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Callisto (moon)

Callisto is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede. It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System after Ganymede and Saturn's largest moon Titan, the largest object in the Solar System that may not be properly differentiated. Callisto was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. At 4821 km in diameter, Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass, it is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1883000 km. It is not in an orbital resonance like the three other Galilean satellites—Io, Ganymede—and is thus not appreciably tidally heated. Callisto's rotation is tidally locked to its orbit around Jupiter, so that the same hemisphere always faces inward; because of this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Callisto's surface, from which Jupiter would appear to hang directly overhead. It is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because of its more remote orbit, located just outside Jupiter's main radiation belt.

Callisto is composed of equal amounts of rock and ices, with a density of about 1.83 g/cm3, the lowest density and surface gravity of Jupiter's major moons. Compounds detected spectroscopically on the surface include water ice, carbon dioxide and organic compounds. Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km; the surface of Callisto is the oldest and most cratered in the Solar System. Its surface is covered with impact craters, it does not show any signatures of subsurface processes such as plate tectonics or volcanism, with no signs that geological activity in general has occurred, is thought to have evolved predominantly under the influence of impacts. Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures, variously shaped impact craters, chains of craters and associated scarps and deposits. At a small scale, the surface is varied and made up of small, sparkly frost deposits at the tips of high spots, surrounded by a low-lying, smooth blanket of dark material.

This is thought to result from the sublimation-driven degradation of small landforms, supported by the general deficit of small impact craters and the presence of numerous small knobs, considered to be their remnants. The absolute ages of the landforms are not known. Callisto is surrounded by an thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and molecular oxygen, as well as by a rather intense ionosphere. Callisto is thought to have formed by slow accretion from the disk of the gas and dust that surrounded Jupiter after its formation. Callisto's gradual accretion and the lack of tidal heating meant that not enough heat was available for rapid differentiation; the slow convection in the interior of Callisto, which commenced soon after formation, led to partial differentiation and to the formation of a subsurface ocean at a depth of 100–150 km and a small, rocky core. The presence of an ocean within Callisto leaves open the possibility that it could harbor life. However, conditions are thought to be less favorable than on nearby Europa.

Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied Callisto. Because of its low radiation levels, Callisto has long been considered the most suitable place for a human base for future exploration of the Jovian system. Callisto was discovered by Galileo in January 1610, along with the three other large Jovian moons—Ganymede, Io, Europa. Callisto is named after one of Zeus's many lovers in Greek mythology. Callisto was a nymph, associated with the goddess of the hunt, Artemis; the name was suggested by Simon Marius soon after Callisto's discovery. Marius attributed the suggestion to Johannes Kepler. However, the names of the Galilean satellites fell into disfavor for a considerable time, were not revived in common use until the mid-20th century. In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Callisto is referred to by its Roman numeral designation, a system introduced by Galileo, as Jupiter IV or as "the fourth satellite of Jupiter". In Latin, the root of Callisto is Callist- or Callistōn-.

Thus in English the adjectival form may be Callistian or classically Callistonian. The nonce form Callistoan is found. Callisto is the outermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter, it orbits at a distance of 1 880 000 km. This is larger than the orbital radius—1 070 000 km—of the next-closest Galilean satellite, Ganymede; as a result of this distant orbit, Callisto does not participate in the mean-motion resonance—in which the three inner Galilean satellites are locked—and never has. Like most other regular planetary moons, Callisto's rotation is locked to be synchronous with its orbit; the length of Callisto's day its orbital period, is about 16.7 Earth days. Its orbit is slightly eccentric and inclined to the Jovian equator, with the eccentricity and inclination changing quasi-periodically due to solar and planetary gravitational perturbations on a timescale of centuries; the ranges of change are 0.20 -- 0.60 °, respectively. These orbital variations cause the axial tilt to vary between 0.4 and 1.6°.

The dynamical isolation of Callisto means that it has never been appreciably tidally heated, which has important consequences for its internal structure and evolution. Its distance from Jupiter means that the charged-particle flux from Jupiter's magnetosphere at its surface is low—about 300 time

International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology

The International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology is the name of a collaborative centre between University College London and Peking University. The International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology is a collaboration between the School for Archaeology and Museology of Peking University and the Institute of Archaeology, UCL, to promote the exchange of archaeologists between Europe and China; the ICCHA hosts world-class conferences, invites visiting scholars, enables exchange and communication between Chinese and British archaeologist, seeking to bridge the gap in archaeological thought and theory. The Centre owes much to the vision of Peter Ucko, former director of the Institute of Archaeology, UCL. True to his commitment to world archaeology, Ucko developed a keen interest in China, sought to bring Chinese archaeology into the world archaeology. With the help of Wang Tao Lecturer in Chinese art and archaeology at SOAS and others, he developed links with archaeological departments in the People's Republic of China, arranged for two joint posts in Chinese archaeology to be shared between UCL and SOAS, one of, taken by Wang.

The International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology was launched in Beijing on 15 December 2003, with the full support of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of the People's Republic of China, with joint offices in London and Beijing, forming the first such venture between China and the United Kingdom. With Ucko as its first director, the ICCHA soon yielded several collaborative projects in training and research, resulted in a number of scholarships for Chinese students to be trained in archaeology at UCL. In 2006 Ucko and Wang travelled to ten Chinese cities, interviewing academic archaeologists about how they taught the subject, with the aim of publishing their findings, but Ucko's untimely death prevented this; the ICCHA celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2013. 2015 Dialogue of Civilizations: Comparing Multiple Centres of Early Civilizations of the World, in Beijing 2011 Emergence of Bronze Age Societies: A Global Perspective, at Baoji Museum of Bronzes, Shaanxi Province, China, 8-12 Nov 2011 2008 Sharing Archaeology: Heritage and Communication 2006 On Archaeological Field Training Imperial Logistics: The Making of the Terracotta Army Archaeometallurgy The Early Rice Project Comparative Pathways to Agriculture: Chinese Crop Domestications Neolithic Niuheliang, China Official website Celebrating the ICCHA's First Decade

Help desk software

Help desk software refers to a computer program that enables customer-care operators to keep track of user requests and deal with other customer-care-related issues. It is what makes customer-care service enterprising. Help desk software is part of an umbrella category called the service desk, which includes asset management and IT service management. Oftentimes, the two terms are used interchangeably. Help desk software refers to the system that addresses customer queries; the history of help desk software dates back to the 20th century when businesses relied on face-to-face interaction to resolve customer issues. Customers had to visit a company's office with the product to get their problems solved. With the invention of the telephone in 1876, the telephone switchboard in the 1890s, the help desk assumed a better approach. Customers were able to voice out their problem over the phone system. During the 20th-century era, companies used equipment like dictation machines and dumb terminals with access to a mainframe computer, to address customer issues.

The earliest use of computers for customer service was done through the use of mainframe software. Customers would submit paper forms or communicate their issue by phone to customer service agents who would seek for avenues to handle the issues. In the 1960s, companies began to set up call centers and train staff to receive and handle customer inquiries in an organized and efficient manner; this was the era of Interactive voice response which became a big boost to telephone customer service system. On, Desktop PCs and email improved help desk systems. Customers could communicate their problems by email. Help desk agents could provide status resolutions by email as well. Meanwhile, the actual introduction of help desk systems began in 1980 when the internet was made available for public use. Many companies started outsourcing their customer service department; this led to the massive use of email and live chat systems in the 1990s. This new development enabled several US companies to outsource their help desk to low-cost countries like India and the Philippines.

In any case, the real invention of help desk software came in the 2000s when companies began to use diverse kinds of software packages to deal with customer-care issues. This led to the massive production of different kinds of help desk software programs across the internet and the world at large. In recent times, the internet and networked systems make help desk software more interactive and participatory for customers and the agents. Customer can now track their issues more easily. Customer service and help desk software systems have become popular in recent times. According to a recent report, there is a massive increase in sales of customer relationship management software, which includes help desk software across the globe. Help desk software automates customer services in diverse ways, it consists of at least three parts. These include Ticket Management, Automation Suite, Reporting/Optimization. Help desk software has a point of contact for customers to send their queries and a ticketing system that tracks and organizes issues for faster resolution.

It may have a feature that aggregates and organizes queries and answers into a knowledge base, such as FAQs or guide articles. It may accommodate multiple points of contact, it may have a feature that allows agents to escalate issues to a higher level. More advanced help desk applications feature online chat and analytics, automated processes, multiple contact channels, reporting tools, collaboration tools, a CRM feature; the following benefits are associated with help desk software: Any business that uses webmail for support tends to resolve customer support issues quicker and sees an increase in support productivity when they switch to help desk software. Help desk software automates tasks such as: ticket categorization and prioritization, ticket routing and notifications, ticket status management, so on. With the right help desk solution, the workload is cut down as many tasks such as issue tracking and ticket management can be automated; some cloud-based help desk software has built-in security features, such as HIPAA compliance if for handling US health care information, or GDPR compliance for accepting requests from persons located in the European Union.

There are some disadvantages related to help desk software as well, mainly: Many help desk software platforms have expensive upfront costs as well as time-consuming implementation periods, which can drain company resources. While most offer a trial option trialing software is difficult and time-consuming in a large organization. It's difficult to evaluate the software with a full volume of tickets and staff in a short period of time. On-premises help desks can have costs associated with maintenance and scheduled downtime of servers, which are borne by the customer, not the help desk software provider. Cloud-based help desks can incur higher costs over longer periods of time. Cloud-based help desk software can become or unavailable to users without an Internet connection. Unexpected disruptions in Internet connection may make such services temporarily unavailable. Customer service Customer support Help desk Issue tracking system Technical support

Houghs Creek (Delaware River tributary)

Houghs Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Bucks County, contained wholly within Upper Makefield Township. Houghs Creek is named for the first settler on Richard Hough, it is shown on the Homes map of 1682-1684 as flowing through the Hough tract, but his name was spelled as'Richard Huffe'. Houghs Creek was added to the Geographic Names Information System database of the U. S. Geological Survey as identification number 1192637 on 2 August 1979; the Pennsylvania Gazatteer of Stream identifies Houghs Creek as number 02958. Houghs Creek is the most southerly stream in Upper Makefield Township, beginning from the southwest side of the township at an elevation of 320 feet, it flows eastward, receiving three unnamed tributaries from the right bank before reaching its confluence at the Delaware's 140.60 river mile at an elevation of 26 feet, resulting in an average slope of 62.55 feet per mile. About 1.3 miles below Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania. Bucks County Upper Makefield Township List of rivers of Pennsylvania List of rivers of the United States List of Delaware River tributaries

Mobile Public Library

The Mobile Public Library is a public library system serving Mobile County, Alabama. The system is a department of the city of Mobile and receives funding from Mobile County and the city of Saraland; the Mobile Public Library has roots going back to the 1850s, when it was started as a subscription organization by the Franklin Society. The library was established as the Mobile Public Library in 1902 and was housed in an antebellum structure at the corner of Conti and Hamilton Street; the library association appealed to city leaders in the late 1910s to provide operating funds for the library, it offered to give the city the library property if it would build a new building to house the collections. The city declined to finance the construction of a new building, but did approve operating funds on 2 April 1918. Due to increasing public demand for a library, on 15 December 1925, the city commissioners voted to schedule a special election on a $250,000 bond issue; the voters approved the bond and, along with a gift of $30,000 from Eli H. Bernheim of New York City, the new library building was constructed.

Noted Mobile architect George Bigelow Rogers designed the building in the Classical Revival style. The new structure, now known as the Ben May Main Library, was opened on 15 September 1928; the state had passed racial segregation laws at the turn of the century after disenfranchising most blacks and many poor whites in the state, excluding them from politics. Mobile's African-American community did not have access to a public library until one was completed for them in 1931, it was designed by George Bigelow Rogers. It was funded by the city's sale of the old library property on Conti Street; the Ben May Main Library building is a contributing building to the Church Street East Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places on 16 December 1971. The system opened a new branch, the West Regional Branch, in 2002, with First Lady Laura Bush making an address. Beginning in 2006, the Ben May Main Library building was restored and expanded by 22,000 square feet, it was reopened on 31 May 2007.

In addition to basic services, participation in several interlibrary loan systems, internet access at all locations, the Mobile Public Library provides a range of other services. Free library cards are made available to all residents in the Alabama counties of Mobile, Washington, Monroe and Conecuh. Alabama Virtual Library cards are made available for free at all branches. Basic reference material and on-line tools are located at all library locations. Research materials on many subjects including business and regulations, biographies and collectibles, colleges and careers and trademarks, travel are located at the Ben May Main Library; the system offers telephone reference assistance, document delivery by fax, reference research appointments, a variety of reference classes. The Local History and Genealogy Division includes works by local authors, Mobile histories, Mobile newspapers on microfilm from 1819 to the present, city directories from 1837 onward, federal census records for most of the Southeastern United States, the Mobile Historic Development Commission's survey of historic architecture in Mobile with 10,000 images stored and indexed on CD-ROM, 10 cabinets of paper files and newspaper clippings on local subjects and the Memory Studio containing equipment used for media format conversions.

This department attempts to meet the needs and interests of children and young adults through the various library collections and programs. Books, movie DVDs and VHS, music CDs, back issues of magazines, video games are available to be checked out. Story time for young children is provided at most library locations. All branches provide handicapped access and services for patrons with disabilities. A few of the services provided are magnifying glasses, large type books, closed captioned videos, books for and about the handicapped, instructional books and videos on sign language. In addition, recorded books on discs and cassettes and the equipment for using them are available on free loan to eligible individuals from the Alabama Regional Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in Montgomery, Alabama; the library operates a bookmobile three days a week at over 30 different stops across Mobile County. Each location is visited every three weeks; the system consists of the Ben May Main Library, nine other locations and a Bookmobile

Muneeb M. Mushtaq

Muneeb M. Mushtaq is a Pakistani Canadian businessman, serial Entrepreneur and Public Speaker. A native of Karachi, Pakistan, he moved to Toronto, Canada to pursue his education at age 14, he gained admission to the University of Toronto where he graduated with Bachelors in Commerce and Accounting Specialist Economics Major. Muneeb started his business career at age of 18 when he co-founded online marketing company with his brother Nabeel Mushtaq that got acquired 2 years later. Since Muneeb Mushtaq and Nabeel Mushtaq have created 2 more high-growth technology ventures. Muneeb M. Mushtaq was born on 28 December 1990 in Saudi Arabia, he spent most of his childhood in Karachi and Middle East. Mushtaq’s family arrived in Toronto, Canada in 2006 and first lived in Scarborough and moving to Mississauga shortly and calling it a home. Mushtaq’s father was always his biggest supporter to pursue the entrepreneurial endeavours which inspired him to start early in his life at the age of 11. Muneeb and his brother Nabeel got inspired by the massive opportunity in the online world and ended up working on future projects together that included blogs and websites for family and friends.

In 2008, Muneeb got admitted to University of Toronto where he graduated with Bachelors in Commerce and Accounting Specialist Economics Major. While being in the second year of his undergrad degree at University of Toronto, Muneeb co-founded an online marketing company with his brother Nabeel Mushtaq. Within 2 years, the company grew within their local area and GTA area as well. In 2013, their company got acquired. After his first company got acquired, Mushtaq brothers decided to co-found their second venture called AskforTask. In 2013, AskforTask was launched out of their basement. AskforTask is a Toronto-based marketplace where people can outsource their daily tasks like cleaning and moving. Within a few years of launch, AskforTask has become the largest service platform in Canada with tens of thousands of service providers, it is Headquartered in Downtown, Toronto with 2 international offices. So far, AskforTask has raised over $6M in funding; the service is available on Android, iOS, as a web-based platform.

Airzai is a stealth IoT product in the home fragrance space headquartered in Downtown Toronto with R&D offices in San Francisco, California. One of the prominent individuals involved in this venture includes the Chief Designer, Fred Bould, regarded as one of the best industrial designers in the world, having worked on the projects like GoPro, Nest products, etc. Airzai has raised over $5M in seed funding from investors. Muneeb is a big advocate of supporting new startups, he has been advisor in predominantly Canadian tech startups. Muneeb has been a public speaker for past 5 years covering the topics of sharing economy, micro entrepreneurship and motivational talks, he has done numerous key notes and has been on panels of some of the most prominent conferences in North America and Middle East. Muneeb had his first break into public speaking when he was invited to pitch his company Askfortask in the show BNN the Pitch; the big break came. Being a huge sharing economy advocate, aligning with his missions in empowering others.

In 2014, Muneeb appeared TEDx talk at the Mohawk college, where he shared his passion about sharing economy. Since Muneeb has been featured on numerous prestigious media platforms such as CNN, Globe & Mail, City TV and CBC. Moreover, in 2017 Muneeb appeared in an interview with Dr. Sean in a popular Canadian entrepreneurial show called “The Naked Entrepreneur” that airs on Rogers channel and Opera TV. In a 45 minute extensive interview, Muneeb shared deep insights into his entrepreneurial journey