe has 40.96% of its surface area in Placer County, more than in any of the four other counties in which it lies. Nevada County - north Washoe County, Nevada - northeast Carson City, Nevada - east Douglas County, Nevada - southeast Amador County - east El Dorado County - south Sacramento County - southwest Sutter County - west Yuba County - northwest Eldorado National Forest in part Tahoe National Forest in part The 2010 United States Census reported that Placer County had a population of 348,432; the racial makeup of Placer County was 290,977 White, 4,751 African American, 3,011 Native American, 20,435 Asian, 778 Pacific Islander, 13,375 from other races, 15,105 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44,710 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 248,399 people, 93,382 households, 67,701 families residing in the county; the population density was 177 people per square mile. There were 107,302 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.6% White, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 9.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.5% were of German, 12.3% English, 10.6% Irish, 7.1% Italian and 7.0% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 89.7% spoke only English at home. There were 93,382 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,535, the median income for a family was $65,858. Males had a median income of $50,410 versus $33,763 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,963. About 3.9% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Unemployment in the county is just under 7%, lower than the state's average. County government is by a five-person four-year term elected board of supervisors with a board-appointed county manager and his/her department administrators; the Placer County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, jail administration, coroner services for all of Placer County.
It provides patrol and other police services for the uni
State highways in California
The state highway system of the U. S. state of California is a network of highways that are owned and maintained by the Highway Division of the California Department of Transportation. Each highway is assigned a Route number in the Streets and Highways Code. Most of these are numbered in a statewide system, are known as State Route X. United States Numbered Highways are labeled US X, Interstate Highways are Interstate X. Under the code, the state assigns a unique Route X to each highway, does not differentiate between state, US, or Interstate highways; the California Highway Patrol is tasked with patrolling all state highways to enforce traffic laws. California's highway system is governed pursuant to Division 1 of the California Streets and Highways Code. Since July 1 of 1964, the majority of legislative route numbers, those defined in the Streets and Highways Code, match the sign route numbers. For example, Interstate 5 is listed as "Route 5" in the code. On the other hand, some short routes are instead signed as parts of other routes — for instance, Route 112 and Route 260 are signed as part of the longer State Route 61, Route 51 is part of Interstate 80 Business.
Concurrences are not explicitly codified in the Streets and Highways Code. The state may turn them over to local control. If the relinquished segment is in the middle of the highway's route, the local jurisdiction is required to install and maintain signs directing drivers to the continuation of that highway; the state may delete a highway and turn over an entire state route to local control. Business routes are not maintained by the state unless they are assigned legislative route numbers. A few routes or sections of routes are considered unrelinquished - a new alignment has been built, or the legislative definition has changed to omit the section, but the state still maintains the roadway — and are Route XU. There are two such unrelinqushed routes, with State Route 14U, an old alignment of State Route 14, as the most recent example of such, where the process to relinquish 14U started on January 1 of 2018, along with State Route 103U being the other unrelinquished route within the system; some new alignments are considered supplemental and have a suffix of S.
Both types of suffixed routes are considered spurs. Current or former unsigned suffixed routes include State Route 156U, signed as State Route 156 Business through Hollister, State Route 180S, the freeway replacement for State Route 180 in Fresno; the first legislative routes were defined by the State Highway Bond Act in 1909, passed by the California State Legislature and signed by Governor James Gillett. These, extensions to the system, were numbered sequentially. No signs were erected for these routes; the United States Numbered Highways were assigned by the American Association of State Highway Officials in November 1926, but posting did not begin in California until January 1928. These were assigned to some of the main legislative routes in California. Signs were posted by the Automobile Club of Southern California and California State Automobile Association, active in signing national auto trails and local roads since the mid-1900s. In 1934, after the major expansion of the state highway system in 1933 by the California Legislature, California sign route numbers were assigned by the California Division of Highways.
The California sign route numbers were assigned in a geographical system independent of the legislative routes. Odd-numbered routes ran north–south and even-numbered routes ran east–west; the routes were split among southern California and central and northern California as follows: 0 or 1 modulo 4: central and northern California 2 or 3 modulo 4: southern CaliforniaFor instance, State Route 1 and State Route 4 were in central and northern California, State Route 2 and State Route 3 were in southern California. A rough grid was used inside the two regions, with the largest numbers — all less than 200 - in eastern California and near the border between the two regions; the Interstate Highway System numbers were assigned by AASHO in late 1959. In 1963 and 1964, a total renumbering of the legislative routes was made, aligning them with the sign routes; some changes were made to the sign routes related to decommissionings of U. S. Routes in favor of Interstates. Since the 1990s, many non-freeway routes in urban areas, have been deleted and turned over to local control.
This transfers the cost of maintaining them from state to local budgets, but gives local governments direct control over urban arterial roads th
California's 28th congressional district
California's 28th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California, in Los Angeles County. The district is regarded as a Democratic stronghold and is represented by Democrat Adam Schiff; the district includes West Hollywood, parts of Pasadena, the Verdugo Hills communities of Sunland and Tujunga, as well as parts of central Los Angeles including Hollywood, the Hollywood Hills, Echo Park, Silver Lake, Los Feliz. As it includes Glendale and Little Armenia, it has the largest Armenian-American population of any district in the country. From 2003 to 2013, the district included about half of the San Fernando Valley, including North Hollywood, in the Greater Los Angeles Area. District created January 3, 1953 As of April 2019, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from California's 28th congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Alphonzo E. Bell, Jr. on April 25, 2004. The most serving representative to die was Julian Dixon on December 8, 2000.
List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 28th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map – CD28