Ledesma is a department of the province of Jujuy
La Mesopotamia or Región Mesopotámica is the humid and verdant area of north-east Argentina, comprising the provinces of Misiones, Entre Ríos and Corrientes. The landscape and its characteristics are dominated by the Paraná and the Uruguay; when Spanish settlers came to the area, the two parallel rivers and the lush area between them drew comparisons to Mesopotamia in modern-day Iraq, it was decided to name the Argentine region for the Iraqi region. The region shares many of its ecological features with neighboring regions of Argentina and with parts of Brazil and Uruguay. Mesopotamia has some of the most popular tourist attractions in Argentina the Iguazú Falls, the Iguazú National Park and the Jesuit mission stations in Misiones; the Iberá Wetlands in Corrientes are an extensive area of flooded forest similar to Brazil's Pantanal. The region is part of the Brazilian central plateau; the whole region has high rainfall in August and September, up to 2,000 mm annually. Misiones, in the northern part of Mesopotamia, is covered by subtropical forest, with caiman and monkeys.
Fast decomposition of organic matter gives the area a red soil with only a thin fertile layer that can be washed away. Corrientes is wooded, with low hills. Entre Ríos is covered with fertile pasture land stretching into Uruguay; the flora of Mesopotamia includes the yatay palm, a protected species in the El Palmar National Park, the Araucaria angustifolia. Tree ferns and large trees can be found. Yerba mate is grown in Mesopotamia; the region is important for cattle and sheep, linseed, tobacco and rice. Gualeguaychú in Entre Ríos is popular for its carnival at the beginning of Lent. Corrientes is known for its carnival celebrations and is a centre of music and festivals generally: the chamamé music style has seen a resurgence in popularity; the region called Litoral consists of the Mesopotamia and the provinces of Chaco and Santa Fe. Mesopotamia has a subtropical climate with no dry season. Under the Köppen climate classification, it has a humid subtropical climate; the main features of the climate are abundant rainfall throughout the year.
Rainfall is abundant throughout the year, because much of this region lies north of the subtropical high pressure belt in winter, meaning that it is exposed to moist easterly winds from the Atlantic Ocean throughout the year. With abundant precipitation throughout the year, water deficiencies and extended periods of droughts are uncommon and much of the region has a positive water balance. With the exception of Misiones Province which receives abundant precipitation throughout the year, precipitation is higher in summer than in winter and decreases from east to west and from north to south. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 1,000 mm in the southern parts to 1,800 mm in the eastern parts of Misiones province. Summers are one of the most humid seasons with an average precipitation of 350 mm in these months although it can range from a low of 300 mm to a high of 450 mm. Most of the rainfall during summer falls during convective thunderstorms. Fall is one of the rainiest seasons with many places receiving over 350 mm.
This can vary from a high of 480 mm in Misiones province to less than 180 mm. As in summer, much of the precipitation falls during convective thunderstorms. Winter is the driest season with a mean precipitation of only 110 mm. Mean winter precipitation ranges from less than 40 mm in the west to over 340 mm in the eastern parts. Unlike summer and spring where precipitation falls from convective thunderstorms, most of the precipitation during winter comes from frontal systems the Sudestada which bring long periods of precipitation, cooler temperatures and strong winds. Spring is similar to fall, with a mean precipitation of 340 mm. Summers are hot, owing to abundant rainfall humid, while winters feature mild to warm weather; as a whole, the region has high temperatures throughout the year. The northern areas are warmer than the southern parts. In Misiones province, mean annual temperatures range between 18.3 °C in Bernardo de Irigoyen to 21.2 °C in Posadas. The lower mean annual temperature recorded in Bernardo de Irigoyen, despite being located further north than Posadas is due to its higher altitude, resulting in a cooler climate.
In Corrientes Province, mean annual temperatures range from 19.7 °C in Curuzú Cuatía in the south to 22.2 °C. The southern parts of Corrientes province have cooler temperatures and have a climate more similar to Entre Ríos Province, where mean annual temperatures range from 17 °C in the south to 20 °C in the north. During heat waves, temperatures can exceed 40 °C in the summer months while in the winter months, cold air masses from the south can push temperatures below freezing causing frost. However, such cold fronts tend to be brief and are less intense than areas further south or at higher altitudes. Snowfall is rare and confined to the uplands of Misiones province, where the last significant snowfall occurred in 1975 in Bernado de Irigoyen. Lewis, Daniel; the History of Argentina. United States: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6254-5. Fittkau, E..
A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk. Tapirs inhabit jungle and forest regions of South America, Central America, Southeast Asia; the five extant species of tapirs, all of the family Tapiridae and the genus Tapirus, are the Brazilian tapir, the Malayan tapir, the Baird's tapir, the kabomani tapir and the mountain tapir. The four species that have been evaluated are all classified on the IUCN Red List as Endangered or Vulnerable; the tapirs have a number of extinct relatives in the superfamily Tapiroidea. The closest extant relatives of the tapirs are the other odd-toed ungulates, which include horses, donkeys and rhinoceroses. Five extant species within one extant genus are recognised. Four are in Central and South America, while the fifth is in Asia.: Baird's tapir, Tapirus bairdii South American tapir, Tapirus terrestris Little black tapir, Tapirus kabomani Mountain tapir, Tapirus pinchaque Malayan tapir, Tapirus indicus Tapirus augustus † Tapirus californicus † Tapirus copei † Tapirus cristatellus † Tapirus greslebini † Tapirus johnsoni † Tapirus lundeliusi † Tapirus merriami † Tapirus mesopotamicus † Tapirus oliverasi † Tapirus polkensis † Tapirus rioplatensis † Tapirus rondoniensis † Tapirus tarijensis † Tapirus veroensis † Tapirus webbi † Size varies between types, but most tapirs are about 2 m long, stand about 1 m high at the shoulder, weigh between 150 and 300 kg.
Their coats are short and range in color from reddish brown, to grey, to nearly black, with the notable exceptions of the Malayan tapir, which has a white, saddle-shaped marking on its back, the mountain tapir, which has longer, woolly fur. All tapirs have oval, white-tipped ears, protruding rumps with stubby tails, splayed, hooved toes, with four toes on the front feet and three on the hind feet, which help them to walk on muddy and soft ground. Baby tapirs of all types have striped-and-spotted coats for camouflage. Females have a single pair of mammary glands, males have long penises relative to their body size; the proboscis of the tapir is a flexible organ, able to move in all directions, allowing the animals to grab foliage that would otherwise be out of reach. Tapirs exhibit the flehmen response, a posture in which they raise their snouts and show their teeth to detect scents; this response is exhibited by bulls sniffing for signs of other males or females in oestrus in the area. The length of the proboscis varies among species.
The evolution of tapir probosces, made up entirely of soft tissues rather than bony internal structures, gives the Tapiridae skull a unique form in comparison to other perissodactyls, with a larger sagittal crest, orbits positioned more rostrally, a posteriorly telescoped cranium, a more elongated and retracted nasoincisive incisure. Tapirs have brachyodont, or that lack cementum, their dental formula is: Totaling 42 to 44 teeth, this dentition is closer to that of equids, which may differ by one less canine, than their other perissodactyl relatives, rhinoceroses. Their incisors are chisel-shaped, with the third large, conical upper incisor separated by a short gap from the smaller canine. A much longer gap is found between the premolars, the first of which may be absent. Tapirs are lophodonts, their cheek teeth have distinct lophs between protocones, paracones and hypocones. Tapirs have brown eyes with a bluish cast to them, identified as corneal cloudiness, a condition most found in Malayan tapirs.
The exact etiology is unknown, but the cloudiness may be caused by excessive exposure to light or by trauma. However, the tapir's sensitive ears and strong sense of smell help to compensate for deficiencies in vision. Tapirs are hindgut fermenters that ferment digested food in a large cecum. Young tapirs reach sexual maturity between three and five years of age, with females maturing earlier than males. Under good conditions, a healthy female tapir can reproduce every two years; the natural lifespan of a tapir is about 25 to 30 years, both in zoos. Apart from mothers and their young offspring, tapirs lead exclusively solitary lives. Although they live in dryland forests, tapirs with access to rivers spend a good deal of time in and underwater, feeding on soft vegetation, taking refuge from predators, cooling off during hot periods. Tapirs near a water source will swim, sink to the bottom, walk along the riverbed to feed, have been known to submerge themselves under water to allow small fish to pick parasites off their bulky bodies.
Along with freshwater lounging, tapirs wallow in mud pits, which help to keep them cool and free of insects. In the wild, the tapir's diet consists of fruit and leaves young, tender growth. Tapirs will spend many of their waking hours foraging along well-worn trails, snout
Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the south. Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas, who were conquered by the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco, they had huts made of mud, erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress". In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew. At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.
During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano; the Spanish surrendered, but the war affected the economy of the area. After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, at the end of the 19th century, the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the following century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, La Paz, Bolivia. Heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, in 1945, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.
There are three main areas in Jujuy. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region; the vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, subtropical Yungas jungle. In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, precipitations are scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River; the Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca and Sansana flow to the Pilcomayo River. Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet diversified, its 2006 economy was an estimated US$2.998 billion, or, US$4,899 per capita. Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane.
Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans and tomatoes, other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale for local dairies, llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool. Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, the paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province; the province has been served since 1967 by the Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport. An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists, tourists from other South American countries and Europeans.
Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Córdoba, some destinations in Bolivia. Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, ruins of the Incas are well conserved. Tourists who come to Jujuy visit the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small towns. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, Laguna Guayatayoc; the province is divided into 16 departments. Department: Cochinoca El Carmen Doctor Manuel Belgrano Humahuaca Ledesma Palpalá Rinconada San Antonio San Pedro Santa Bárbara Santa Catalina Susques Tilcara Tumbaya Valle Grande Yav
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
Baritú National Park
The Baritú National Park is a national park in Argentina, located in the Santa Victoria Department, in the north of the province of Salta, in the Argentine Northwest. The park borders Bolivia, its only road access is through that country, it has an area of 720 square kilometres and it is the only tropical park in Argentina. The park was created in 1974, it is bordered by mountains. The protected area belongs to the Southern Andean Yungas ecoregion, located in the Sub-Andean mountain range, with heights averaging 1,500–2,500 m; the climate is hot, with summer rainfall that goes from 900 -- 1,300 mm. The fauna of the park includes several endangered species, such as the onza; the cedro salteño trees reach huge sizes in this region. Their wood is considered valuable. South America Administración de Parques Nacionales - National Parks Administration of Argentina