In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on. This may include hardware-related services and execution of new processes, communication with integral kernel services such as process scheduling. System calls provide an essential interface between the operating system. In most systems, system calls can only be made from userspace processes, while in some systems, OS/360 and successors for example, privileged system code issues system calls; the architecture of most modern processors, with the exception of some embedded systems, involves a security model. For example, the rings model specifies multiple privilege levels under which software may be executed: a program is limited to its own address space so that it cannot access or modify other running programs or the operating system itself, is prevented from directly manipulating hardware devices. However, many normal applications need access to these components, so system calls are made available by the operating system to provide well-defined, safe implementations for such operations.
The operating system executes at the highest level of privilege, allows applications to request services via system calls, which are initiated via interrupts. An interrupt automatically puts the CPU into some elevated privilege level, passes control to the kernel, which determines whether the calling program should be granted the requested service. If the service is granted, the kernel executes a specific set of instructions over which the calling program has no direct control, returns the privilege level to that of the calling program, returns control to the calling program. Systems provide a library or API that sits between normal programs and the operating system. On Unix-like systems, that API is part of an implementation of the C library, such as glibc, that provides wrapper functions for the system calls named the same as the system calls they invoke. On Windows NT, that API is part of the Native API, in the ntdll.dll library. The library's wrapper functions expose an ordinary function calling convention for using the system call, as well as making the system call more modular.
Here, the primary function of the wrapper is to place all the arguments to be passed to the system call in the appropriate processor registers, setting a unique system call number for the kernel to call. In this way the library, which exists between the OS and the application, increases portability; the call to the library function itself does not cause a switch to kernel mode and is a normal subroutine call. The actual system call does transfer control to the kernel. For example, in Unix-like systems and execve are C library functions that in turn execute instructions that invoke the fork and exec system calls. Making the system call directly in the application code is more complicated and may require embedded assembly code to be used as well as knowledge of the low-level binary interface for the system call operation, which may be subject to change over time and thus not be part of the application binary interface. On exokernel based systems, the library is important as an intermediary. On exokernels, libraries shield user applications from the low level kernel API, provide abstractions and resource management.
IBM operating systems descended from OS/360 and DOS/360, including z/OS and z/VSE, implement system calls through a library of assembly language macros. This reflects their origin at a time when programming in assembly language was more common than high-level language usage. IBM system calls are therefore not directly executable by high-level language programs, but require a callable assembly language wrapper subroutine. On Unix, Unix-like and other POSIX-compliant operating systems, popular system calls are open, write, wait, fork and kill. Many modern operating systems have hundreds of system calls. For example and OpenBSD each have over 300 different calls, NetBSD has close to 500, FreeBSD has over 500, Windows 7 has close to 700, while Plan 9 has 51. Tools such as strace and truss allow a process to execute from start and report all system calls the process invokes, or can attach to an running process and intercept any system call made by said process if the operation does not violate the permissions of the user.
This special ability of the program is also implemented with a system call, e.g. strace is implemented with ptrace or system calls on files in procfs. Implementing system calls requires a transfer of control from user space to kernel space, which involves some sort of architecture-specific feature. A typical way to implement this is to trap. Interrupts transfer control to the operating system kernel, so software needs to set up some register with the system call number needed, execute the software interrupt; this is the only technique provided for many RISC processors, but CISC architectures such as x86 support additional techniques. For example, the x86 instruction set contains the
Discord is a proprietary freeware VoIP application and digital distribution platform designed for video gaming communities, that specializes in text, image and audio communication between users in a chat channel. Discord runs on Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, in web browsers; as of 14 March 2019, there are over 250 million unique users of the software. The concept of Discord came from Jason Citron, who had founded OpenFeint, a social gaming platform for mobile games, he sold OpenFeint to GREE in 2011 for US$104 million, which he used to found Hammer & Chisel, a game development studio, in 2012. Their original product was Fates Forever, released in 2014, which Citron anticipated to be the first MOBA game on mobile platforms, but it was not commercially successful due to low popularity. However, during the development process, Citron noted the difficulties that his team had when trying to play other representative games like Final Fantasy XIV and League of Legends to work out gameplay concepts highlighting problems of current voice over IP options that were available.
Some VoIP options required players to share various IP addresses just to connect, while other services like Skype or TeamSpeak were resource-heavy and had known security problems. This led the developers towards developing a chat service, much friendlier to use based on more modern technology. To develop Discord, Hammer & Chisel gained additional funding from YouWeb's 9+ incubator, who had funded the startup of Hammer & Chisel, from Benchmark capital and Tencent. Discord was publicly released in May 2015. According to Citron, the only area that they pushed Discord into was for the Reddit communities, finding that many subreddit forums were replacing IRC servers with Discord ones. Discord became popular through eSports and LAN tournament gamers and through other Twitch.tv streamers. The company raised an additional US$20 million in funding for the software in January 2016. American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate WarnerMedia has invested in Discord. In December 2018 the company announced.
The round was led by Greenoaks Capital with participation from Firstmark, Tencent, IVP, Index Ventures and Technology Opportunity Partners. Discord uses the metaphors of servers and channels similar to Internet Relay Chat though these servers do not map to traditional hardware or virtual servers due to its distributed nature. A user can create a server on Discord, managing its public visibility and access, create one or more channels within this service. Within a server, depending on access controls, users can create channels within a category framework, with the visibility and access on the channels customizable to the server. Certain channel names that meet magic words gain special behavior automatically: for channels named "#nsfw", users must demonstrate via their user profile they are of age and willing to see such content. In addition to normal text-based channels, Discord servers can create voice-chat channels; every Discord user has a unique four-digit personal identification number discriminator, after a "#" after their username.
This allows for users to find friends easily. Both at the server and the user level, Discord allows users to connect these to their Twitch.tv or other gaming service account. These integrations provide unique messaging tools within the app: for example, Discord can determine the game a user is presently playing on Steam if they have connected their account; the Discord client is built on the Electron framework using web technologies, which allows it to be multi-platform and operate on the web and as an installed application on personal computers. The software is supported by eleven data centers around the world to keep latency with clients low. All versions of the client support the same feature set. Discord is designed for use while gaming, as it includes features such as low-latency, free voice chat servers for users and a dedicated server infrastructure. Discord's developers added video calling and screen sharing in 2017. Support for calls between two or more users was added in an update on July 28, 2016.
In December 2016, the company introduced its GameBridge API, which allows game developers to directly integrate with Discord within games. The Git repository documentation for the Discord API is hosted on GitHub. Discord provides partial support for rich text via the Markdown syntax. Discord uses the Opus audio format, low-latency and designed to compress speech. While the software itself comes at no cost, the developers investigated ways to monetize it, with potential options including paid customization options such as emoji or stickers. In January 2017, the first paid subscription and features were released with'Discord Nitro Classic'. For a monthly subscription fee of $4.99, users can get an animated avatar, use custom and/or animated emojis across all servers, an increased maximum file size on file uploads, the ability to screen share in higher resolutions, the ability to choose their own personal identification number and a unique profile badge, In October 2018, the formerly'Discord Nitro' was renamed'Discord Nitro Classic', the new'Discord Nitro' cost $9.99 and included access to free games through the Discord game store, monthly subscribers of'Discord Nitro Classic' at the time of the introduction of the Discord games store have been gifted with'Discord Nitro'
Betting in poker
In the game of poker, the play centers on the act of betting, as such, a protocol has been developed to speed up play, lessen confusion, increase security while playing. Different games are played using different types of bets, small variations in etiquette exist between cardrooms, but for the most part the following rules and protocol are observed by the majority of poker players. Players in a poker game act in clockwise rotation; when it is a player's turn to act, the first verbal declaration or action they take binds them to their choice of action. Until the first bet is made each player in turn may "check,", to not place a bet, or "open,", to make the first bet. After the first bet each player may "fold,", to drop out of the hand losing any bets they have made. A player may fold by surrendering one's cards. A player may check by making any similar motion. All other bets are made by placing chips in front of the player, but not directly into the pot. In general, the person to the left of the dealer acts first and action proceeds in a clockwise fashion.
If any player has folded earlier, action proceeds to next player. In games with blinds, the first round of betting begins with the player to the left of the blinds. In stud games, action begins with the player showing the strongest proceeds clockwise. If there is a bring-in, the first round of betting begins with the player obliged to post the bring-in. If no one has yet opened the betting round, a player may pass or check, equivalent to betting zero and/or to calling the current bet of zero; when checking, a player declines to make a bet. In games played with blinds, players may not check on the opening round because the blinds are live bets and must be called or raised to remain in the hand. A player who has posted the big blind has the right to raise on the first round, called the option, if no other player has raised. If all players check, the betting round is over with no additional money placed in the pot. A common way to signify checking is to tap the table, either with a fist, knuckles, an open hand or the index finger.
If in any betting round it is a player's turn to act and the action is unopened the player can open action in a betting round by making a bet—the act of making the first voluntary bet in a betting round is called opening the round. On the first betting round, it is called opening the pot, though in variants where blind bets are common, the blind bets "open" the first betting round and other players call and/or raise the "big blind" bet; some poker variations have special rules about opening a round. For example, a game may have a betting structure that specifies different allowable amounts for opening than for other bets, or may require a player to hold certain cards to open. A player makes a bet by placing the chips they wish to wager into the pot. Under normal circumstances, all other players still in the pot must either call the full amount of the bet or raise if they wish remain in, the only exceptions being when a player does not have sufficient stake remaining to call the full amount of the bet or when the player is all-in.
To raise is to increase the size of an existing bet in the same betting round. A player making the second or subsequent raise of a betting round is said to re-raise. A player making a raise after checking in the same betting round is said to check-raise; the sum of the opening bet and all raises is the amount that all players in the hand must call in order to remain eligible to win the pot, subject to the table stakes rules described in the previous paragraph. A bluff is when a player bets or raises when it is they do not have the best hand; when a player bets or raises with a weak hand that has a chance of improvement on a betting round, the bet or raise is classified as a semi-bluff. On the other hand, a bet made by a player who hopes or expects to be called by weaker hands is classified as a value bet. In no-limit and pot-limit games, there is a minimum amount, required to be bet in order to open the action. In games with blinds, this amount is the amount of the big blind. Standard poker rules require that raises must be at least equal to the amount of the previous bet or raise.
For example, if an opponent bets $5, a player must raise by at least another $5, they may not raise by only $2. If a player raises a bet of $5 by $7, the next re-raise would have to be by at least another $7 more than the $12; the primary purpose of the minimum raise rule is to avoid game delays caused by "nuisance" raises (small raises of large bets, such as an extra $1 over a current bet of $50, that have little effect on the action but take time as all others m
Church Divinity School of the Pacific
Church Divinity School of the Pacific is one of the nine seminaries of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. It is located in Berkeley, is a member of the Graduate Theological Union; the only Episcopal seminary located in the Far West, CDSP has, since 1911, been designated the official seminary of the Episcopal Church's Eighth Province, the Province west of the Rocky Mountains. CDSP is accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada and offers a variety of degree and certificate programs aimed at training clergy and lay leaders for ministries in the Anglican Communion. Church Divinity School of the Pacific was founded in 1893 in San Mateo, California, by the second Episcopal Bishop of California, William Ford Nichols, after the gift of 4 acres of land, funds for construction of the first building, an endowment from George and Augusta Gibbs. Several of the seminary buildings were destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the seminary relocated to San Francisco in 1911 to a new building on the grounds of Grace Cathedral.
In 1914, CDSP was declared to be the official seminary of what is now known as Province VIII of the Episcopal Church, which comprises seventeen dioceses of the western United States and Taiwan. A move to Berkeley in 1930 facilitated cooperation with other seminaries in the East Bay, as well as with the University of California, Berkeley. CDSP was one of the founders of the Graduate Theological Union, established in 1962, is now one of nine member schools and eight affiliated centers in this ecumenical consortium. CDSP offers students a variety of degree courses of study. In order to keep up with changes and advances in the Church and in theological education, faculty members continually review curricula and make changes as appropriate. CDSP offers several degree programs: Certificate of Anglican Studies, geared towards students with M. Div. degrees from non-Anglican schools who are seeking ordination in the Episcopal Church. Master of Divinity Master of Divinity in cooperation with Bloy House, an Anglican house of study in Claremont, California.
Master of Theological Studies Jointly with the Graduate Theological Union, CDSP offers three advanced academic degree programs: Master of Arts Doctor of Theology Doctor of Philosophy Students may enroll in the M. Div. and M. A. programs concurrently. A separate admission process for each program is necessary, as is the completion of all requirements for each degree. Concurrent M. Div./M. A. Programs can be completed in no less than four years; the St. Margaret's Visiting Professorship of Women in Ministry is named in honor of St. Margaret's House, a school that trained deaconesses and lay women for ministry in the Episcopal Church when deaconesses were separate orders from deacons; the school itself was named after Saint Margaret of Scotland. In the early 20th century, students from St. Margaret's House were able to take classes with CDSP students. By 1966, with the gradual dismantling of separate orders of ministry for men and women, the House was merged into CDSP; the first St. Margaret's Visiting Professor of Women in Ministry is Dr. Jenny Te Paa Daniel, a theology graduate of the Graduate Theological Union and the first Maori woman to earn a doctorate in systematic theology.
She was followed by Dr. Suzanne Guthrie, who has served as parish priest and chaplain at Vassar College and Cornell University; the third St. Margaret's Visiting Professor will be the 26th Presiding Bishop Katharine Jefferts Schori, a CDSP alumna and was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Divinity in 2001 when she was elected bishop of Nevada. Certificates of one, two, or three years of study may be given to non-degree students who have completed the appropriate full academic years; these certificate programs include: Certificate of Anglican Studies Certificate of Theological Studies The Center for Anglican Learning & Leadership offers online courses that address a wide range of subjects including history, spirituality, pastoral care, liturgy & worship and Anglican studies. Courses are suitable for both lay clergy. CALL’s instructors come from across the United States, all courses are reviewed by faculty at CDSP. In 2007, CALL's online courses were featured in an article on Episcopal Life Online.
The Episcopal School for Deacons is on the grounds of the CDSP. This school trains deacons for the Diocese of California. Lani Hanchett, Bishop of Hawai'i Mark Hollingsworth, bishop of Ohio Katharine Jefferts Schori, 26th presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church Edward J. Konieczny, bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Oklahoma Paul Kwong, 2nd Primate of Hong Kong Anglican Church, Archbishop of Hong Kong Brian Prior, bishop of Minnesota Nedi Rivera, bishop suffragan of Olympia, provisional bishop of Eastern Oregon Michael Roberts, Principal of Westcott House, Cambridge Chester Talton, bishop suffragan of Los Angeles, provisional bishop of San Joaquin Brian Thom, bishop of Idaho L. William Countryman, faculty member, biblical scholar Sherman E. Johnson, faculty member, biblical scholar Massey H. Shepherd, faculty member, liturgical scholar Specific references: General references: Official website