Yas Marina Circuit
The Yas Marina Circuit is the venue for the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix. The circuit was designed by Hermann Tilke, and is situated on Yas Island, about 30 minutes from the capital of the UAE, Yas Marina is the second Formula One track in the Middle East, with the first being in Bahrain. A two-day GP2 Asia Series test was held to open the circuit. It hosted the event for the Australian V8 Supercars series. Outside motorsport the circuit was used for the stage of the inaugural Abu Dhabi Tour cycle race in 2015. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license, the marina-based development includes a theme park, a water park, as well as residential areas and beaches. The circuit has five areas and part of its pit lane exit runs underneath the track. It houses a building behind the pit building, Media Center, Dragster Track, VIP Tower. Additionally, one of the gravel traps runs underneath the West grandstand. Seating Capacity –41,093 Area –161.9 ha Length –5.5 km Longest straight –1140 metres The circuit was built by main contractor Cebarco-WCT WLL, under contract from developer Aldar Properties.
The circuit was constructed with a permanent lighting system provided by Musco Lighting, Yas Marina Circuit is the largest permanent sports venue lighting project in the world, previously that title was held by Losail. The surface of the track is made of aggregate, shipped to Abu Dhabi from a Bayston Hill quarry in Shropshire. The surface material is highly acclaimed by circuit bosses and Formula One drivers for the level of grip it offers. The same aggregate material is used at the Bahrain International Circuit for the Bahrain Grand Prix, on 7 October 2009, the circuit was granted final approval to hold Formula One races by the FIA. Bruno Senna was the first driver to complete a test run on the circuit, gP3 visited Abu Dhabi for the first time at the end of the 2013 season. Force Indias Adrian Sutil rated the circuit as being better than Formula Ones other night race in Singapore as he felt there was too much light at Marina Bay. Not all of the drivers were complimentary, with Giancarlo Fisichella expressing a dislike of the pit exit.
Although the pit exit remained free of incidents for the practice sessions
Circuit Paul Ricard
The Circuit Paul Ricard is a motorsport race track built in 1969 at Le Castellet, near Marseille, in France, with finance from the eccentric pastis magnate Paul Ricard. Ricard wanted to experience the challenge of building a highway, opened on 19 April 1970, its innovative facilities made it one of the safest motor racing circuits in the world at the time of its opening. The circuit had three track layout permutations, an industrial park and an airstrip. The combination of facilities, mild winter weather and an airstrip made it popular amongst racing teams for car testing during the annual winter off-season. The original track was dominated by the 1.8 km long Mistral Straight that is followed by the right hand Signes corner. The long main straight and other fast sections made the very hard on engines as they ran at full revs for extended spells. Nigel Mansell crashed at the place in the same weekend during practice. Mansells crash was the result of a puncture in his left rear tyre causing it to explode at over 200 mph.
The Honda powered FW10 holds the race lap record for the circuit when Mansells team mate Keke Rosberg recorded a time of 1,39.914 during the 1985 French Grand Prix. This compared to the slowest car in the race, the 550 bhp naturally aspirated Tyrrell-Ford V8 of Stefan Bellof which could only manage 277 km/h, not surprisingly, Bellof qualified 9 seconds slower than Surer and 12 seconds slower than pole winner Rosberg. It opened in 1970 with a 2-litre sports car race, the circuit hosted the Formula One French Grand Prix on many occasions, the first of which was the 1971 French Grand Prix. In 1986, Brabham Formula One driver Elio de Angelis was killed in an accident at the fast first turn. The length of the Mistral Straight was reduced from 1.8 km in length to just over 1 km, and the fast sweeping Verierre curves where de Angelis had crashed were bypassed. Effectively, after the start, instead of heading into the left hand Verierre sweeper, cars now braked hard and this changed the circuit length for a Grand Prix from 5.81 km to just 3.812 km.
This had the effect of cutting lap times from Keke Rosbergs 1985 pole time of 1,32.462 in his Williams-Honda turbo, the last French Grand Prix held at the circuit was in 1990, the event moved to Magny-Cours where it ran until 2008. Since there have been discussions towards reviving the French Grand Prix with Paul Ricard one of the believed to be considered as the venue. During its life of hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Long Circuit was used from 1971-1985, with the Club Circuit used from 1986-1990. On six occasions the winner at Paul Ricard went on to win the World Championship in the same year, ronnie Peterson and René Arnoux are the only Ricard winners who never won the championship
Trident Racing is a motor racing team that competes in single-seater formula racing. It was founded in 2006 in order to compete in the GP2 championship, GP2 functions as an official support championship to Formula One and thus shares the latter championships European dates and venues. Trident is headquartered at San Pietro Mosezzo in the Piedmont region of Italy, after a rapid formation, Trident secured a place on the 2006 GP2 entry list, represented by former Formula One driver Gianmaria Bruni and rookie Andreas Zuber. It was one of three teams that had lodged requests for the entry that was made available for that season onwards. GP2s organiser Bruno Michel commented, Trident Racing put forward a proposal which promised strong sporting and engineering excellence, Tridents first year of competition was competitive against more experienced opposition. Bruni provided two race wins, together with three positions and two fastest race laps, whilst Zuber secured a single race win. In the teams standings, Trident ended the year in sixth place overall.
His team-mates struggled, dropping Trident to tenth in the teams championship, Tridents 2008 drivers were Mike Conway and Ho-Pin Tung. The teams best result came at Monaco, with Conway leading Tung home for a Trident one-two in the sprint race. Both drivers were unable to replicate this elsewhere, but Trident improved to ninth in the teams championship. For 2009, the changed its driver line-up to Ricardo Teixeira and Davide Rigon. The trio scored a three points between them, resulting in Trident finishing twelfth and last in the teams championship. In the other car, the returning González failed to score, for the 2015 season, Raffaele Marciello, of the Ferrari Driver Academy, and René Binder joined the team from Racing Engineering and Arden International respectively. The team entered 2016 with Philo Paz Armand and Luca Ghiotto being promoted from GP3, after a winless season the previous year, Ghiotto scored a victory at the sprint race in Malaysia bringing them to eighth in the standings. Trident competed in the GP2 Asia Series from its inception in 2008 to its cancellation in 2011, in the series inaugural championship, the team fielded Harald Schlegelmilch and Ho-Pin Tung for a total of four points, finishing thirteenth and last in the teams championship.
This campaign was successful, as the team slipped back to eleventh in the standings. In the other car, Rodolfo González failed to score, Trident joined the GP3 Series for its third year of competition in 2012, replacing the departing Barwa Addax team. It became the first GP3 team to field two drivers instead of the usual three, beginning the season with Vicky Piria and Antonio Spavone
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The GP3 Series, or GP3 for short, is a single seater motor racing series launched in 2010 as a feeder series for the GP2 Series, introduced by GP2 organiser Bruno Michel. GP3 follows the entire European leg of the Formula One series, in 2012, the series visited the Monaco street circuit after 2 years of attempts, as they were always unable to beforehand due to lack of room. 2011 champion Valtteri Bottas did not follow suit however, and instead joined Williams F1 as a reserve driver. Meanwhile, James Calado, Rio Haryanto, Simon Trummer, Tom Dillmann and Nigel Melker all joined GP2 for the 2012 season.5 Series in 2011 and Lewis Williamson in 2012. In the series history, nine drivers have gone on to compete. These include former champions Gutiérrez, Kvyat and Ocon for Sauber, Red Bull Racing and Manor respectively, Jean-Éric Vergne, the GP3 Series car is a standardised car used by all of the competing teams. For the 2010-2012 seasons, the GP3 series used the GP3/10 chassis, chassis The car had been designed and built by Dallara, who currently produces the GP2 chassis.
Engine The GP3/10 used a four-cylinder 2. 0-litre turbocharged 280-400 hp engine developed by Renault Sport, the wastegate was included due to turbocharger rules. Gearbox The GP3/10 used a 6 speed longitudinal sequential Hewland gearbox, tyres Pirelli supplied the tyres for GP3 from 2010 to 2012, same supplier for the GP2 Series. Chassis The car was designed and built by Dallara. Engine The GP3/13 used a naturally aspirated 3. 4-litre V6400 hp engine, gearbox The GP3/13 used a 6 speed longitudinal sequential gearbox developed by Hewland. Tyres Pirelli continued to supply the tyres for GP3 from 2013 onwards, chassis The car has been designed and built by Dallara. Engine The GP3/16 uses a naturally aspirated 3. 4-litre V6400 hp engine, developed by Mecachrome, gearbox The GP3/16 will again use a 6 speed longitudinal sequential gearbox developed by Hewland. Tyres Pirelli will continue to supply the tyres for GP3 from 2016 onwards, the qualifying session is a straight fight for the fastest laptime, and determines the order of the grid for Saturdays Race 1.
The grid is decided by the Saturday result with top 8 being reversed, so the driver who finished 8th on Saturday will start from pole position and the winner will start from 8th place. The distance of race is decided prior to the event, however. With this points system, the most number of points anyone can score in one round is 20 by claiming pole position, no driver ever did manage to get maximum points with this system. Valtteri Bottas at the 2011 Hungarian round achieved pole position and won the feature race, with this points system, the most number of points anyone can score in one round is 48 by claiming pole position, winning both races with the fastest lap in each race
Prema Powerteam is a motorsport team from Italy. It mainly operates in the FIA Formula 3 European Championship as well as various junior championships, the team was founded in 1984. Also this team was a part of Toyota Driver Programme, currently the team has strong ties with Mercedes and Ferrari, running many of the current Ferrari Driver Academy drivers. Its most recent success is winning the GP2 Drivers title with Pierre Gasly,1 Italian F4 Trophy Official website
Charouz Racing System
Charouz Racing System is a racing team from Czech Republic, created in 1985 by Antonín Charouz. In the 1980s, Charouz participated in the European Championship of Circuit Races 1600 cc division in a Toyota Corolla, by 1992, they prepared cars for a special cup series for Ford Fiestas, Escort RS 2000s and Pumas. Since 1998, Charouz has competed in the European Rally Championship, Slovak Championship, when the A1 Grand Prix series debuted in 2005, Charouz managed the A1 Team Czech Republic. The team took over management duties for A1 Team Brazil, new for 2007 was the entrance into endurance racing with the Le Mans Series. Competing with a Lola-Judd prototype, the finished the year fifth in their class championship. For 2008 the team entered a cooperation with Aston Martin Racing and Prodrive, running a new Lola B08/60 coupe in the Le Mans Series, in 2010 Charouz ran four cars in the Auto GP series. Official website Antonin Charouz official website
The Hockenheimring Baden-Württemberg is a motor racing circuit situated in the Rhine valley near the town of Hockenheim in Baden-Württemberg, located on Bertha Benz Memorial Route. Amongst other motor racing events, it hosts the German Grand Prix. The circuit has very little change in elevation, the circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. The Hockenheimring was originally built in 1932 using roads in the forest as an alternative to the Wildpark-Circuit in Karlsruhe, the Hockenheimring was used for motorcycle racing and was expanded to be used as test track for Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union in 1936. In 1938 it was renamed the Kurpfalzring and that name was used until 1947, after World War II, former DKW and NSU factory rider and world record setter Wilhelm Herz promoted the track successfully. Grand Prix motorcycle racing events were held, with the German motorcycle Grand Prix alternating between Hockenheim and other tracks, the original circuit was almost eight kilometres long and consisted of two long straights with a long Eastern corner in the forest and a U-turn inside Hockenheim joining them together.
In 1965, when the new Autobahn A6 separated the village from the part of the track. After Jim Clark was killed on 7 April 1968 in a Formula 2 racing accident, a small memorial was placed near the first chicane, at the site of his accident. In 1982, another chicane was added at the Ostkurve, after Patrick Depailler was killed there in 1980, and the first chicane was made slower as well. The long track length meant that a typical Formula One race had only 45 laps, prost ran out at the end of the 1986 race, pushing his McLaren towards the line before giving up. He was placed 3rd when he ran dry and was eventually classified 6th, many problems came to light during the 2000 German Grand Prix, where Brazilian driver Rubens Barrichello won from having started 18th on the grid, in changeable weather conditions. All the overtaking moves that took place during the race were in the chicanes of the forest sector, a former Mercedes employee, who had been dismissed, breached the tracks security barriers on the first main straight, showing vulnerable security facilities in the forest.
The state government of Baden-Württemberg secured the financing for the redesign by Hermann Tilke for the 2002 German Grand Prix, the stadium section remained mostly intact, despite a new surface and a tighter Turn 1. However, the circuit was shortened, with the long. In an extremely controversial move, the old forest section was torn up and replanted with trees, several drivers and team principals, including Ron Dennis, Jarno Trulli and Juan Pablo Montoya, criticised the changes and stated their preference for the old circuit. The new track has a capacity of 120,000. The complex features a track for drag racing. The Hockenheim Circuit hosted the German Grand Prix for the first time in 1970 when the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix to boycott the Nürburgring unless major changes were made
Red Bull Ring
The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport circuit in Spielberg, Austria. The race circuit was founded as Österreichring and hosted the Formula One Austrian Grand Prix for 18 consecutive years and it was shortened and renamed the A1-Ring, and it hosted the Austrian Grand Prix again from 1997 to 2003. When Formula One outgrew the circuit, a plan was drawn up to extend the layout, renamed the Red Bull Ring the track was reopened on 15 May 2011 and subsequently hosted a round of the 2011 DTM season and a round of the 2011 F2 championship. Formula One returned to the circuit in the 2014 season, originally built in 1969 to replace the bland and bumpy Zeltweg Airfield circuit, the Österreichring track was situated in the Styrian mountains and it was a spectacular and unique circuit. Like most fast circuits it was a circuit on engines but more difficult on tires. At the time it was only in F1 average speed to Keke Rosbergs 160.9 mph pole lap of the Silverstone Circuit set during the 1985 British Grand Prix.
Interestingly, both times were set using a turbocharged Williams-Honda, american driver Mark Donohue died after crashing at the Vost-Hugel Kurve in 1975. Triple World Champion and long time hero of the home crowd Niki Lauda is the only Austrian driver to win his home Grand Prix and he won the 1984 Austrian Grand Prix at the Österreichring driving a McLaren-TAG Porsche. Lauda went on to win his third and final championship in 1984, beating his team mate Alain Prost by the smallest margin in F1 history and he announced his permanent retirement from driving at the circuit before the 1985 race. The Österreichrings safety concerns had reached a head in the mid 1990s and its length was shortened from 5.942 km to 4.326 km, and the fast sweeping corners were replaced by three tight right-handers, in order to create overtaking opportunities. Its three long straights, as well as a twisty infield section, asked for a setup compromise, as much of the construction work was paid for by the mobile phone provider A1, the track was renamed the A1-Ring.
It proceeded to host seven Formula One Austrian Grands Prix between 1997 and 2003, as well as several DTM races and Austrian motorcycle races in 1996 and 1997, the grandstands and pit buildings were demolished in 2004, rendering the track unusable for any motorsport category. In late 2004 and early 2005, there were discussions concerning whether the owner of the circuit, Red Bull, would find another use for the site. There was a circuit extension proposal using part of the old Österreichring, in January 2005, return of motor sports seemed more unlikely than ever, as Dietrich Mateschitz publicly announced that he had no intention of wasting money on a deficient circuit. Throughout 2005 however, there was speculation of the newly founded Red Bull Racing renovating the track to use it as a test venue, in 2006, Austrian racing driver Alexander Wurz claimed he would buy the circuit and have it renovated, but the idea never came to fruition. By 2007, talks involving Red Bull, KTM, Volkswagen and Magna International for a neuer Österreichring failed, the championship has visited the circuit every year since then.
In November 2010, F2 announced that Round 6 of the 2011 F2 championship would take place at the Red Bull Ring. The circuit was reopened at an event over the weekend of 15–16 May 2011
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam about 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area in the Bronze Age and in Roman Britain, under Viking rule, Cambridge became an important trading centre. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although city status was not conferred until 1951, the University of Cambridge, founded in 1209, is one of the top five universities in the world. The university includes the Cavendish Laboratory, Kings College Chapel, the citys skyline is dominated by the last two buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrookes Hospital and St Johns College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, evolved from the Cambridge School of Art, Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies spun out of the university.
More than 40% of the workforce has a higher education qualification, the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to be home to AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. Parkers Piece hosted the first ever game of Association football, the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fairs are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads, settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3, the principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street, the eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettles Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill.
It was constructed around AD70 and converted to use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads, evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement—also on and around Castle Hill—became known as Grantebrycge, Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands, by the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a little ruined city containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river, the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank.
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill, like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies