Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genres developed by African Americans. Their origins are in musical forms that arose out of the historical condition of slavery that characterized the lives of African Americans prior to the American Civil War. Following the Civil War, Black Americans, through employment as musicians playing European music in military bands, developed a new style of music called ragtime which evolved into jazz. In developing this latter musical form, African Americans contributed knowledge of the sophisticated polyrhythmic structure of the dance and folk music of peoples across western and sub-Saharan Africa; these musical forms had a wide-ranging influence on the development of music within the United States and around the world during the 20th century. The modern genres of blues and ragtime were developed during the late 19th century by fusing West African vocalizations - which employed the natural harmonic series, blue notes.
The earliest jazz and blues recordings were made in the 1920s. African-American musicians developed related styles such as Blues in the 1940s. In the 1960s, soul performers had a major influence on white UK singers. In the mid-1960s, Black musicians developed funk and they were many of the leading figures in late 1960s and 1970s genre of jazz-rock fusion. In the 1970s and 1980s, Black artists developed hip-hop, in the 1980s introduced the disco-infused dance style known as house music. In the 2000s, hip-hop attained significant mainstream popularity. Modern day music is influenced by previous and present African-American music genres; as well as bringing harmonic and rhythmic features from western and sub-Saharan Africa to meet European musical instrumentation, it was the historical condition of chattel slavery forced upon black Americans within American society that contributed the conditions which would define their music. Many of the characteristic musical forms that define African-American music have historical precedents.
These earlier forms include: field hollers, beat boxing, work song, spoken word, scatting and response, improvisation, blue notes, polyrhythms and harmony. In the late 18th century folk spirituals originated among Southern slaves, following their conversion to Christianity. Conversion, did not result in slaves adopting the traditions associated with the practice of Christianity. Instead they reinterpreted them in a way, they sang the spirituals in groups as they worked the plantation fields. Folk spirituals, unlike much white gospel, were spirited: slaves added dancing and other forms of bodily movements to the singing, they changed the melodies and rhythms of psalms and hymns, such as speeding up the tempo, adding repeated refrains and choruses, replaced texts with new ones that combined English and African words and phrases. Being passed down orally, folk spirituals have been central in the lives of African Americans for more than three centuries, serving religious, social and historical functions.
Folk spirituals were spontaneously performed in a repetitive, improvised style. The most common song structures are the repetitive choruses; the call-and-response is an alternating exchange between the other singers. The soloist improvises a line to which the other singers respond, repeating the same phrase. Song interpretation incorporates the interjections of moans, hollers etc... and changing vocal timbres. Singing is accompanied by hand clapping and foot-stomping. Suggested listening: Spirituals The influence of African Americans on mainstream American music began in the 19th century, with the advent of blackface minstrelsy; the banjo, of African origin, became a popular instrument, its African-derived rhythms were incorporated into popular songs by Stephen Foster and other songwriters. In the 1830s, the Second Great Awakening led to a rise in Christian revivals and pietism among African Americans. Drawing on traditional work songs, enslaved African Americans originated and began performing a wide variety of Spirituals and other Christian music.
Some of these songs were coded messages of subversion against slaveholders. During the period after the Civil War, the spread of African-American music continued; the Fisk University Jubilee Singers toured first in 1871. Artists including Jack Delaney helped revolutionize post-war African-American music in the central-east of the United States. In the following years, professional "jubilee" troops toured; the first black musical-comedy troupe, Hyers Sisters Comic Opera Co. was organized in 1876. In the last half of the 19th century, U. S. barbershops served as community centers, where most men would gather. Barbershop quartets originated with African-American men socializing in barbershops; this generated a new style, consisting of four-part, close-harmony singing. White minstrel singers adopted the style, in the early days of the recording industry their performances were recorded and sold. By the end of the 19th century, African-American music was an integral part of mainstrea
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject, introduced at the beginning in imitation and which recurs in the course of the composition. It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, a style of song popularized by and limited to early American music and West Gallery music. A fugue has three main sections: an exposition, a development and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugue's tonic key; some fugues have a recapitulation. In the Middle Ages, the term was used to denote any works in canonic style. Since the 17th century, the term fugue has described what is regarded as the most developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. Most fugues open with a short main theme, the subject, which sounds successively in each voice; this is followed by a connecting passage, or episode, developed from heard material. Episodes and entries are alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned to the opening key, or tonic, followed by closing material, the coda.
In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, rather than a fixed structure. The form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios and fantasias; the famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach shaped his own works after those of Johann Jakob Froberger, Johann Pachelbel, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Dieterich Buxtehude and others. With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the baroque period, the fugue's central role waned giving way as sonata form and the symphony orchestra rose to a dominant position. Composers continued to write and study fugues for various purposes; the English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. This in turn comes from Latin fuga, itself related to both fugere and fugare; the adjectival form is fugal. Variants include fugato. A fugue is written according to certain predefined rules. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time.
The various entries may not be separated by episodes. What follows is a chart displaying a typical fugal outline, an explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure. S = subject. After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key, known as the answer. To make the music run smoothly, it may have to be altered slightly; when the answer is an exact copy of the subject to the new key, with identical intervals to the first statement, it is classified as a real answer. A tonal answer is called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note, or where there is a prominent dominant note close to the beginning of the subject. To prevent an undermining of the music's sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. Answers in the subdominant are employed for the same reason. While the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was heard continues with new material.
If this new material is reused in statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the fifteenth; the distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and regular countersubjects accompanying the fugue subject/answer, because in order for a countersubject to be heard accompanying the subject in more than one instance, it must be capable of sounding above or below the subject, must be conceived, therefore, in invertible counterpoint. In tonal music, invertible contrapuntal lines must be written according to certain rules because several intervallic combinations, while acceptable in one particular orientation, are no longer permissible when inverted. For example, when the note "G" sounds in one voice above the note "C" in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, considered consonant and acceptable; when this interval is inverted, it forms a fourth, considered a dissonance in tonal contrapuntal practice, requires special treatment, or preparation and resolution, if it is to be used.
The countersubject, if sounding at the same time as the ans
The Westminster Assembly of Divines was a council of divines and members of the English Parliament appointed from 1643 to 1653 to restructure the Church of England. Several Scots attended, the Assembly's work was adopted by the Church of Scotland; as many as 121 ministers were called to the Assembly, with nineteen others added to replace those who did not attend or could no longer attend. It produced a new Form of Church Government, a Confession of Faith or statement of belief, two catechisms or manuals for religious instruction, a liturgical manual, the Directory for Public Worship, for the Churches of England and Scotland; the Confession and catechisms were adopted as doctrinal standards in the Church of Scotland and other Presbyterian churches, where they remain normative. Amended versions of the Confession were adopted in Congregational and Baptist churches in England and New England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; the Confession became influential throughout the English-speaking world, but in American Protestant theology.
The Assembly was called by the Long Parliament before and during the beginning of the First English Civil War. The Long Parliament was influenced by Puritanism, a religious movement which sought to further reform the church, they were opposed to the religious policies of King Charles I and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. As part of a military alliance with Scotland, Parliament agreed that the outcome of the Assembly would bring the English Church into closer conformity with the Church of Scotland; the Scottish Church was governed by a system of elected assemblies of elders called presbyterianism, rather than rule by bishops, called episcopalianism, used in the English church. Scottish commissioners advised the Assembly as part of the agreement. Disagreements over church government caused open division in the Assembly, despite attempts to maintain unity; the party of divines who favoured presbyterianism was in the majority, but the congregationalist party, which held greater influence in the military, favoured autonomy for individual congregations rather than the subjection of congregations to regional and national assemblies entailed in presbyterianism.
Parliament adopted a presbyterian form of government but lacked the power to implement it. During the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, all of the documents of the Assembly were repudiated and episcopal church government was reinstated in England; the Assembly worked in the Reformed Protestant theological tradition known as Calvinism. It took the Bible as the authoritative word of God, from which all theological reflection must be based; the divines were committed to the Reformed doctrine of predestination — that God chooses certain men to be saved and enjoy eternal life rather than eternal punishment. There was some disagreement at the Assembly over the doctrine of particular redemption — that Christ died only for those chosen for salvation; the Assembly held to Reformed covenant theology, a framework for interpreting the Bible. The Assembly's Confession is the first of the Reformed confessions to teach a doctrine called the covenant of works, which teaches that before the fall of man, God promised eternal life to Adam on condition that he obeyed God.
Parliament called the Westminster Assembly during a time of increasing hostility between Charles I, monarch of England and Scotland, the Puritans. Puritans could be distinguished by their insistence that worship practices be supported implicitly or explicitly by the Bible, while their opponents gave greater authority to traditional customs, they believed the Church of England, which had separated itself from the Catholic Church during the English Reformation, was still too influenced by Catholicism. They sought to rid the nation of any of these remaining influences; this included rule by a hierarchy of bishops. Puritans, unlike separatists, did not leave the established church. Under Charles, the Puritans' opponents were placed in high positions of authority, most notably William Laud, made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633 though these "high churchmen" were in the minority. Puritans were forced to face fines and imprisonment. Laud promoted advocates of Arminianism, a theological perspective opposed to the Reformed theology of the Puritans.
Worship practices such as kneeling at communion, bowing at the name of Christ, the placement of communion tables at the East end of churches were reinstated. To the Puritans, these seemed to be a step in the direction of Catholicism. There were conflicts between the king and the Scots, whose church was ruled by a system known as presbyterianism, which features elected assemblies. James, Charles's predecessor as King of Scotland, made it clear that he intended to impose elements of episcopal church government and the Book of Common Prayer on the Scots beginning in 1604; the Scots considered this a reversion to Roman Catholicism. Charles furthered English impositions on the Church of Scotland in 1636 and 1637; this led to the First Bishops' War between Charles and the Scots in 1639. Charles called what came to be known as the Short Parliament to raise funds for the war, but he soon dissolved it when it began voicing opposition to his policies. Following the Second Bishops' War with the Scots in 1640, Charles was forced to call another parliament to raise additional funds.
What came to be known as the Long Parliament began to voice vague grievances against Charles, many of which were religious in nature. Parliament had many Puritans and Puritan-sympathizing members, who opposed the existing episcopal system, but there was little agreement over what shape the church s
Venetian polychoral style
The Venetian polychoral style was a type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate choirs singing in alternation. It represented a major stylistic shift from the prevailing polyphonic writing of the middle Renaissance, was one of the major stylistic developments which led directly to the formation of what is now known as the Baroque style. A encountered term for the separated choirs is cori spezzati—literally, separated choirs; the style arose from the architectural peculiarities of the imposing Basilica San Marco di Venezia in Venice. Aware of the sound delay caused by the distance between opposing choir lofts, composers began to take advantage of it as a useful special effect. Since it was difficult to get separated choirs to sing the same music composers such as Adrian Willaert, the maestro di cappella of St. Mark's in the 1540s, solved the problem by writing antiphonal music where opposing choirs would sing successive contrasting phrases of the music.
This was a rare but interesting case of the architectural peculiarities of a single building influencing the development of a style which not only became popular all over Europe, but defined, in part, the shift from the Renaissance to the Baroque era. The idea of different groups singing in alternation evolved into the concertato style, which in its different instrumental and vocal manifestations led to such diverse musical ideas as the chorale cantata, the concerto grosso, the sonata; the peak of development of the style was in the late 1580s and 1590s, while Giovanni Gabrieli was organist at San Marco and principal composer, while Gioseffo Zarlino was still maestro di cappella. Gabrieli was the first to specify instruments including large choirs of brass; the fame of the spectacular, sonorous music of San Marco at this time spread across Europe, numerous musicians came to Venice to hear, to study, to absorb and bring back what they learned to their countries of origin. Germany, in particular, was a region where composers began to work in a locally-modified form of the Venetian style - most notably Heinrich Schütz - though polychoral works were composed elsewhere, such as the many masses written in Spain by Tomás Luis de Victoria.
After 1603, a basso continuo was added to the considerable forces at San Marco—orchestra, choir—a further step toward the Baroque cantata. Music at San Marco went through a period of decline, but the fame of the music had spread far, transformed into the concertato style. In 1612 Claudio Monteverdi was appointed maestro di cappella, though he brought the musical standards back to a high level, the vogue of the polychoral style had passed. Adrian Willaert Cipriano de Rore Gioseffo Zarlino Claudio Merulo Giovanni Gabrieli Andrea Gabrieli Claudio Monteverdi Hans Leo Hassler Heinrich Schütz Adrian Willaert, Salmi spezzati Andrea Gabrieli, Psalmi Davidici Giovanni Gabrieli, Symphoniae sacrae In Ecclesiis Sonata pian' e forte Heinrich Schütz, Psalmen Davids Venetian School "Venice", "cori spezzati," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 Carver, Anthony F, The development of sacred polychoral music to the time of Schütz.
Cambridge. ISBN 0521303982 Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Manfred Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1947. ISBN 0-393-09745-5 The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, ed. Don Randel. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-674-61525-5 D-sites.net: "Musical Space: an inquiry into three kinds of audible space"
Heinrich Schütz was a German composer and organist regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach, as well as one of the most important composers of the 17th century. He is credited with bringing the Italian style to Germany and continuing its evolution from the Renaissance into the Early Baroque. Most of his music we have today was written for the Lutheran church for the Electoral Chapel in Dresden, he wrote what is traditionally considered to be the first German opera, performed at Torgau in 1627, the music of which has since been lost, along with nearly all of his ceremonial and theatrical scores. He is commemorated as a musician in the Calendar of Saints of some North American Lutheran churches on 28 July with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel. Schütz was born in the eldest son of Christoph Schütz and Euphrosyne Bieger. In 1590 the family moved to Weißenfels, where his father managed the inn "Zum güldenen Ring", his father served as burgomaster in Weißenfels, in 1615 purchased another inn known as both "Zur güldenen Sackpfeife" and "Zum güldenen Esel" – which he renamed "Zum Schützen".
While Schütz was living with his parents, his musical talents were discovered by Landgrave Moritz von Hessen-Kassel in 1598 during an overnight stay in Christoph Schütz's inn. Upon hearing young Heinrich sing, the landgrave requested that his parents allow the boy to be sent to his noble court for further education and instruction, his parents resisted the offer, but after much correspondence they took Heinrich to the landgrave’s seat at Kassel in August 1599. After being a choir-boy he went on to study law at Marburg before going to Venice from 1609–1612 to study music with Giovanni Gabrieli. Gabrieli is the only person Schütz referred to as being his teacher, he inherited a ring from Gabrieli shortly before the latter's death. He subsequently was organist at Kassel from 1613 to 1615. After a prolonged yet polite negotiation between the Landgrave and the Elector, Schütz moved to Dresden in 1615 to work as court composer to the Elector of Saxony. In 1619 Schütz married Magdalena Wildeck, born in 1601.
She bore two daughters before her death in 1625: Anna Justina born in 1621 and Euphrosyne born in 1623. In Dresden Schütz sowed the seeds of what is now the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden, but left there on several occasions. In 1633 he was invited to Copenhagen to compose the music for wedding festivities there returning to Dresden in 1635, he again conducted an extended visit to Denmark in 1641, due to the devastation of the Electoral court. The Thirty Years' War ended in 1648, he again became more active in Dresden. In 1655, the year that his daughter Euphrosyne died, he accepted an ex officio post as Kapellmeister at Wolfenbüttel, his Dresden compositions during the Thirty Years' War were by necessity of the times smaller scale than the oft-massive works before, although this period produced much of his most charming music. After the war, Schütz again wrote larger-scale compositions culminating in the 1660s, when he composed the greatest Passionmusic before Bach. Schütz moved back to Weissenfels in a retirement he had to beg for to live with his sister, but the Electoral Court called him back to Dresden often.
He died in Dresden from a stroke in 1672 at the age of 87. He was buried in the old Dresden Frauenkirche, but his tomb was destroyed in 1727 when the church was torn down to build the new Dresden Frauenkirche, his pupils included Anton Colander, Christoph Bernhard, Matthias Weckmann, Heinrich Albert, Johann Theile, Friedrich Werner, Philipp Stolle Johann Nauwach, Caspar Kittel, Christoph Kittel, Clemens Thieme, Johann Klemm, Johann Vierdanck, David Pohle, Constantin Christian Dedekind, Johann Jakob Loewe, Johann Kaspar Horn, Friedrich von Westhoff, Adam Krieger, Johann Wilhelm Furchheim, Carlo Farina. Schütz's compositions show the influence of his teacher Gabrieli and of Monteverdi. Additionally, the influence of the Netherlandish composers of the 16th century is prominent in his work, his best known works are in the field of sacred music, ranging from solo voice with instrumental accompaniment to a cappella choral music. Representative works include his Psalmen Davids, Cantiones sacrae, three books of Symphoniae sacrae, Die sieben Worte Jesu Christi am Kreuz, three Passion settings and the Christmas Story.
Schütz's music, while starting off in the most progressive styles early in his career grew into a style, simple and austere, culminating with his late Passion settings. Practical considerations were responsible for part of this change: the Thirty Years' War had devastated the musical infrastructure of Germany, it was no longer practical or possible to put on the gigantic works in the Venetian style which marked his earlier period; the unique composition "Es steh Gott auf" is in many respects comparable to Monteverdi. His funeral music "Musikalishe Exequien" for his noble friend Heinrich Posthumus of Reuss is considerad a masterpiece, is known today as the first German Requiem. Schütz was fluent in his Latin or Germanic styles. Schütz was one of the last composers to write in a m
Giovanni Gabrieli was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms. Gabrieli was born in Venice, he was one of five children, his father came from the region of Carnia and went to Venice shortly before Giovanni's birth. While not much is known about Giovanni's early life, he studied with his uncle, the composer Andrea Gabrieli, employed at St Mark's Basilica from the 1560s until his death in 1585. Giovanni may indeed have been brought up by his uncle, as is implied by the dedication to his 1587 book of concerti, in which he described himself as "little less than a son" to his uncle. Giovanni went to Munich to study with the renowned Orlando de Lassus at the court of Duke Albert V. Lassus was to be one of the principal influences on the development of his musical style. By 1584 he had returned to Venice, where he became principal organist at St Mark's Basilica in 1585, after Claudio Merulo left the post.
After his uncle's death he began editing much of the older man's music, which would otherwise have been lost. Gabrieli's career rose further when he took the additional post of organist at the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, another post he retained for his entire life. San Rocco was the most prestigious and wealthy of all the Venetian confraternities, second only to San Marco itself in splendor of its musical establishment; some of the most renowned singers and instrumentalists in Italy performed there and a vivid description of its musical activity survives in the travel memoirs of the English writer Thomas Coryat. Much of his music was written for that location,although he composed more for San Marco. San Marco had a long tradition of musical excellence and Gabrieli's work there made him one of the most noted composers in Europe; the vogue that began with his influential volume Sacrae symphoniae was such that composers from all over Europe from Germany, came to Venice to study. Evidently he made his new pupils study the madrigals being written in Italy, so not only did they carry back the grand Venetian polychoral style to their home countries, but the more intimate style of madrigals.
The productions of the German Baroque, culminating in the music of J. S. Bach, were founded on this strong tradition. Gabrieli was ill after about 1606, at which time church authorities began to appoint deputies to take over duties he could no longer perform, he died in 1612 of complications from a kidney stone. Though Gabrieli composed in many of the forms current at the time, he preferred sacred vocal and instrumental music. All of his secular vocal music is early. Among the innovations credited to him – and while he was not always the first, he was the most famous to do these things – were the use of dynamics. Like composers before and after him, he would use the unusual layout of the San Marco church, with its two choir lofts facing each other, to create striking spatial effects. Most of his pieces are written so that a choir or instrumental group will first be heard on one side, followed by a response from the musicians on the other side. While this polychoral style had been extant for decades Gabrieli pioneered the use of specified groups of instruments and singers, with precise directions for instrumentation, in more than two groups.
The acoustics were and are such in the church that instruments positioned, could be heard with perfect clarity at distant points. Thus instrumentation which looks strange on paper, for instance a single string player set against a large group of brass instruments, can be made to sound, in San Marco, in perfect balance. A fine example of these techniques can be seen in the scoring of In Ecclesiis. Gabrieli's first motets were published alongside his uncle Andrea's compositions in his 1587 volume of Concerti; these pieces echo effects. There are low and high choirs and the difference between their pitches is marked by the use of instrumental accompaniment; the motets published in Giovanni's 1597 Sacrae Symphoniae seem to move away from this technique of close antiphony towards a model in which musical material is not echoed, but developed by successive choral entries. Some motets, such as Omnes Gentes developed the model to its limits. In these motets, instruments are an integral part of the perform