Hesperoyucca whipplei (chaparral yucca, our Lord's candle, Spanish bayonet, Quixote yucca or foothill yucca is a species of flowering plant related to, usually included in, the genus Yucca. It is native to southern California, United States and Baja California, where it occurs in chaparral, coastal sage scrub, oak woodland plant communities at altitudes of 0–2500 m, it produces a stemless cluster of rigid leaves which end in a sharp point. The leaves are 20–90 cm long and 0.7–2 cm wide, gray-green in color. The leaf edges are finely saw-toothed; the single inflorescence grows fast, reaches 0.9–3 m tall, bearing hundreds of elliptical white to purplish flowers 3 cm diameter on a densely branched panicle up to 70 cm broad, covering the upper half of the inflorescence. The fruit is a dry winged capsule; the plant takes several years to reach maturity and flower, at which point it dies. Most subspecies produce offshoots from the base, so that although the parent plant flowers and dies, a cluster of clones around its base continue to grow and reproduce.
It may grow back from its base after much of its foliage has been scorched off by the wildfires that frequent its range. The taxonomy of Hesperoyucca whipplei is controversial. Hesperoyucca was described as a genus by Georg Engelmann as long ago as 1892, but it has taken recent DNA analysis to confirm that they are genetically distinct from Yucca; the splitting of Hesperoyucca from Yucca is still not reflected in available literature or online. Among those botanists who have treated it as a species of Yucca, six subspecies have been recognised, yet others do not recognise any subspecies or varieties, as the wide variability within the species precludes the segregation of discrete subspecies. Hochstätter's subspecies are: Yucca whipplei ssp. whipplei Yucca whipplei ssp. caespitosa Yucca whipplei ssp. intermedia Yucca whipplei ssp. percursa Yucca whipplei ssp. newberryi Yucca whipplei ssp. eremicaThe plant treated as the subspecies Yucca whipplei subsp. Newberryi has been shown to be genetically distinct, is treated as a distinct species, Hesperoyucca newberryi.
It is native further east, in Arizona, differs in the capsules being unwinged or with only slight wings. It is pollinated by the California yucca moth, a relationship which has become a classic example of symbiosis; the female yucca moth collects up to a dozen sacks of pollen grains called pollinia and forms them into a massive ball. She flies to another plant and lands on the ovary of a flower. Standing with her head near the stigma, she inserts her ovipositor into the ovary wall and lays a single egg, she rubs her pollen mass against the central stigmatic depression, ensuring pollination. The pollinated ovary will now produce many seeds. Although many associations of Yucca and yucca moth exist, Tegeticula muculata and Hesperoyucca whipplei form an exclusive relationship. "Yuca" is a native name for the unrelated Manihot. Yucca whipplei is named after Amiel Weeks Whipple, a surveyor who oversaw the Pacific Railroad Survey to Los Angeles in 1853; the name our Lord's candle is derived from its huge, flame-shaped inflorescence.
Spanish bayonet refers to the needle-sharp leaf tips which can cause discomfort to the unwary passer-by. Hesperoyucca whipplei is used in xeriscaping in Southern California, but is difficult to grow outside of its native range, it is drought tolerant and thrives in clay soils. It was used extensively by Native Americans. Yucca species such as the Yucca whipplei have been documented to have been used as a fiber and food source by Native Americans in the western United States prior to European settlement efforts. Archaeological evidence show that use of yucca species extends to 5000 years ago within groups such as the Serrano of the San Bernardino Mountains and San Gabriel Mountains of the transverse mountain ranges of Southern California; the Serrano harvested the hearts of the plant during the spring growing season. Yucca whipplei grows on the rocky slopes and washes of the chaparral area of the transverse mountains of Southern California up to 4000 feet above mean sea level. Harvested plants were chosen based on the growth of the stalk.
The heart contains the sugars stored to grow a stalk to flower, become bitter as the stalk grows in height. The hearts would be roasted in stone lined pits over several hours in a manner similar to that of agave species. Once cooked, the hearts would be allowed to cool before eating. Uneaten portions could be dried for storage. Though bitter, the stalk and flowers can be harvested and used as food sources as well; the stalks can be prepared roasted in a manner similar to the hearts, while the petals were parboiled. The long leaves of species such as the Yucca whipplei are made of strong fibers which can be pounded and scraped to expose long threads which run the length of the leaf; the leaves could be processed in many ways to remove the outer layer of leaf material which could be processed into thread
Ceanothus L. is a genus of about 50–60 species of nitrogen-fixing shrubs or small trees in the family Rhamnaceae. Common names for members of this genus are California lilac, wild lilac, soap bush. "Ceonothus" comes from a Greek word meaning "spiny plant", Ancient Greek: κεάνωθος, applied by Theophrastus to an Old World plant believed to be Cirsium arvense. The genus is endemic to North America, with the center of its distribution in California; some species are found in the eastern United States and southeast Canada, others extend as far south as Guatemala. Most are shrubs 0.5–3 metres tall, but C. arboreus and C. thyrsiflorus, both native to California, can be small multi-trunked trees up to 6–7 metres tall. There are two subgenera within this genus: Cerastes; the former clade is less drought-resistant. The evolution of these two clades started with a divergence in the niches filled in local communities, rather than a divergence on the basis of geography; the Californian species of Ceanothus are known collectively as California lilacs, with individual species having more descriptive common names.
Species native elsewhere have other common names, such as'New Jersey tea' for C. americanus, since its leaves were used as a black tea substitute during the American Revolution. In garden use, most are called by their scientific names or an adaptation of the scientific name, such as'Maritime ceanothus' for C. maritimus. The majority of the species are evergreen, but the handful of species adapted to cold winters are deciduous; the leaves are opposite or alternate, small and with serrated margins. Ceanothus leaves may be arranged opposite to alternate. Alternate leaves may have either three main veins rising from the base of the leaf; the leaves have a shiny upper surface that feels "gummy" when pinched between the thumb and forefinger, the roots of most species have red inner root bark. The flowers are white, greenish–white, dark purple-blue, pale purple or pink, maturing into a dry, three-lobed seed capsule; the flowers are tiny and produced in dense clusters. A few species are reported to be intensely fragrant to the point of being nauseating, are said to resemble the odor of "boiling honey in an enclosed area".
The seeds of this plant can lie dormant for hundreds of years, Ceanothus species are dependent on forest fires to trigger germination of their seeds. Fruits are hard, nutlike capsules. Plants in this genus are distributed and can be found on dry, sunny hillsides from coastal scrub lands to open forest clearings, from near sea level to 9,000 feet in elevation; these plants are profusely distributed throughout the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south through Colorado, the Cascades of Oregon and California, the Coastal Ranges of California. Ceanothus velutinus is the most common member of this genus and is widespread through much of western North America; the plants in this genus co-occur with one another when they are more distantly related. Ceanothus is a good source of nutrition for deer mule deer on the West Coast of the United States. However, the leaves are not as nutritious from late spring to early fall as they are in early spring. Porcupines and quail have been seen eating stems and seeds of these shrubs.
The leaves are a good source of protein and the stems and leaves have been found to contain a high amount of calcium. Native Americans used the dried leaves of this plant as an herbal tea, early pioneers used the plant as a substitute for black tea. Miwok Indians of California made baskets from Ceanothus branches. C. integerrimus has been used by North American tribes to ease childbirth. Many Ceanothus species are popular ornamental plants for gardens. Dozens of hybrids and cultivars have been selected, such as flexible ceanothus, Ceanothus × flexilis; the following cultivars and hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: Other cultivars available include:- There are more cultivars and hybrids of Ceanothus arboreus, Ceanothus griseus horizontalis, Ceanothus thyrsiflorus in the nursery trade. Propagation of ceanothus is following scarification and stratification. Seeds are soaked in water for 12 hours followed by chilling at 1 °C for one to three months, it can sprout from roots and/or stems.
Seeds are stored in plant litter in large quantities. It is estimated. Seeds are dispersed propulsively from capsules and, it has been estimated, can remain viable for hundreds of years. In habitat, the seeds of plants in this genus germinate only in response to range fires and forest fires. Adolphia infesta Meisn. Colubrina arborescens Sarg. Colubrina asiatica Brongn. Colubrina elliptica Brizicky & W. L. Stern Noltea africana Endl. California chaparral and woodlands — ecoregion. Flora of the California chaparral and woodlands USDA Plants Profile for Ceanothus Calflora Database: Index of Ceanothus species native to California — with images + info links
Calocedrus decurrens, with the common names incense cedar and California incense-cedar, is a species of conifer native to western North America, with the bulk of the range in the United States, from central western Oregon through most of California and the extreme west of Nevada, a short distance into northwest Mexico in northern Baja California. It grows at altitudes of 50–2,900 metres, it is the most known species in the genus, is simply called'incense cedar' without the regional qualifier. Calocedrus decurrens is a large tree reaching heights of 40–60 m and a trunk diameter of up to 3 m; the largest known tree, located in Umpqua National Forest, Oregon, is 69.8 m tall with a 175-centimeter diameter trunk. It has a broad conic crown of spreading branches; the bark is orange-brown weathering grayish, smooth at first, becoming fissured and exfoliating in long strips on the lower trunk on old trees. The foliage is produced in flattened sprays with scale-like leaves 2–15 mm long; the leaves are bright green on both sides of the shoots with only inconspicuous stomata.
The foliage, when crushed, gives off an aroma somewhat akin to shoe-polish. The seed cones are 20–35 mm long, pale green to yellow, with four scales arranged in opposite decussate pairs; the cones turn orange to yellow-brown. The pollen cones are 6–8 mm long; this tree is the preferred host of a wood wasp, Syntexis libocedrii a living fossil species which lays its eggs in the smoldering wood after a forest fire. The tree is host to incense-cedar mistletoe, a parasitic plant which can be found hanging from its branches; the incense cedar is drought tolerant plants in California. Although the tree is killed by hot, stand-replacing crown fire, it spreads after lower intensity burns; this has given the incense cedar a competitive advantage over other species such as the bigcone Douglas-fir in recent years. The wood is the primary material for wooden pencils, because it is soft and tends to sharpen without forming splinters; the Native Americans of California used the plant in traditional medicine, basket making, hunting bows, building materials, to produce fire by friction.
The Maidu Concow tribe name for the plant is hö'-tä. Calocedrus decurrens is cultivated by plant nurseries as an ornamental tree, for planting in gardens and parks, it is used in traditional, native plant, wildlife gardens. It is valued for its columnar evergreen foliage textures; the tree is grown in gardens and parks in cool summer climates, including the Pacific Northwest in the Northwestern United States and British Columbia, eastern Great Britain and continental Northern Europe. In these areas it can develop an narrow columnar crown, an unexplained consequence of the cooler climatic conditions, rare in trees within its warm summer natural range in the California Floristic Province. Other cultivated species from the family Cupressaceae can have similar crown forms; this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Cedar wood List of California native plants Plants used in traditional Native American medicine Calflora Jepson eFlora, The Jepson Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley Calocedrus decurrens in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Coastal sage scrub
Coastal sage scrub known as coastal scrub, CSS, or soft chaparral, is a low scrubland plant community of the California coastal sage and chaparral subecoregion, found in coastal California and northwestern coastal Baja California. It is within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome. Plant communityCoastal sage scrub is characterized by low-growing aromatic, drought-deciduous shrubs adapted to the semi-arid Mediterranean climate of the coastal lowlands; the community is sometimes called "soft chaparral" due to the predominance of soft, drought-deciduous leaves in contrast to the hard, waxy-cuticled leaves on sclerophyllous plants of California's chaparral communities. FloraCharacteristic shrubs and subshrubs include: California sagebrush Black sage White sage California buckwheat Coast brittle-bush Golden yarrow Larger shrubs include: Toyon Lemonade berry Herbaceous plants, in some locales and succulents, are part of the flora. Hesperoyucca whipplei, colloquially known as Chaparral Yucca, is commonplace throughout the climate zone.
The coastal sage scrub plant community is divided into three geographical subtypes — northern coastal scrub, southern coastal scrub, maritime succulent scrub. The coastal scrub communities are divided into three regions: Northern Coastal Scrub and Coastal Prairie, which lies in San Luis Obispo to Oregon. Coastal Sage scrub, which lies in San Diego to Monterey. Maritime Succulent Scrub, which can be found in the San Diego County to Baja California; the Northern Coastal Scrub consists of prairie, terraces with deep alluvial soils, scrub, found on steeper slopes and ravine areas. Evergreen shrubs and subshrubs, which are soft leaves, they are found in semi-open with multiple layers. Some examples of the plant species that can be found are Bush monkeyflower, Poison oak, Coffee berry, Golden yarrow. California sagebrush can be found in Coastal Sage Scrub community in Orange County; some other plant species that can be found is Giant coreopsis, Black sage, California buckwheat, White sage. Plant species that can be found in Maritime Succulent Scrub is Coast prickly pear, Coast barrel cactus, Cliff spurge, Bush rue, Dudleya spp.
Northern coastal scrub occurs along the Pacific Coast from the northern San Francisco Bay Area northwards to southern Oregon. It forms a landscape mosaic with the California coastal prairie plant community; the predominant plants are low evergreen herbs. Characteristic shrubs include coyote brush, yerba santa, coast silk-tassel and yellow bush lupine. Herbaceous species include western blue-eyed grass, Douglas iris, grasses. Southern coastal scrub is found along the maritime Central Coast region, the terraces and mountains with coastal climate influence in Southern California, its distribution extends from the southwestern San Francisco Bay Area in the north, through Big Sur, Vandenberg Air Force Base, the Oxnard Plain, the Los Angeles Basin, most of Orange County, parts of Riverside County, coastal San Diego County, the northwestern region of Baja California state in Mexico, including the areas around Tijuana and Ensenada. Southern CaliforniaThe metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, San Diego, Tijuana are located in the southern coastal scrublands, most of the scrublands have been lost to urbanization and agriculture.
The plants of this community prefer the mild maritime climates found along Southern California's coastline. World Wildlife Fund estimates that only 15 percent of the coastal sage scrublands remain undeveloped; some of the remaining southern coastal scrub in Los Angeles County can be found in dunes under the takeoff path at Los Angeles International Airport—LAX, in the coastal Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, at the Robert J. Bernard Field Station at the Claremont Colleges. In San Diego County, the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base protects larger areas, the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar has vernal pools and the endemic mint Pogogyne abramsii. One of the largest remaining areas of inland coastal sage scrub is found in the Temescal Mountains of Riverside County. A number of rare and endangered species occur in southern coastal scrub habitats. For example, the California gnatcatcher is a threatened bird species endemic to the coastal sage scrublands. Other endemic fauna includes the El Segundo blue butterfly in the LAX dunes.
The endangered Torrey pine is the dominant tree at Torrey Pines State Reserve in San Diego, one of only two known stands of this pine species. Terrace California coastal prairie California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion In: Mayer KE and Laudenslayer WF. A Guide to Wildlife Habitats of California. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Fish and Game. Schoenherr, Allan A.. A Natural History of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. "California coastal sage scrub and chaparral". Terrest
California chaparral and woodlands
The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of lower northern and southern California and northwestern Baja California, located on the west coast of North America. It is an ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests and scrub Biome, part of the Nearctic ecozone; the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion is subdivided into three smaller ecoregions. California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion: In southern coastal California and northwestern coastal Baja California, as well as all the Channel Islands of California and Guadalupe Island. California montane chaparral and woodlands: In southern and central coast adjacent and inland California, covering some of the mountains of: the Coast Ranges. California interior chaparral and woodlands: In central interior California surrounding the California Central Valley cover the foothills and the Transverse Ranges and Sierra Nevada. Most of the population of California and Baja California lives in these ecoregions, which includes the San Francisco Bay Area, Ventura County, the Greater Los Angeles Area, San Diego County, Tijuana.
The California Central Valley grasslands ecoregion, as well as the coniferous Sierra Nevada forests, Northern California coastal forests, Klamath-Siskiyou forests of northern California and southwestern Oregon, share many plant and animal affinities with the California chaparral and woodlands. Many botanists consider the California chaparral and woodlands, Sierra Nevada forests, Klamath-Siskiyou forests, Northern California coastal forests as a single California Floristic Province, excluding the deserts of eastern California, which belong to other floristic provinces. Many Bioregionalists, including poet Gary Snyder, identify the central and northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Siskiyou, the Central Valley, Sierra Nevada as the Shasta Bioregion or the Alta California Bioregion; the ecoregion includes a great variety of plant communities, including grasslands, oak savannas and woodlands and coniferous forests, including southern stands of the tall coast redwood. The flora of this ecoregion includes tree species such as Gray or foothill pine, Scrub oak, California buckeye, the rare Gowen cypress, the rare Monterey cypress, a wealth of endemic plant species, including the rare San Gabriel Mountain liveforever, Catalina mahogany, the threatened most beautiful jewel-flower.
Hesperoyucca whipplei, colloquially known as Chaparral Yucca, is commonplace throughout the lower elevations of the climate zone. Species include the California gnatcatcher, Costa's hummingbird, coast horned lizard, rosy boa. Other animals found here are the Heermann kangaroo rat, Santa Cruz kangaroo rat, the endangered white-eared pocket mouse. Another notable insect resident of this ecoregion is the rain beetle It spends up to several years living underground in a larval stage and emerges only during wet-season rains to mate. Chaparral, like most Mediterranean shrublands, is fire resilient and burned with high-severity, stand replacing events every 30 to 100 years. Native Americans burned chaparral to promote grasslands for textiles and food. Though adapted to infrequent fires, chaparral plant communities can be exterminated by frequent fires with climate change induced drought. Today, frequent accidental ignitions can convert chaparral from a native shrubland to nonnative annual grassland and drastically reduce species diversity under global-change-type drought.
The region has been affected by grazing, logging and water diversions, intensive agriculture and urbanization, as well as competition by numerous introduced or exotic plant and animal species. Some unique plant communities, like southern California's Coastal Sage Scrub, have been nearly eradicated by agriculture and urbanization; as a result, the region now has many endangered species, including the California condor. World Wildlife Fund: California Chaparral and Woodlands ecoregion California Chaparral Institute website California Coastal Sage and Chaparral images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu California Interior Chaparral and Woodlands images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu — California Montane Chaparral and Woodlands images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu —