Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is a part of the experience; this activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet to 14 feet rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars. Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport, can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations; the International Rafting Federation referred to as the IRF, is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport. Whitewater rafting can be traced back to 1811 when the first recorded attempt to navigate the Snake River in Wyoming was planned.
With no training, experience, or proper equipment, the river was found to be too difficult and dangerous. Hence, it was given the nickname “Mad River.” The first commercial rafting trip took place. On June 9, 1940, Clyde Smith lead a successful trip through the Snake River Canyon. Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting, they range from simple to dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. Class 3: Small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering. Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are unnavigable on a reliably safe basis.
Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes; the overall risk level on a rafting trip using proper precautions is low. Thousands of people safely enjoy rafting trips every year. Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, equipment has become more specialized and improved in quality; as a result, the difficulty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example is the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, which had a reputation far exceeding its actual safety statistics. Today the Grand Canyon sees hundreds of safe rafting trips by both do it yourself rafters and commercial river concessionaires. Rafting companies require customers to sign waiver forms indicating understanding and acceptance of potential serious risks.
Both do-it-yourself and commercial rafting trips begin with safety presentations to educate rafting participants about problems that may arise. Depending on the area, safety regulations covering rafting, both for the general do-it-yourself public as well as commercial operators, may exist in legislation; these range from the mandatory wearing of lifejackets, carrying certain equipment such as whistles and throwable flotation devices, to certification of commercial outfitters and their employees. It is advisable to discuss safety measures with a commercial rafting operator before signing on for that type of trip; the required equipment needed is essential information to be considered. Risks in white water rafting stem from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained so; these would include ‘keeper hydraulics’, ‘strainers’, undercut rocks, of course dangerously high waterfalls. In safe areas, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment.
Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has contributed to many accidents. Typical rafting injuries include trauma from striking an object, traumatic stress from the interaction of the paddler’s positioning and equipment and the force of the water, overuse injuries, submersion/environmental injuries, non-environmental injuries due to undisclosed medical conditions. Studies have shown that injury rates in rafting are low, though they may be skewed due to a large number of unreported incidents. Fatalities are rare in both do-it-yourself rafting. Meta-analyses have calculated. Like all outdoor activities, rafting must balance its use of nature with the conservation of rivers as a natural resource and habitat; because of these issues, some rivers now have regulations restricting the annual seasons and daily operating times or numbers of rafters. Conflicts have arisen when co
Poolesville is a town in the western portion of Montgomery County, Maryland. The population was 4,883 at the 2010 United States Census, it is surrounded by the Montgomery County Agricultural Reserve, is considered a distant bedroom community for commuters to Washington, D. C; the name of the town comes from the brothers John Poole, Sr. and Joseph Poole, Sr. who owned land in what is now Poolesville. Due to a historical anomaly, until 2010 the legal name of the town was "The Commissioners of Poolesville". Residents overwhelmingly voted to formally change the name to "The Town of Poolesville" in the November 2010 general election. In 1760, brothers John Poole, Sr. and Joseph Poole, Sr. purchased 160 acres acres in the area, now Poolesville. Thirty-three years John Poole, Jr. used a 15 acres tract that he inherited from his father to build a log store and subdivided the tract, selling portions to a number of other merchants. The settlement grew from there and was incorporated in 1867. During the Civil War Union military leaders realized that the shallow fords of the Potomac River posed a threat to the capital city.
At certain times of the year the Potomac River is shallow enough to cross and thus thousands of troops were moved to both Darnestown and Poolesville. The Corps of Observation was established just outside Poolesville and soldiers were stationed near the river to watch for Confederate incursions into Maryland. During the winter of 1861-1862 it is estimated that 20,000 Union troops were stationed in or around the town. There were no battles fought in Poolesville. Hundreds of Union soldiers who were stationed in Poolesville were killed in this battle, badly managed by inexperienced Union generals. There were several Confederate raids into the town during the war and the Confederate Army invaded Maryland by crossing the Potomac near Poolesville in both 1862 and 1864; the old Poolesville Methodist Church cemetery contains the remains of twenty soldiers who either were killed in action at Bulls Bluff or who died of illness while in camp. The Seneca Schoolhouse, a small one-room schoolhouse of red sandstone, was built in Poolesville in 1866 to educate the children of the stone cutters who worked at the Seneca Quarry.
Operating as the Seneca Schoolhouse Museum, it provides tours to schoolchildren so that they can experience a typical school day as it would have been on March 13, 1880. The Kunzang Palyul Choling Buddhist temple opened in Poolesville in 1985; the Poolesville Historic District was listed in 1975 on the National Register of Historic Places. Poolesville is located at 39°8′26″N 77°24′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.95 square miles, of which, 3.93 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Poolesville lies off Montgomery County's main axis of suburban development along the Interstate 270 and Maryland State Route 355 corridor, separated from the contiguous Maryland suburbs of Washington by the rural lands of the county agricultural reserve, where new housing and commercial starts are restricted. Poolesville is governed by five commissioners elected in staggered 4-year terms. Commissioners are not paid; the commissioners elect among themselves vice president.
A Town Manager is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the town. Six Boards and Commissions assist the commissioners: the Planning Commission, Parks Board, Board of Elections, Sign Review Board, Board of Zoning Appeals, Ethics Commission; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,151 people, 1,601 households, 1,402 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,333.8 people per square mile. There were 1,630 housing units at an average density of 422.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town in 2000 was 93.57% White, 2.85% African American, 0.49% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.68% of the population. There were 1,601 households out of which 56.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.6% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 12.4% were non-families. 9.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.22 and the average family size was 3.44. In the town, the population was spread out with 35.0% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 3.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $85,092, the median income for a family was $88,916. Males had a median income of $60,596 versus $42,051 for females; the per capita income for the town was $30,211. About 2.5% of families and 2.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,883 people, 1,602 households, 1,348 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,242.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,663 housing units at an average density of 423.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 88.4% White, 5.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.0% of the population. There were 1,602 households of which 45.4% had childre
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, abbreviated as the C&O Canal and called the "Grand Old Ditch," operated from 1831 until 1924 along the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. to Cumberland, Maryland. The canal's principal cargo was coal from the Allegheny Mountains. Construction on the 184.5-mile canal began in 1828 and ended in 1850 with the completion of a 50-mile stretch to Cumberland. Rising and falling over an elevation change of 605 feet, it required the construction of 74 canal locks, 11 aqueducts to cross major streams, more than 240 culverts to cross smaller streams, the 3,118 ft Paw Paw Tunnel. A planned section to the Ohio River at Pittsburgh was never built; the canal way is now maintained as the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, with a trail that follows the old towpath. After the American Revolutionary War, George Washington was the chief advocate of using waterways to connect the Eastern Seaboard to the Great Lakes and the Ohio River. In 1785, Washington founded the Potowmack Company to improve the navigability of the Potomac River.
His company built five skirting canals around the major falls: Little Falls, Great Falls in Virginia, Seneca Falls, Payne's Falls of the Shenendoah, House's Falls near Harpers Ferry. These canals allowed an easy downstream float. Several kinds of watercraft were used in the Potomac River. Gondolas were 60 by 10 ft log rafts sold at journey's end for their wood by their owners, who returned upstream on foot. Sharpers were flat-bottomed boats, 60 by 7 ft, usable only on high-water days, about 45 days per year; the Erie Canal, built between 1817 and 1825, threatened traders south of New York City, who began to seek their own transportation infrastructure to link the burgeoning areas west of the Appalachian Mountains to mid-Atlantic markets and ports. As early as 1820, plans were being laid for a canal to link the Ohio Chesapeake Bay. In early March 1825, President James Monroe signed the bill chartering the construction of the C&O Canal as one of the last acts of his presidency; the plan was to build it in two sections, the eastern section from the tidewater of Washington, D.
C. to Cumberland, Maryland. Free from taxation, the canal company was required to have 100 miles in use in five years, to complete the canal in 12 years; the canal was engineered to have a 2 miles per hour water current, supplying the canal and assisting mules pulling boats downstream. The eastern section was the only part to be completedIn October 23, 1826, the engineers submitted the study, presenting the proposed canal route in three sections; the eastern section comprised Georgetown to Cumberland. The total estimated price tag, more than $22 million, dampened the enthusiasm of many supporters, who were expecting more like $4 million to $5 million. At a convention in December 1826, they attempted to discredit the engineers' report, offered lower estimates: Georgetown to Cumberland, $5,273,283. Geddes and Roberts were hired to make another report, which they gave in 1828: $4,479,346.93 for Georgetown to Cumberland. With those numbers to encourage them, the stockholders formally organized the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company in June 1828.
In the end, the final construction cost to Cumberland in 1850 was $11,071,075.21. Compared to the original cost given by the engineers in 1826 of about $8 million, removing things not in the estimate such as land purchases, engineering expenses, incidental damages and fencing provision, the cost overrun was about 19%, which can be justified by the inflation rate of the period; the cost overrun of the other proposal was about 51% thus showing that the original engineer's estimate was good. In 1824, the holdings of the "Patowmack Company" were ceded to the Ohio Company. By 1825, the Canal Company was authorized by an act of the General Assembly of Maryland in the amount of subscriptions of $500,000 authorized by the act of incorporation paved the way for future investments and loans. According to historians, those financial resources were expended until the State had prostrated itself on its own credit; the C&O's first chief engineer was Benjamin Wright chief engineer of the Erie Canal. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on July 4, 1828, attended by U.
S. president John Quincy Adams. The ceremony was held near Georgetown, at the canal's eventual 5.64 miles mark near Lock 6, the upstream end of the Little Falls skirting canal, Dam No. 1. At the groundbreaking, there was still argument over the eastern end of the canal; the directors thought that Little Falls was sufficient since that fulfilled the charter's condition of reaching the tidewater, but people in Washington wanted it to end in Washington, connecting to the Tiber Creek and Anacostia river. For that reason, the canal opened from Little Falls to Seneca, the next year, was extended down to Georgetown; the Little Falls skirting canal, part of the Patowmack Canal, was dredged to increase its depth from 4 to 6 feet, became part of the C&O canal. The fi
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
A triathlon is a multisport race with three continuous and sequential endurance races. The word is from τρεῖς or treis and ἆθλος or athlos. While variations of the sport exist, the most common form includes swimming and running over various distances. Triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion, including timed transitions between the three races. A transition area is set up; this is where the switches from cycling to running occur. These areas are used to store bicycles, performance apparel, any other accessories needed for the next stage of the race; the transition from swim to bike is referred to as T1 and that between the bike and run is referred to as T2. The athlete's overall time for the race includes time spent in T1 and T2. Transition areas vary in size depending on the number of participants expected. In addition, these areas provide a social headquarters before the race; the nature of the sport focuses on persistent and periodized training in each of the three disciplines, as well as combination workouts and general strength conditioning.
The evolution of triathlon as a distinct event is difficult to trace with precision. Many, including triathlon historian and author Scott Tinley, consider events in early twentieth century France to be the beginnings of triathlon, with many three element multisport events of differing composition appearing all called by different names; the earliest record for an event was from 1901 in Joinville-le-Pont, Val-de-Marne it called itself "Les trois sports" it was advertised as an event for "The sportsmen of the time" and consisted of a run bicycle and canoe segment. By 19 June 1921 the event in Joinville-le-Pont had become more like a standard triathlon with the canoe element being replaced with a swim, newspaper L’Auto stating the race consisted of a 3km run, a 12km bike ride and the crossing of the river Marne, all staged consecutively and without a break. Throughout the 1920s other bike and swim events had appeared in different cities such as the "Course des Trois Sports” in Marseilles, and "La Course des Débrouillards" in Poissy.
These multisport events would continue to spread and grow in popularity such by 1934 "Les Trois Sports" was being hosted in the city of La Rochelle though it consisted three distinct events, swimming a channel crossing,a bike competition around the harbour of La Rochelle and the parc Laleu, a run in the stadium André-Barbeau. Throughout this growth with new events appearing no unified rules existed and as a whole would remain a minority event on the world stage; the first modern swim/bike/run event was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25, 1974. The race was conceived and directed by two members of the San Diego Track Club, Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan. Johnstone recalls that he was a part of the 70s jogging craze in America and that after entering a few races he was not regaining his "mediocre fitness" despite having being a member of the 1957 Collegiate and AAU All-American swim teams. In 1973, Johnstone learned of the Dave Pain Birthday Biathlon, a 4.5 mile run followed by what was billed as a quarter-mile swim.
The following year after competing in the event for the second time and placing in the top ten Johnstone desired more of this style of race and with equal emphasis on the swim, so he petitioned the chairman of the San Diego Track Club who told him he would add a race to the club calendar but the rest of the race was up to Johnstone to organise and at the same time to contact Don Shanahan so there wouldn't be too many "weird" races on the club schedule. Shanahan told Johnstone that he wanted to include a biking leg to the race, whilst hesitant Johnstone agreed to the addition; when naming the event the pair used the unofficially agreed naming system for multisport event, of using the prefix Greek number for the number of events trias and suffix of athlos the Greek for a competition, hence named the event the Mission Bay Triathlon. It is worthy of note that neither founder had heard of the French events, both believing their race a unique idea. On Wednesday, September 25, 1974 the race started, it began with a run of a three-mile loop biking twice around Fiesta Island for a total of five miles entrants would get off the bikes, take their shoes off and run into the water swimming to the mainland ran in bare feet before swimming again along the bay did one last swim up to the entrance of Fiesta Island before crawling up a steep dirt bank to finish.
Most participants were not skilled swimmers, so Johnstone recruited his 13-year-old son to float on his surfboard and act as lifeguard. Some participants took longer than expected, it began to get dark as they finished their swims. Shanahan recalls they turned on the headlights so the athletes could see; the large number of entrants 46 surprised Johnstone and Shanahan with entrants from local running clubs, two notable entrants Judy and John Collins, would four years found the event which brought international attention to the new sport Ironman Hawaii. With the sport's popularity growing in the US its spread outside the country seemed inevitable, by 1980 triathlon had made its way across the Atlantic to northern Europe with the first European triathlon held on 30th August, 1980 in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia; the Netherlands and West Germany follow after, all hosting an event in 1981, but the media coverage of these events is non-existent. In 1982, the event organiser IMG, worked in partnership with the American channel
Great Falls, Virginia
Great Falls is a census-designated place in Fairfax County, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was an increase of 80.5 % from the 2000 census. CNNMoney ranked Great Falls first in the nation on its list of "top earning towns" in 2011. Early farm settlements began to form in the area as early as the late 1700s. Early on, the village was known as Forestville, but was named Great Falls in 1955. Great Falls is located at 38°59′53″N 077°17′18″W at an elevation of 344 feet. Located on Virginia State Route 7 in Northern Virginia, Great Falls is 15 miles west-northwest of downtown Washington, D. C. and 10.5 miles north of Fairfax, the county seat. Great Falls lies in the Piedmont upland on the right bank of the Potomac River; the river forms the northern and eastern border of the CDP, several of its tributaries flow north and east through the CDP. From north to south, these include Nichols Run, Clarks Branch, Difficult Run. Difficult Run forms the southeastern border of the CDP. Two of its tributaries, Captain Hickory Run and Piney Run, flow southeast through the southern part of the CDP.
The Great Falls of the Potomac River, the community's namesake, are on the east side of the CDP. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 25.66 square miles of which 25.42 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water. As a suburb of Washington, D. C. Great Falls is a part of both the Washington Metropolitan Area and the larger Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, it is bordered on all sides by other Washington suburbs, including: Darnestown and Travilah, Maryland to the north, Maryland to the east, McLean to the southeast, Wolf Trap to the south and Dranesville to the southwest, Sterling to the west, Lowes Island to the northwest. As of the 2010 census, there were 15,427 people, 4,977 households, 4,439 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 606.9 people per square mile. There were 5,179 housing units at an average density of 203.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the community was 80.5% White, 13.5% Asian, 1.8% African American, 0.1% American Indian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races.
Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 3.9% of the population. There were 4,977 households of which 46.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 82.1% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.8% were non-families. Of all households 8.5% were made up of individuals, 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.10, the average family size was 3.27. The age distribution of the population was 29.2% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 15.9% from 25 to 44, 37.3% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.8 years. The gender makeup of the CDP was 49.7 % female. The median income for a household in the CDP was $189,545, the median income for a family was $201,250. Males had a median income of $149,609 versus $101,289 for females; the community's per capita income was $80,422. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.7% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.
Fairfax County Public Schools operates the local public schools. Great Falls students attend Great Falls Elementary School, Forestville Elementary School or Colvin Run Elementary School; these schools feed into the feeder for Langley High School. Fairfax County Public Library operates the Great Falls Library; the main roads serving Great Falls are Virginia State Route 7 and Virginia State Route 193. Although Great Falls is a bedroom community for Washington, D. C. one major attraction is Great Falls Park which overlooks the Great Falls of the Potomac River, for which the community and the park are named. George Washington was involved with building a canal around the falls on the southwest, or Virginia, called the Patowmack Canal, which did not become commercially viable. Remnants of the canal and of a village around the canal named Matildaville are still visible in the park; the Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad extended along Old Dominion Drive to Great Falls Park in 1906. River Bend County Park is another gathering area in Great Falls, as is the Village Green, which hosts community celebrations around Easter, Fourth of July, Halloween and Christmas, as well as concerts in the summer.
The MTV television series Finding Carter is set in Great Falls. Due to its proximity to Washington, D. C. several figures from American politics and government live or have lived in Great Falls, including Senator Rick Santorum, former United States Surgeon General Kenneth Moritsugu, Federal Bureau of Investigation director Louis Freeh and former Central Intelligence Agency director Stansfield Turner. Other famous residents have included political commentator Peggy Noonan, heiress Jacqueline Mars, businessman Steve Case, Washington Redskins owner Dan Snyder as well as astronaut Dan Tani. Great Falls Historical Society