During World War II, the United States Army Air Forces established numerous airfields in California for training pilots and aircrews of USAAF fighters and bombers. Most of these airfields were under the command of Fourth Air Force or the Army Air Forces Training Command. However, Air Technical Service Command, Air Transport Command and I Troop Carrier Command used a significant number of airfields in a support role. A significant number of them had operational squadrons for air defense of the Pacific coastline and anti-submarine patrols, one was handed over to Civil Air Patrol pilots for their use. In addition to the major fields, dozens of minor auxiliary fields and airstrips were built to provide more room for basic flight training, but to support other operations. A few of these were designed as "fallback fields" for launching defensive operations in case of a Japanese invasion. Most Army airfields were built with three runways in a triangle, with parking ramp areas adjacent to one runway.
This triangular configuration allowed rapid construction, without regard to the direction of the prevailing winds. Navy fields were built with two runways in a cross, with a third runway intersecting the other two at an angle. There were, including single-runway fields. Most noteworthy were "landing mats," large concrete squares and circles, which allowed takeoffs and landings in any direction. Following the war, many bases and auxiliary fields were given to local governments or returned to service as municipal airports. Budget constraints caused the new owners to close or remove the "extra" runways, retaining only those that faced into the prevailing winds. In at least one case, large portions of a landing mat were removed, leaving a conventional runway and ramp. Several fields were retained as United States Air Force installations and were front-line bases during the Cold War, or used for experimental aviation, the most notable of these being Edwards Air Force Base. A few were sold or given back to private owners to be returned to agricultural use, while a handful have become private airports.
A number of fields were abandoned, due to their remote locations, the remains of these can still be found in the Mojave Desert. The mission of Fourth Air Force was the air defense of the West Coast, operating two air defense wings in California, it provided operational training of newly formed groups and squadrons in combat aircraft prior to their deployment to overseas combat theaters. After April 1944, operational training was changed to replacement training of newly commissioned pilots in combat fighters from the AAF Training Command advanced flying schools. Training Command airfields in California provided Primary and Advanced pilot training under the Army Air Force Flying Training Command. Mather AAF provided Navigator Training. Training Command provided technical aircraft support training to both enlisted and officer personnel at aircraft delivery fields, operated by manufacturers such as North American, Northrup and Consolidated Aircraft. Santa Ana AAB provided basic indoctrination training to new enlisted personnel and pilot qualification screening for prospective air cadets.
Private flying schools operated under contract by Flying Training Command, providing primary pilot training to new air cadets. Although training was provided by civilian contractors and instruction was provided by civilian instructors, the schools were commanded by military personnel and were operated as a military base; these schools operated from early 1942 until being phased out in mid-1944. Graduates advanced to regular Training Command flight schools for Basic and Advanced training. Airfields were used for transport of personnel and equipment. For ferrying replacement aircraft to overseas units. Provided aircraft modification prior to overseas deployment and depot-level repair and maintenance services. Technical Service Command operated acceptance centers for newly manufactured aircraft in Southern California ATC Ferrying Command transferred the new aircraft to various airfields or modification centers prior to deployment to operational units. Furnace Creek Emergency Landing Field, 1 mile west of Furnace Creek San Jose Municipal Airport, 4 miles northwest of San Jose Desert Training Center's California Army Airfields built to support General Patton's many desert training camps.
Patton's HQ was at Camp Young. Major airfields Blythe Army Air Base Desert Center Army Airfield Thermal Army Airfield Rice Army Airfield Shavers Summit Army Airfield Minor airfields Camp Coxcomb Army Field Camp Essex Army Field Camp Goffs Army Field Camp Ibis Army Field Camp Iron Mountain Army Field Air Transport Command California during World War II This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/
The Supreme Court of Mississippi is the highest court in the state of Mississippi. It was created in the first constitution of the state following its admission as a State of the Union in 1817, it was known as the "High Court of Errors and Appeals." The court is an appellate court, as opposed to a trial court. The Court Building is located in downtown Jackson, the state capital; the constitution of 1832 provided for "The High Court of Errors and Appeals," to consist of three judges to be elected, one from each of the three districts into which the legislature should divide the State. Section 3 reads: "The office of one of said judges shall be vacated in two years, of one in four years, of one in six years; the title of the tribunal was changed by the constitution of 1869 to the "Supreme Court of Mississippi" and the judges were appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. The provisions of the constitution of 1869 were perpetuated in the constitution of 1890; the jurisdiction of the court is mandated by statute.
The court has exclusive jurisdiction, over reviewing capital punishment cases. The Mississippi Court of Appeals, the state's other appellate court, was created by the legislature to assist the high court in managing a large caseload; the Court of Appeals handles criminal cases and cases concerning family law issues, though its jurisdiction is mandated by statute. All cases submitted for appellate review in the state are filed in the Supreme Court, which re-directs the appropriate cases to the Court of Appeals and retains the cases over which it has exclusive jurisdiction. After the Court of Appeals makes its ruling, aggrieved parties in certain types of cases there may seek further review from the Mississippi Supreme Court by petitioning for a Writ of Certiorari; the court is made up of a total of nine justices - one chief, two presiding, six associate justices. The justices are elected for eight-year terms, with staggered election years, from three geographical districts to ensure fair representation.
However, it is common for the governor to appoint a justice to fill a seat vacated by the death or retirement of a justice. If less than half of the term remains, the appointee serves the remainder of the term. If more than half of the term remains, the appointee may serve. Seniority of the justices is determined by length of time in office; the chief justice is the current justice, in office the longest, the presiding justices are next two in seniority. The current Mississippi Supreme Court, in order of seniority, includes: Chief Justice Michael K. Randolph Presiding Justice James W. Kitchens Presiding Justice Leslie D. King Associate Justice Josiah D. Coleman Associate Justice James D. Maxwell II Associate Justice Dawn H. Beam Associate Justice Robert P. Chamberlin Associate Justice David M. Ishee Associate Justice Kenny Griffis Official website Map: 32°18′19″N 90°10′56″W
Lonnie Nathaniel Standifer was an entomologist born in Itasca,Texas. An expert in honey bee physiology and nutrition, in 1970 he became the first African-American scientist to be appointed director of the USDA's Carl Hayden Bee Research Center. Standifer was born in Itasca, Texas on October 28, 1926, he was one of the 10 children of Nathaniel Standifer. Standifer gained a Bachelor of Science degree from Prairie View A & M University in Texas in 1949, a Masters of Science from Kansas State University in 1951, a PhD from Cornell University in 1954; the title of his dissertation was "Laboratory Studies on the Toxicity of Selected Chlorinated Hydrocarbon and Phosphate Chemicals to Third Instar Larvae of the House Fly, Musta Domestica Linn". Standifer taught at Tuskegee University, Cornell University, Southern University before moving to the USDA's Agricultural Research Service in Tucson, Arizona in 1956, he was promoted to a research position in 1960, appointed director of the USDA's Carl Hayden Bee Research Center in Tucson in 1970.
The Bee Research Center was the largest bee research facility in the United States. Standifer followed Frank Edward Todd and Marshall Levin as leader, the first African-American to be appointed Director; the Center's focus had been on pesticides and bees, Standifer added bee nutrition to its research program. Standifer held the position until 1981 and he retired for health reasons in his 50s, his work on bees was published in several journals, including Journal of Agricultural Research, American Bee Journal and the Annals of the Entomological Society of America. He was a member of the Entomological Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he was a counselor member of the Tucson Council for Civic Unity. Standifer married a nurse and Meharry Medical College alum, they divorced in 1963. He died after a long illness on March 1996 in Fort Worth, Texas. In obituary in American Entomologist
Atlético Levante Unión Deportiva is a Spanish football team based in Valencia, in the namesake community. Founded in 1962, it is the reserve team of Levante UD, plays in the Segunda División B – Group 3. Club Atlético Levante - Levante UD Aficionados - Levante UD B - Atlético Levante UD - As Unión Deportiva Malvarrosa2 seasons in Tercera DivisiónAs Club Deportivo Portuarios5 seasons in Tercera DivisiónAs a farm teamAs a reserve team10 seasons in Segunda División B 16 seasons in Tercera División Tercera División: 2017–18 As of 2 September 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. José Ángel Moreno José Luis Oltra Toni Aparicio Official website Futbolme team profile
Wayne Richards is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1990s. A Country New South Wales representative forward, he played his club football for the Newcastle Knights, the Illawarra Steelers and the South Sydney Rabbitohs. Richards made his first grade debut as a replacement player for the Newcastle Knights in 1991, he remained with the Knights until the end of the 1994 season when he signed with the Illawarra Steelers in search of regular first team appearances. However, after the 1995 season he returned to Newcastle for the start of the 1996 season. During the 1997 season split between the ARL and the Super League, Richards played for Newcastle. Newcastle went on to win the Grand Final against the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles 22–16. Richards started the game at second row. In 1998 Richards was one of three members of the Newcastle Knights 1997 ARL grand final winning side who tested positive for banned steroids. Richards pleaded guilty. Richards was the only one of the three players to be sacked by the club.
Richards made a brief comeback with the South Sydney Rabbitohs after serving his suspension but retired at the end of the 1999 season after South Sydney was excluded from the competition. Richards played in Souths last game before their exclusion, a 34–16 defeat against Parramatta
The Cape shoveler or Cape shoveller is a species of dabbling duck of the genus Spatula. It is resident in South Africa, uncommon further north in Namibia, Zimbabwe, southern Angola, Lesotho and Zambia; this 51–53 cm long duck is non-migratory, but undertakes some local seasonal movements. It is gregarious when not breeding, may form large flocks; this species has a large spatulate bill. Adults have speckled grey-brown plumage and dull orange legs; as with many southern hemisphere ducks, the sexes appear similar, but the male has a paler head than the female, a pale blue forewing separated from the green speculum by a white border, yellow eyes. The female's forewing is grey. Cape shoveler can only be confused with a vagrant female northern shoveler, but is much darker and stockier than that species, it is a bird of open wetlands, such as wet grassland or marshes with some emergent vegetation, feeds by dabbling for plant food by swinging its bill from side to side to strain food from the water. This bird eats molluscs and insects in the nesting season.
The nest is a shallow depression on the ground, lined with plant material and down, close to water. This is a quiet species; the male has cawick calls, whereas the female has a quack. The Cape shoveler was described by the German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in 1891 under the present binomial name Spatula smithii; the specific epithet commemorates the Scottish zoologist Andrew Smith. The IUCN Red List sets the conservation status of the Cape shoveler as least concern. Madge, & Burn, Wildfowl ISBN 0-7470-2201-1 Sinclair, Hockey and Tarboton, Warwick SASOL Birds of Southern Africa ISBN 1-86872-721-1 Cape Shoveler -Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds