In Greek mythology, the Nereids are sea nymphs, the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to Nerites. They accompany Poseidon, the god of the sea, can be friendly and helpful to sailors, like the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece. Nereids are associated with the Aegean Sea, where they dwelt with their father Nereus in the depths within a golden palace; the most notable of them are wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles. They symbolized everything, beautiful and kind about the sea, their melodious voices sang. They are represented as beautiful girls, crowned with branches of red coral and dressed in white silk robes trimmed with gold, but who went barefoot, they carried his trident. In Homer's Iliad XVIII, when Thetis cries out in sympathy for the grief of Achilles for the slain Patroclus, her sisters appear; the Nereid Opis is mentioned in Virgil's Aeneid. She is called by the goddess Diana to avenge the death of the Amazon-like female warrior Camilla. Diana gives Opis magical weapons for revenge on the Etruscan Arruns.
Opis laments Camilla's death and shoots Arruns in revenge as directed by Diana. In modern Greek folklore, the term "nereid" has come to be used for all nymphs, fairies, or mermaids, not nymphs of the sea. Nereid, a moon of the planet Neptune, is named after the Nereids; this list is correlated from four sources: Homer's Iliad, Hesiod's Theogony, the Bibliotheca and Hyginus. Because of this, the total number of names goes beyond fifty. Media related to Nereids at Wikimedia Commons Nereids in classical literature and art Nereid and Triton Mosaic from Ephesus Terrace Home -2 3D stereoview of Nereid and Triton relief from Temple of Apollo in Didim Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
In Greek mythology, Phorcys is a primordial sea god cited as the son of Pontus and Gaia. According to the Orphic hymns, Phorcys and Rhea were the eldest offspring of Oceanus and Tethys. Classical scholar Karl Kerenyi conflated Phorcys with the similar sea gods Proteus, his wife was Ceto, he is most notable in myth for fathering by Ceto a host of monstrous children. In extant Hellenistic-Roman mosaics, Phorcys was depicted as a fish-tailed merman with crab-claw forelegs and red, spiky skin. Hesiod's Theogony lists the children of Phorcys and Ceto as the Graeae, the Gorgons Echidna and Ceto's "youngest, the awful snake who guards the apples all of gold in the secret places of the dark earth at its great bounds" called the Drakon Hesperios or Ladon; these children tend to be consistent across sources, though Ladon is cited as a child of Echidna by Typhon and therefore Phorcys and Ceto's grandson. According to Apollodorus, Scylla was the daughter of Crataeis, with the father being either Trienus or Phorcus.
Apollonius of Rhodes has Scylla as the daughter of a conflated Crataeis-Hecate. The Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes cites Phorcys and Ceto as the parents of the Hesperides, but this assertion is not repeated in other ancient sources. Homer refers to the mother of Polyphemus, as a daughter of Phorcys. Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Athanassakis, Apostolos N, Hesiod: Theogony and days, Shield, JHU Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8018-7984-5. Caldwell, Hesiod's Theogony, Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company. ISBN 978-0-941051-00-2. Clay, Jenny Strauss, Hesiod's Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-82392-0. Fowler, R. L. Early Greek Mythography: Volume 1: Text and Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0198147404.* Freeman, Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Complete Translation of the Fragments in Diels, Fragmente Der Vorsokratiker, Harvard University Press, 1983.
ISBN 9780674035010. Gantz, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9, ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3. Grimal, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1. "Echidna" p. 143. Hyginus, Gaius Julius, The Myths of Hyginus. Edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960. Kerenyi, Karl 1951; the Gods of the Greeks. Morford, Mark P. O. Robert J. Lenardon, Classical Mythology, Eighth Edition, Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-530805-1. Rose, Herbert Jennings, "Echidna" in The Oxford Classical Dictionary and Scullard, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-19-869117-3 Smith, William. Theoi Project – Phorcys Greek Mythology at Mythologica
Thetis, is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles. She appears as a sea nymph, a goddess of water, or one of the 50 Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus; when described as a Nereid in Classical myths, Thetis was the daughter of Nereus and Doris, a granddaughter of Tethys with whom she sometimes shares characteristics. She seems to lead the Nereids as they attend to her tasks. Sometimes she is identified with Metis; some sources argue that she was one of the earliest of deities worshipped in Archaic Greece, the oral traditions and records of which are lost. Only one written record, a fragment, exists attesting to her worship and an early Alcman hymn exists that identifies Thetis as the creator of the universe. Worship of Thetis as the goddess is documented to have persisted in some regions by historical writers such as Pausanias. In the Trojan War cycle of myth, the wedding of Thetis and the Greek hero Peleus is one of the precipitating events in the war which led to the birth of their child Achilles.
Most extant material about Thetis concerns her role as mother of Achilles, but there is some evidence that as the sea-goddess she played a more central role in the religious beliefs and practices of Archaic Greece. The pre-modern etymology of her name, from tithemi, "to set up, establish," suggests a perception among Classical Greeks of an early political role. Walter Burkert considers her name a transformed doublet of Tethys. In Iliad I, Achilles recalls to his mother her role in defending, thus legitimizing, the reign of Zeus against an incipient rebellion by three Olympians, each of whom has pre-Olympian roots: You alone of all the gods saved Zeus the Darkener of the Skies from an inglorious fate, when some of the other Olympians – Hera and Pallas Athene – had plotted to throw him into chains... You, goddess and saved him from that indignity. You summoned to high Olympus the monster of the hundred arms whom the gods call Briareus, but mankind Aegaeon, a giant more powerful than his father.
He squatted by the Son of Cronos with such a show of force that the blessed gods slunk off in terror, leaving Zeus free — E. V. Rieu translation Quintus of Smyrna, recalling this passage, does write that Thetis once released Zeus from chains. Laura Slatkin explores the apparent contradiction, in that the immediate presentation of Thetis in the Iliad is as a helpless minor goddess overcome by grief and lamenting to her Nereid sisters, links the goddess's present and past through her grief, she draws comparisons with Eos' role in another work of the epic Cycle concerning Troy, the lost Aethiopis, which presents a strikingly similar relationship – that of the divine Dawn, with her slain son Memnon. Thetis does not need to appeal to Zeus for immortality for her son, but snatches him away to the White Island Leuke in the Black Sea, an alternate Elysium where he has transcended death, where an Achilles cult lingered into historic times. Pseudo-Apollodorus' Bibliotheke asserts that Thetis was courted by both Zeus and Poseidon, but she was married off to the mortal Peleus because of their fears about the prophecy by Themis that her son would become greater than his father.
Thus, she is revealed as a figure of cosmic capacity, quite capable of unsettling the divine order. When Hephaestus was thrown from Olympus, whether cast out by Hera for his lameness or evicted by Zeus for taking Hera's side, the Oceanid Eurynome and the Nereid Thetis caught him and cared for him on the volcanic isle of Lemnos, while he labored for them as a smith, "working there in the hollow of the cave, the stream of Okeanos around us went on forever with its foam and its murmur". Thetis is not successful in her role protecting and nurturing a hero, but her role in succoring deities is emphatically repeated by Homer, in three Iliad episodes: as well as her rescue of Zeus and Hephaestus, Diomedes recalls that when Dionysus was expelled by Lycurgus with the Olympians' aid, he took refuge in the Erythraean Sea with Thetis in a bed of seaweed; these accounts associate Thetis with "a divine past—uninvolved with human events—with a level of divine invulnerability extraordinary by Olympian standards.
Where within the framework of the Iliad the ultimate recourse is to Zeus for protection, here the poem seems to point to an alternative structure of cosmic relations" Zeus had received a prophecy that Thetis's son would become greater than his father, as Zeus had dethroned his father to lead the succeeding pantheon. In order to ensure a mortal father for her eventual offspring and his brother Poseidon made arrangements for her to marry a human, son of Aeacus, but she refused him. Proteus, an early sea-god, advised Peleus to find the sea nymph when she was asleep and bind her to keep her from escaping by changing forms, she did shift shapes, becoming flame, water, a raging lioness, a serpent. Peleus held fast. Subdued, she consented to marry him. Thetis is the mother of Achilles by Peleus. According to classical mythology, the wedding of Thetis and Peleus was celebrated on Mount Pelion, outside the cave of Chiron, attended by the dei
In Greek mythology, Nereus was the eldest son of Pontus and Gaia, who with Doris fathered the Nereids and Nerites, with whom Nereus lived in the Aegean Sea. R. S. P. Beekes suggests a Pre-Greek origin. In the Iliad the Old Man of the Sea is the father of Nereids, he was never more manifestly the Old Man of the Sea than when he was described, like Proteus, as a shapeshifter with the power of prophecy, who would aid heroes such as Heracles who managed to catch him as he changed shapes. Nereus and Proteus seem to be two manifestations of the god of the sea, supplanted by Poseidon when Zeus overthrew Cronus; the earliest poet to link Nereus with the labours of Heracles was Pherekydes, according to a scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes. During the course of the 5th century BC, Nereus was replaced by Triton, who does not appear in Homer, in the imagery of the struggle between Heracles and the sea-god who had to be restrained in order to deliver his information, employed by the vase-painters, independent of any literary testimony.
In a late appearance, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climacteric battle of Issus, resorted to prayers, "calling on Thetis and the Nereids, nymphs of the sea, invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves."Nereus was known for his truthfulness and virtue: But Pontos, the great sea, was father of truthful Nereus who tells no lies, eldest of his sons. They call him the Old Gentleman because he is trustworthy, gentle, never forgetful of what is right, but the thoughts of his mind are mild and righteous; the Attic vase-painters showed the draped torso of Nereus issuing from a long coiling scaly fishlike tail. Bearded Nereus wields a staff of authority, he was shown in scenes depicting the flight of the Nereides as Peleus wrestled their sister Thetis. In Aelian's natural history, written in the early third century CE, Nereus was the father of a watery consort of Aphrodite named Nerites, transformed into "a shellfish with a spiral shell, small in size but of surpassing beauty."
Nereus was father to Thetis, one of the Nereids, who in turn was mother to the great Greek hero Achilles, Amphitrite, who married Poseidon. Kerenyi, Karl; the Gods of the Greeks. Graves, Robert; the Greek Myths. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nereus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Theoi Project, Nereus—the sea-god in classical literature and art
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon considered to be Zeus, Poseidon, Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hephaestus and either Hestia or Dionysus. They were called Olympians. Although Hades was a major ancient Greek god, was the brother of the first generation of Olympians, he resided in the underworld, far from Olympus, thus was not considered to be one of the Olympians. Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other cultic groupings of twelve gods; the Olympians were a race of deities consisting of a third and fourth generation of immortal beings, worshipped as the principal gods of the Greek pantheon and so named because of their residency atop Mount Olympus. They gained their supremacy in a ten-year-long war of gods, in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over the previous generation of ruling gods, the Titans, they were a family of gods, the most important consisting of the first generation of Olympians, offspring of the Titans Cronus and Rhea: Zeus, Hera and Hestia, along with the principal offspring of Zeus: Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hephaestus and Dionysus.
Although Hades was a major deity in the Greek pantheon, was the brother of Zeus and the other first generation of Olympians, his realm was far away from Olympus in the underworld, thus he was not considered to be one of the Olympians. Olympic gods can be contrasted to chthonic gods including Hades, by mode of sacrifice, the latter receiving sacrifices in a bothros or megaron rather than at an altar; the canonical number of Olympian gods was twelve, but besides the principal Olympians listed above, there were many other residents of Olympus, who thus might be called Olympians. Heracles became a resident of Olympus after his apotheosis and married another Olympian resident Hebe; some others who might be considered Olympians, include the Muses, the Graces, Dione, the Horae, Ganymede. Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other various cultic groupings of twelve gods throughout ancient Greece; the earliest evidence of Greek religious practice involving twelve gods comes no earlier than the late sixth century BC.
According to Thucydides, an altar of the twelve gods was established in the agora of Athens by the archon Pisistratus, in c. 522 BC. The altar became the central point from which distances from Athens were measured and a place of supplication and refuge. Olympia also had an early tradition of twelve gods; the Homeric Hymn to Hermes has the god Hermes divide a sacrifice of two cows he has stolen from Apollo, into twelve parts, on the banks of the river Alpheius: "Next glad-hearted Hermes dragged the rich meats he had prepared and put them on a smooth, flat stone, divided them into twelve portions distributed by lot, making each portion wholly honorable."Pindar, in an ode written to be sung at Olympia c. 480 BC, has Heracles sacrificing, alongside the Alpheius, to the "twelve ruling gods": "He enclosed the Altis all around and marked it off in the open, he made the encircling area a resting-place for feasting, honoring the stream of the Alpheus along with the twelve ruling gods."Another of Pindar's Olympian odes mentions "six double altars".
Herodorus of Heraclea has Heracles founding a shrine at Olympia, with six pairs of gods, each pair sharing a single altar. Many other places had cults of the twelve gods, including Delos, Magnesia on the Maeander, Leontinoi in Sicily; as with the twelve Olympians, although the number of gods was fixed at twelve, the membership varied. While the majority of the gods included as members of these other cults of twelve gods were Olympians, non-Olympians were sometimes included. For example, Herodorus of Heraclea identified the six pairs of gods at Olympia as: Zeus and Poseidon and Athena, Hermes and Apollo, the Graces and Dionysus and Alpheus, Cronus and Rhea, thus while this list includes the eight Olympians: Zeus, Hera, Hermes, Apollo and Dionysus, it contains three clear non-Olympians: the Titan parents of the first generation of Olympians and Rhea, the river god Alpheius, with the status of the Graces being unclear. Plato connected "twelve gods" with the twelve months, implies that he considered Pluto one of the twelve in proposing that the final month be devoted to him and the spirits of the dead.
The Roman poet Ennius gives the Roman equivalents as six male-female complements, preserving the place of Vesta, who played a crucial role in Roman religion as a state goddess maintained by the Vestals. There is no single canonical list of the twelve Olympian gods; the thirteen gods and goddesses most considered to be one of the twelve Olympians are listed below. Most listings include either one or the other of the following deities as one of the twelve Olympians. Notes^ Romans associated Phoebus with Helios and the sun itself, they used the Greek name Apollon in a Latinized form Apollo.^ According to an alternate version of her birth, Aphrodite was born of Uranus, Zeus' grandfather, after Cronus threw his castrated genitals into the sea. This supports the etymology of her name, "foam-born"; as such, Aphrodite would belong to the same generation as Cronus, Zeus' father, would be Zeus' aunt
Hades, in the ancient Greek religion and myth, is the god of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous. Hades was the eldest son of Rhea, although the last son regurgitated by his father, he and his brothers and Poseidon, defeated their father's generation of gods, the Titans, claimed rulership over the cosmos. Hades received the underworld, Zeus the sky, Poseidon the sea, with the solid earth, long the province of Gaia, available to all three concurrently. Hades was portrayed with his three-headed guard dog Cerberus; the Etruscan god Aita and the Roman gods Dis Pater and Orcus were taken as equivalent to Hades and merged into Pluto, a Latinization of Plouton, itself a euphemistic title given to Hades. The origin of Hades' name is uncertain, but has been seen as meaning "the unseen one" since antiquity. An extensive section of Plato's dialogue Cratylus is devoted to the etymology of the god's name, in which Socrates is arguing for a folk etymology not from "unseen" but from "his knowledge of all noble things".
Modern linguists have proposed the Proto-Greek form *Awides. The earliest attested form is Aḯdēs. West argues instead for an original meaning of "the one who presides over meeting up" from the universality of death. In Homeric and Ionic Greek, he was known as Áïdēs. Other poetic variations of the name include Aïdōneús and the inflected forms Áïdos, Áïdi, Áïda, whose reconstructed nominative case *Áïs is, not attested; the name as it came to be known in classical times was Háidēs. The iota became silent a subscript marking, omitted entirely. From fear of pronouncing his name, around the 5th century BC, the Greeks started referring to Hades as Plouton, with a root meaning "wealthy", considering that from the abode below come riches. Plouton became the Roman god who both distributed riches from below; this deity was a mixture of the Greek god Hades and the Eleusinian icon Ploutos, from this he received a priestess, not practiced in Greece. More elaborate names of the same genre were Ploutodótēs or Ploutodotḗr, meaning "giver of wealth".
Epithets of Hades include Agesander and Agesilaos, both from ágō and anḗr or laos, describing Hades as the god who carries away all. Nicander uses the form Hegesilaus, he was referred to as Zeus katachthonios, meaning "the Zeus of the Underworld", by those avoiding his actual name, as he had complete control over the Underworld. In Greek mythology, the god of the underworld, was the first-born son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea, he had three older sisters, Hestia and Hera, as well as a younger brother, all of whom had been swallowed whole by their father as soon as they were born. Zeus was the youngest child and through the machinations of their mother, Rhea, he was the only one that had escaped this fate. Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war; the war ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad and his two brothers and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule.
Zeus received the sky, Poseidon received the seas, Hades received the underworld, the unseen realm to which the souls of the dead go upon leaving the world as well as any and all things beneath the earth. Some myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his turnout, but had no choice and moved to his new realm. Hades obtained his wife and queen, through abduction at the behest of Zeus; this myth is the most important one. Helios told the grieving Demeter that Hades was not unworthy as a consort for Persephone: Aidoneus, the Ruler of Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless gods for your child, being your own brother and born of the same stock: for honor, he has that third share which he received when division was made at the first, is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells. Despite modern connotations of death as evil, Hades was more altruistically inclined in mythology. Hades was portrayed as passive rather than evil; that said, he was depicted as cold and stern, he held all of his subjects accountable to his laws.
Any other individual aspects of his personality are not given, as Greeks refrained from giving him much thought to avoid attracting his attention. Hades ruled the dead, assisted by others over; the House of Hades was described as full of "guests," though he left the Underworld. He cared little about what happened in the world above, as his primary attention was ensuring none of his subjects left, he forbade his subjects to leave his domain and would become quite enraged when anyone tried to leave, or if someone tried to steal the souls from his realm. His wrath was terri
Triton is a Greek god, the messenger of the sea. He is the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite and goddess of the sea and is herald for his father, he is represented as a merman which has the upper body of a human and the tail, soft dorsal fin, spiny dorsal fin, anal fin, pelvic fins and caudal fin of a fish, "sea-hued", according to Ovid "his shoulders barnacled with sea-shells". Like his father, Poseidon, he carried a trident. However, Triton's special attribute was a twisted conch shell, on which he blew like a trumpet to calm or raise the waves, its sound was such a cacophony, that when loudly blown, it put the giants to flight, who imagined it to be the roar of a dark wild beast. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Triton dwelt with his parents in a golden palace in the depths of the sea; the story of the Argonauts places his home on the coast of Libya. When the Argo was driven ashore in the Gulf of Syrtes Minor, the crew carried the vessel to the "Tritonian Lake", Lake Tritonis, whence Triton, the local deity euhemeristically rationalized by Diodorus Siculus as "then ruler over Libya", welcomed them with a guest-gift of a clod of earth and guided them through the lake's marshy outlet back to the Mediterranean.
When the Argonauts were lost in the desert, he guided them to find the passage from the river back to the sea. Triton was foster parent to the goddess Athena. Pallas was killed by Athena accidentally during a sparring fight between the two goddesses. Triton can sometimes be multiplied into a host of daimones of the sea. In Virgil's Aeneid, book 6, it is told that Triton killed Misenus, son of Aeolus, by drowning him after he challenged the gods to play as well as he did. Over time, Triton's class and image came to be associated with a class of mermaid-like creatures, the Tritons, which could be male or female, formed the escort of marine divinities. Tritons were a race of sea goddesses born from Triton. Triton lived with his parents and Amphitrite, known as Celaeno, in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea. According to Homer it was called Aegae. Unlike their ancestor Poseidon, always anthropomorphic in ancient art, Triton's lower half is that of a fish, while the top half is presented in a human figure.
This is debated because their appearance is described differently throughout history. Ordinary Tritons were described in detail by the traveller Pausanias. "The Tritons have the following appearance. On their heads they grow hair like that of marsh frogs not only in color, but in the impossibility of separating one hair from another; the rest of their body is rough with fine scales. Under their ears they have a man's nose, their eyes seem to me blue, they have hands and nails like the shells of the murex. Under the breast and belly is a tail like a dolphin's instead of feet." They are compared to other Merman/Mermaid like beings, such as Merrows and Sirens. They are thought of as the aquatic versions of Satyrs. Another description of Tritons is that of the Centaur-Tritons known as Ichthyocentaurs who are depicted with two horse's feet in place of arms; when Pausanias visited the city of Triteia in the second century CE, he was told that the name of the city was derived from an eponymous Triteia, a daughter of Triton, that it claimed to have been founded by her son, one among several mythic heroes named Melanippus.
Tritons were the trumpeters of the sea, using trumpets made out of a great shell known as a conch. They would blow this shell throughout the sea to calm the waves, or stir them up, all at the command of Poseidon. There are numerous universities and high schools that use Triton as their mascot; these include the following: University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida Edmonds Community College, Washington Iowa Central Community College, Fort Dodge, Iowa Mariner High School, Cape Coral, Florida Notre Dame Academy, Green Bay, Wisconsin San Clemente High School University of Guam, Guam University of Missouri–St. Louis University of Rennes 1, Brittany FranceMany club sports teams, such as junior football leagues and numerous swimming leagues use the symbol of Triton. An example of other uses include Wilfrid Laurier University's orientation week in 2014 that had a colour team named the Green Tritons as part of the weeks events; the largest moon of the planet Neptune has been given the name Triton, as Neptune is the Roman equivalent of Poseidon.
In Wordsworth's sonnet "The World Is Too Much with Us", the poet regrets the prosaic humdrum modern world, yearning for In Jacob Jordaens"The Family of the Artist', now in the Prado, Madrid, a Triton is depicted gripping crushing, a child with its snake-like tail, a scene watched over by an exotic parrot. The significance of this motif in the context of a painting of domestic happiness is unclear, but it may involve a transfer of functions in that the child appears to be blowing on the conch shell in order to frighten away those forces that threaten family peace. A family of large sea snails, the shells of some of which have been used as trumpets since antiquity, are known as "tritons", see Triton; the name Triton is associated in modern industry with tough hard-wearing machines such as the Ford Triton engine and Mitsubishi Triton pickup truck. King Tri