A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
After Doomsday is a science fiction novel by American writer Poul Anderson. It was published as a complete novel in 1962, having been serialized as The Day after Doomsday in the magazine Galaxy, between December 1961 and February 1962; the novel explores events after the destruction of Earth, from the point of view of two returning starship crews, one made up of men, the other consisting of women. The story is set in the early 21st century; as the Cold War dragged on, Earth has been contacted by the Monwaingi space-faring culture. The technology of interstellar travel is spreading across the galaxy, disrupting one culture after another. Monwaing itself was contacted only a few centuries previously. Another culture, the Vorlak, underwent a transition from a stable planetary society to a warlord culture similar to the Japanese Shogunate; the nomadic Kandemirian culture became a hegemonistic one similar to the Mongol Empire. Earth found itself on the fringes of a conflict between Kandemir and a coalition led by Vorlak, with Monwaing on the sidelines supporting the anti-Kandemir forces.
There is a lingua franca called Uru together. The original speakers of the language may have initiated the spread of interstellar technology, but the language seems to have outlived, or at least outstripped its originators. In the 20 years since contact, several expeditions have set out, some in borrowed ships, some in ships built on Earth; the ship USS Benjamin Franklin, with an all-male crew, set out to visit the core of the Milky Way — an unusual quest by the stodgy standards of the typical galactic culture. Another ship has gone as far as the Magellanic Clouds; the pan-European expedition in the ship Europa, crewed by women, has roamed far outside the local group of cultures. The star-drive technology allows journeys of tens of thousands of parsecs in mere months. In spite of this, most cultures are "stay-at-homes" compared to humans, interacting only with the local group of cultures, known as a "cluster". Now the Franklin and the Europa return to find; the USS Benjamin Franklin, a starship crewed by men returns to Earth, to find the planet consumed by eruptions from within the crust.
All life is gone, along with the few outposts of humanity on artificial satellites. Missiles lurk throughout the Solar System. Unable to leave a message drone because of the missiles, the Franklin flees to Tau Ceti. Discipline breaks down, the captain is killed, a nucleus of a new crew forms behind a man named Carl Donnan. Donnan is an engineer and adventurer who gave up wandering the Earth for a chance to see the galaxy, courtesy of a Senator who owed him a favor. Now he is leading 300 men on a quest for other humans, for Earth's murderers. Chief suspects are the Kandemirians since the missiles swarming through the Solar System are Kandemirian. Earth is new to interstellar trade, a handful of ships have gone out into the wider galactic society; the men realize. They do have a guide with them, an alien called Ramri from the polycultural society originating on the planet Monwaing. Ramri is a biped descended from bird-like creatures; some time afterwards, the ship Europa with a crew of 100 women returns, to find Earth destroyed and missiles roaming the Solar System.
They are able to disable one missile. A small team boards the missile, including Navigation Officer Sigrid Holmen and her friend Gunnery Officer Alexandra Vukovic; the missile appears to have been manufactured by Kandemirians, although there are symbols in an unknown script scrawled on a bulkhead within it. Other missiles approach, the Europa must leave without addressing the central mystery; the officers confer about. Travelling to Vorlak, Donnan sells Draga, Hlott Luurs, his proposition is that the humans will develop new technology allowing a ship to detect the drives of other ships far beyond the usual range. Donnan's friend Arnold Goldspring is a mathematician; the detector is just the first one. To prove its worth, Donnan bargains for a Vorlak ship which they will use on a stealth raid on a Kandemirian outpost; the raid is a disaster, they are captured by Kandemirians. Interrogated by the head of the Kandemirian forces, Donnan is told that if he refuses to re-create the technology for Kandemir, his crew will die horribly, one by one.
He has no choice. The crew of the Europa travel far beyond the boundaries of the local cluster to one with a vibrant capitalist economy. At Sigrid Holmen's suggestion, they set themselves up as "Terran Traders Inc." and proceed to amass wealth, hoping to be able to buy or charter ships to search for survivors of Earth. Sigrid is kidnapped by representatives of a rival trader culture, the Forsi, who resemble heavyset gnomes; the Forsi want to take her away to study, determined to discover why "Terran Traders Inc." is able to be so successful. She is in the process of attempting escape from them when Alexandra Vukovic, a former urban guerrilla, tracks her down and uses her skills to eliminate Sigrid's captors. Donnan's crew, laboring on one of the Kandemirians' subject planets, are being monitored to make sure they only work on the drive detection device. However, the monitoring of the material making up the chassis of the device is less stringent, they are able to create a dummy copy of a common soldier's rifle from unrelated parts.
With this they bluff their way out of confinement, capture real weapons, steal a starshi
The High Crusade
The High Crusade is a science fiction novel by American writer Poul Anderson, about the consequences of an extraterrestrial scoutship landing in Medieval England. Poul Anderson described the novel as "one of the most popular things I've done, going through many book editions in several languages."The High Crusade was serialized in the July–August–September 1960 issues of Astounding. First published in book form in 1960 by Doubleday, it has been published in June 1964 and September 1968, 1983, 1991, 2003, most in 2010, it is in print with a paperback edition issued by Baen Books in 2010 with ISBN 978-1-4391-3377-4. Anderson's work was nominated for a Hugo Award in 1961, was adapted into a 1983 wargame The High Crusade of the same name by TSR, Inc. and into a motion picture of the same name in 1994. Poul Anderson wrote one sequel short story, "Quest", which appeared in Ares magazine in the same issue that saw the original publication of the wargame, it is 1345, in the English town of Ansby, Sir Roger, Baron de Tourneville, is recruiting a military force to assist king Edward III in the Hundred Years' War against France.
An enormous silver spacecraft lands outside the town. It is a scouting craft for the Wersgorix Empire, a brutal dominion light years from our solar system; the Wersgorix attempt to take over Earth by testing the feasibility of its colonization. However, the aliens, having forgotten hand-to-hand combat since it was made obsolete by their advanced technology, are caught off-guard by the angered Englishmen, who mistake the craft for a French trick; the villagers and soldiers in Ansby kill all but one Wersgor, Branithar. Sir Roger formulates a plan that with the captured ship, he can take the entire village to France to win the war, liberate the Holy Land; the townspeople, with all of their belongings, board the ship at the baron's instruction, prepare to take off. The people of Ansby are mystified at the advanced technology aboard the ship, which they come to call the Crusader. Being unable to pilot the Crusader Sir Roger directs the surly Branithar to pilot them to France. Instead, the alien wrecks the baron's plan by throwing the Crusader into autopilot on course to Tharixan, another Wersgor colony.
The Crusader arrives at Tharixan in days, Sir Roger learns of this new world: it is sparsely-populated, with only three fortresses, Ganturath and Darova. The humans destroy the Crusader in the process. Word spreads of the invaders and a meeting is arranged between Sir Roger and his soldiers and the chief of Tharixan, Huruga; the humans and Wersgor hold talks that do little to give either side any advantage, but a truce is agreed to. Sir Roger, in order to intimidate the aliens, makes up tall tales about his estate, "which only took up three planets" and his other accomplishments, including a successful conquest of Constantinople. Sir Roger demands. During the talks, Baron de Tourneville ignores the truce, orders the capture of the fortress of Stularax; the entire base is obliterated by an atomic bomb. In retaliation, Huruga attacks loses, he is forced to give up. Now comes Sir Roger's most outrageous plan, he enlists the help of three other races oppressed by the Wersgor: the Jairs, the Ashenkoghli, the Prʔ*tans.
Meanwhile, one of his main soldiers and friend, Sir Owain Montbelle, hatches a plan to return to Earth, something that Sir Roger has lost interest in. With Lady Catherine, Sir Roger's wife, Montbelle corners the baron and demands that he help the people of Ansby get back to Earth. De Tourneville attacks Sir Owain in person. At the climax, Lady Catherine kills him herself, she destroys the notes that could have helped get the villagers of Ansby back home. Sir Roger goes on to build one for himself, he manages with the help of not only the species under the Wersgor, but from members of the Wersgor race who rebelled against their government. The religious figures in the story go on to establish a new branch of the Roman Catholic Church. A millennium after the main events of The High Crusade, the holy galactic empire founded by Sir Roger and his people reunites with long lost Earth. A spacecraft from Earth comes across the empire, is welcomed by the descendants of one of Sir Roger's leading soldiers.
There is, in the epilogue, a reference to events on Earth since 1345. The captain of the Earth ship is described as being a loyal subject of an Israeli empire, it appears that Huruga wound up as an Archbishop. Sir Roger de Tourneville: Roger, Baron de Tourneville is fictional, he was an English knight in Ansby, Lincolnshire when he volunteered to raise an army to help king Edward III of England fight the Hundred Years' War in France. His wife is Lady Catherine. Lady Catherine Brother Parvus, the narrator of The High Crusade Sir Owain Montbelle Red John Hameward, a soldier under de Tourneville Sir Brian Fitz-William, a knight under de Tourneville Alfred Edgarson, a soldier under de Tourneville Thomas Bullard, a soldier under de Tourneville Branithar Chief Huruga Hubert the executioner Tertiary Eggmaster of the Northwest Hive, aka "Ethelbert" Rating it five stars out of five, Galaxy reviewer Floyd C. Gale noted that the novel's "characters are well-drawn" and declared it "definitely a can't-be-put-down enthraller."
The Hartford Courant found it to be "a delightfully witty science fiction satire," comparing it to The Mouse That Roared. Cr
Analog Science Fiction and Fact
Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American science fiction magazine published under various titles since 1930. Titled Astounding Stories of Super-Science, the first issue was dated January 1930, published by William Clayton, edited by Harry Bates. Clayton went bankrupt in 1933 and the magazine was sold to Street & Smith; the new editor was F. Orlin Tremaine, who soon made Astounding the leading magazine in the nascent pulp science fiction field, publishing well-regarded stories such as Jack Williamson's Legion of Space and John W. Campbell's "Twilight". At the end of 1937, Campbell took over editorial duties under Tremaine's supervision, the following year Tremaine was let go, giving Campbell more independence. Over the next few years Campbell published many stories that became classics in the field, including Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, A. E. van Vogt's Slan, several novels and stories by Robert A. Heinlein; the period beginning with Campbell's editorship is referred to as the Golden Age of Science Fiction.
By 1950, new competition had appeared from Galaxy Science Fiction and The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction. Campbell's interest in some pseudo-science topics, such as dianetics, alienated some of his regular writers, Astounding was no longer regarded as the leader of the field, though it did continue to publish popular and influential stories: Hal Clement's novel Mission of Gravity appeared in 1953, Tom Godwin's "The Cold Equations" appeared the following year. In 1960, Campbell changed the title of the magazine to Analog Science Fact. At about the same time Street & Smith sold the magazine to Condé Nast. Campbell remained as editor until his death in 1971. Ben Bova took over from 1972 to 1978, the character of the magazine changed noticeably, since Bova was willing to publish fiction that included sexual content and profanity. Bova published stories such as Frederik Pohl's "The Gold at the Starbow's End", nominated for both a Hugo and Nebula Award, Joe Haldeman's "Hero", the first story in the Hugo and Nebula Award-winning "Forever War" sequence.
Bova won five consecutive Hugo Awards for his editing of Analog. Bova was followed by Stanley Schmidt, who continued to publish many of the same authors, contributing for years; the title was sold to Davis Publications in 1980 to Dell Magazines in 1992. Crosstown Publications remains the publisher. Schmidt continued to edit the magazine until 2012. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback launched the first science fiction magazine. Gernsback had been printing scientific fiction stories for some time in his hobbyist magazines, such as Modern Electrics and Electrical Experimenter, but decided that interest in the genre was sufficient to justify a monthly magazine. Amazing was successful reaching a circulation over 100,000. William Clayton, a successful and well-respected publisher of several pulp magazines, considered starting a competitive title in 1928. Clayton was unconvinced, but the following year decided to launch a new magazine because the sheet on which the color covers of his magazines were printed had a space for one more cover.
He suggested to Harry Bates, a newly hired editor, that they start a magazine of historical adventure stories. Bates proposed instead a science fiction pulp, to be titled Astounding Stories of Super Science, Clayton agreed. Astounding was published by Publisher's Fiscal Corporation, a subsidiary of Clayton Magazines; the first issue appeared with Bates as editor. Bates aimed for straightforward action-adventure stories, with scientific elements only present to provide minimal plausibility. Clayton paid much better rates than Amazing and Wonder Stories—two cents a word on acceptance, rather than half a cent a word, on publication —and Astounding attracted some of the better-known pulp writers, such as Murray Leinster, Victor Rousseau, Jack Williamson. In February 1931, the original name Astounding Stories of Super-Science was shortened to Astounding Stories; the magazine was profitable. A publisher would pay a printer three months in arrears, but when a credit squeeze began in May 1931, it led to pressure to reduce this delay.
The financial difficulties led Clayton to start alternating the publication of his magazines, he switched Astounding to a bimonthly schedule with the June 1932 issue. Some printers bought the magazines which were indebted to them: Clayton decided to buy his printer to prevent this from happening; this proved a disastrous move. Clayton did not have the money to complete the transaction, in October 1932, Clayton decided to cease publication of Astounding, with the expectation that the January 1933 issue would be the last one; as it turned out, enough stories were in inventory, enough paper was available, to publish one further issue, so the last Clayton Astounding was dated March 1933. In April, Clayton went bankrupt, sold his magazine titles to T. R. Foley for $100. Science fiction was not a departure for Street & Smith. They
Three Hearts and Three Lions
Three Hearts and Three Lions is a 1961 fantasy novel by American writer Poul Anderson, expanded from a 1953 novella by Anderson which appeared in Fantasy & Science Fiction. Holger Carlsen is an American-trained Danish engineer who joins the Danish resistance to the Nazis in World War II. At the shore near Elsinore, he is among the group of resistance fighters trying to cover the escape to Sweden of an important scientist. With a German force closing in, Carlsen is shot – and finds himself transported to a parallel universe, a world where northern European legend concerning Charlemagne is real; this world is divided between the forces of Chaos, inhabiting the "Middle World", the forces of Law based in the human world, in turn divided between the Holy Roman Empire and the Saracens. He finds the horse of a medieval knight waiting for him; the shield is emblazoned with three lions. He finds the clothes and armor fit him and he knows how to use the weapons and ride the horse as well as speak fluently the local language, a archaic form of French.
Seeking to return to his own world, Holger is joined by Alianora, a swan maiden, Hugi, a dwarf. They are induced to follow the attractive elvish Duke Alfric of Faerie, who in fact plots to imprison Holger in Elf Hill, where time runs differently. Holger learns that his lover in a forgotten past life, is his ultimate adversary, they escape and, after encountering a dragon, a giant, a werewolf, reach the town of Tarnberg, where they are joined by a mysterious Saracen called Carahue, searching for Holger. Based on the advice of the wizard, Martinus Trismegistus, they set out to recover the sword Cortana; the sword is in a ruined church, guarded by a nixie, cannibal hillmen, – most dangerous of all – a troll. While on this perilous quest and Alianora fall in love with each other. However, Holger avoids physically consummating this love – though Alianora wants him to – as he intends to return to the 20th Century world he came from, but with the perilous Wild Hunt on their tracks and Alianora pledge their love and he promises, if surviving the ordeal ahead, to remain always with her.
However, the decision would be taken out of his hands. Once the sword is recovered, Holger discovers he is the legendary Ogier the Dane, a champion of Law, he vanquishes the forces of Chaos and is transported back to his own world, right back to the battle in Elsinore – and with a burst of superhuman strength, vanquishes the Nazi troops and enables Bohr to escape and play his part in the Manhattan Project. The magical forces involved have no consideration for the hero's love life, leaving him stranded away from his beloved Alianora. Wanting to return to the other world, he seeks clues in old books of magic, his enduring affinity with the medieval world in which he met her is expressed by a decision to convert to Catholicism. The novel is a pastiche of interwoven stories, it draws on the corpus of Northern European legends, including Ogier the Dane, the Matter of France, Arthurian romance, Germanic mythology, traditional magic. It uses related literary sources such as Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Robert Burns's Tam o' Shanter, Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court.
It shows influence of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit with references to Mirkwood and wargs, it has some similarity to C. S. Lewis's the Witch and the Wardrobe; the dividing line between the Empire in the West and threatening Faerie to the East seems to mirror the Cold War dividing line between the West and East blocs, running through the real Europe at the time of writing. Holger appears as a minor character in Anderson's A Midsummer Tempest, where he is seen in a mysterious "Inn Between the Worlds" - having managed at last to leave the 20th century and wander the various alternate timelines by using the spells from a Medieval grimoire, but having little control over where he would get and a small chance of locating the one he wants. At the inn he encounters Valeria Matuchek - a character from another Anderson book, Operation Chaos who instructs him in the sophisticated scientific magic of her world and giving him a better chance. In addition, Holger appears in the tournament at the end of Heinlein's The Number of the Beast.
In 2014 Harry Turtledove wrote, as his contribution to Multiverse: Exploring Poul Anderson's Worlds, edited by Greg Bear and Gardner Dozois, a short story entitled "The Man who Came Late". The story takes place thirty years after the events of Three Lions. Altogether it has taken Holger Carlsen that long to get back to Alianora: first, magic took him to Nazi-occupied Denmark in 1943, where he was a member of the Resistance; when at last they come face to face, it is too late. When he had not come back from his battle, had disappeared from the face of the Earth, Alianora was heartbroken - but e
Tau Zero is a hard science fiction novel by American writer Poul Anderson. The novel was based upon the short story "To Outlive Eternity" appearing in Galaxy Science Fiction in 1967, it was first published in book form in 1970. The book is regarded as a quintessential example of "hard sci-fi", as its plot is guided by technology until the dramatic conclusion, it was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1971. Tau Zero follows the crew of the starship Leonora Christine, a colonization vessel crewed by 25 men and 25 women aiming to reach the nearby star Beta Virginis; the ship is powered by a Bussard ramjet, proposed 10 years before Anderson wrote the book. This engine is not capable of faster-than-light travel, so the voyage is subject to relativity and time dilation: the crew will spend 5 years on board, but 33 years will pass on the Earth before they arrive at their destination; the ship accelerates at a modest constant rate for most of the first half of the journey achieving an appreciable percentage of the speed of light, the goal is to decelerate at the same rate during the second half of the journey by rotating the ship 180° about its trajectory axis and continuing to fire the Bussard ramjet.
However, the Leonora Christine passes through a small nebula before the half-way point, damaging the Bussard ram scoops which were to have been the deceleration module. Since the Bussard engines must be kept running to provide particle/radiation shielding, because of the hard radiation produced by the engines, the crew can neither repair the damage nor turn off their ramjet; the text consists of narrative prose interspersed with paragraphs in which Anderson explains the scientific basis of relativity, time dilation, the ship's mechanics and details of the cosmos outside. As there is no hope of completing the original mission, the crew increase acceleration more; the ship's ever-increasing velocity brings the time dilation to extreme levels and takes the crew further and further away from any possibility of contact with humanity. The initial plan is to land on a suitable planet in another galaxy. Millions of years would have passed since their departure, in any case they would be millions of light years from Earth.
However, they find the vacuum of intergalactic space insufficient for safety. They do, but the thinly spread matter is too dispersed to use for deceleration, they must wait, flying free but without the ability to change course, until they randomly encounter enough galactic matter to try to decelerate enough to search for habitable planets. To make the waiting time shorter, they continue accelerating through the first several galaxies they encounter and more approaching the speed of light with tau, or proper time, decreasing closer and closer to zero. Throughout the story, Charles Reymont, the ship's Constable, fights to keep hope alive in the confined community and at the same time maintain order and discipline, sometimes at great emotional cost to himself, he explains his system to his partner Chi-Yuen Ai-Ling: The human animal wants a father-mother image but, at the same time, resents being disciplined. You can get stability like this: The ultimate authority source is kept remote, god-like unapproachable.
Your immediate superior is a mean son-of-a-bitch who makes you toe the mark and whom you therefore detest. But his own superior is as kind and sympathetic as rank allows... The end result is, his infallibility doesn't have to cope with unfixable human messes... I'm the traditional top sergeant. Hard, demanding, inconsiderate, brutal. Not so bad as to start a petition for my removal, but enough to irritate, be disliked, although respected. That's good for the troops. It's healthier to be mad at me than to dwell on personal woes... Lindgren smooths things out; as first officer, she sustains my power. But she overrules me from time to time, she exercises her rank to bend regulations in favor of mercy. Therefore she adds benignity to the attributes of Ultimate Authority; the storyline is similar to that of the long poem and opera Aniara, in which the ship was unable to stop and doomed to travel endlessly, but Tau Zero has a more upbeat ending. By the time the ship is repaired, tau has decreased to less than a billionth and the crew experience "billion-year cycles which pass as moments".
But by the time that they are ready to attempt to find a future home, they realize that the universe is approaching a big crunch. The universe collapses and explodes in a new big bang; the voyagers decelerate and disembark at a planet with a habitat suitably similar to Earth, on which the vegetation has a vivid bluish-green color. Ingrid Lindgren, Ship's First Officer – Swedish. Charles Reymont, Ship's Constable – Interplanetarian, veteran of two previous interstellar flights. Boris Fedoroff, Ship's C
The Broken Sword
The Broken Sword is a fantasy novel by American writer Poul Anderson published in 1954. It was issued in a revised edition by Ballantine Books as the twenty-fourth volume of their Ballantine Adult Fantasy series in January 1971; the original text was returned to print by Gollancz in 2002. The book tells the story of Skafloc, elven-fosterling and son of Orm the Strong; the story begins with Aelfrida of the English. Orm kills a witch's family on the land and half-converts to Christianity, but quarrels with the local priest and sends him off the land. Meanwhile, an elf named Imric, with the help of the witch, seeks to capture the newly born son of Orm. In his place, Imric leaves; the real son of Orm is named Skafloc by the elves who raise him. As the story continues, both Skafloc and Valgard have significant roles in the war between the trolls and the elves. Anthony Boucher praised the original edition as "a magnificent saga of the interplay of gods, faerie and men." Groff Conklin described the novel as "a rip-snorting, imitation-Norse epic containing all the elements of faerie".
Michael Moorcock declared The Broken Sword superior to Tolkien, calling it "a fast-paced doom-drenched tragedy in which human heroism and ambition, manipulated by amoral gods and trolls, led to tragic consequences." E. F. Bleiler, commenting on the revised edition, declared that "The first portion of this novel is the finest American heroic fantasy, with good characterizations, excellent surface detail, good plotting, an admirable recreation of the mood of the Old Norse literature, but the story ends in a mad scramble and unconvincing slaughter". The novel is set during the Viking Age and the story contains many references to the Norse mythology, it is described as a successor to the 1891 novel The Saga of Eric Brighteyes, by H. Rider Haggard. A partial adaptation of the novel, done as a serialized black-and-white graphic novel, was adapted by fantasy writer Tom Reamy and illustrated by professional fantasy artist George Barr; this was published during the mid-to-late 1960s over several issues of Reamy's twice Hugo Award-nominated science fiction fanzine Trumpet.
British fantasy writer Michael Moorcock has written that The Broken Sword influenced his stories. Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 9. The Broken Sword title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database