Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. Known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporters, known as the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute monarchy and the principle of the'divine right of kings'; the goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration of the country/kingdom. Most Roundheads sought constitutional monarchy in place of the absolutist monarchy sought by Charles. However, at the end of the English Civil War in 1649, public antipathy towards the king was high enough to allow republican leaders such as Oliver Cromwell to abolish the monarchy and establish the Commonwealth of England; the Roundhead commander-in-chief of the first Civil War, Thomas Fairfax, remained a supporter of constitutional monarchy, as did many other Roundhead leaders such as Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents.
However many Roundheads were members of the Church of England. Roundhead political factions included the proto-anarchist Diggers, the diverse group known as the Levellers and the apocalyptic Christian movement of the Fifth Monarchists; some Puritans, but by no means all, wore their hair cropped round the head or flat and there was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion, who wore long ringlets. During the war and for a time afterwards, Roundhead was a term of derision—in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead; this contrasted with the term "Cavalier" to describe supporters of the Royalist cause. Cavalier started out as a pejorative term—the first proponents used it to compare members of the Royalist party with Spanish Caballeros who had abused Dutch Protestants during the reign of Elizabeth I—but unlike Roundhead, Cavalier was embraced by those who were the target of the epithet and used by them to describe themselves."Roundheads" appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the end of 1641, when the debates in Parliament in the Clergy Act 1640 were causing riots at Westminster.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition quotes a contemporary authority's description of the crowd gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads". The demonstrators included London apprentices and Roundhead was a term of derision for them because the regulations to which they had agreed included a provision for cropped hair. According to John Rushworth the word was first used on 27 December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide. During a riot, Hide is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops". However, Richard Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, at the trial of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, earlier that year. Referring to John Pym, she asked; the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, remarked on the matter, "and from those contestations the two terms of Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be received in discourse... they who were looked upon as servants to the king being called Cavaliers, the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of Roundheads."Ironically, after Anglican Archbishop William Laud made a statute in 1636 instructing all clergy to wear short hair, many Puritans rebelled to show their contempt for his authority and began to grow their hair longer though they continued to be known as Roundheads.
The longer hair was more common among the "Independent" and "high ranking" Puritans toward the end of the Protectorate, while the "Presbyterian" faction, the military rank-and-file, continued to abhor long hair. By the end of this period some Independent Puritans were again derisively using the term Roundhead to refer to the Presbyterian Puritans. Roundhead remained in use to describe those with republican tendencies up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681. During the Exclusion Bill crisis, the term Cavalier was replaced with "Tory", an Irish term introduced by their opponents, initially a pejorative term. Macaulay, Thomas Babington; the History of England from the Accession of James II. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. P. 105. ISBN 0-543-93129-3. Hanbury, Benjamin. Historical Memorials Relating to the Independents Or Congregationalists: From Their Rise to the Restoration of the Monarchy. 3. Pp. 118, 635. Hunt, John. Religious Thought from the Reformation to the End of Last Century. 2. General Books LLC. p. 5.
ISBN 1-150-98096-6. Roberts, Chris. Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme. Thorndike Press. ISBN 0-7862-8517-6. Worden, Blair; the English Civil Wars 1640–1660. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100694-3. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous. "Roundhead". In Chisholm
William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman, the first Home Secretary in 1782 and Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy, he was well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art. Lord Shelburne spent his formative years in Ireland. After attending Oxford University he served in the British army during the Seven Years' War, he took part in the Raid on the Battle of Minden. As a reward for his conduct at the Battle of Kloster Kampen, Shelburne was appointed an aide-de-camp to George III, he became involved in politics, becoming a member of parliament in 1760. After his father's death in 1761 he was elevated to the House of Lords, he took an active role in politics. He served as President of the Board of Trade in the Grenville Ministry but resigned this position after only a few months and began to associate with the opposition leader William Pitt.
When Pitt was made Prime Minister in 1766, Shelburne was appointed as Southern Secretary, a position which he held for two years. He joined the Opposition. Along with Pitt he was an advocate of a conciliatory policy towards Britain's American Colonies and a long-term critic of the North Government's measures in America. Following the fall of the North government, Shelburne joined its replacement under Lord Rockingham. Shelburne was made Prime Minister in 1782 following Rockingham's death, with the American War still being fought. Shelburne's government was brought down due to the terms of the Peace of Paris which brought the conflict to an end, its terms were considered excessively generous, because they gave the new nation control of vast trans-Appalachian lands. Shelburne, had a vision of long-term benefit to Britain through trade with a large and prosperous United States, without the risk of warfare over the western territories. After he was forced from office in 1783 at age 45, he permanently lost his influence.
Shelburne lamented that his career had been a failure, despite the many high offices he held over 17 years, his undoubted abilities as a debater. He blamed his poor education—although it was as good as that of most peers—and said the real problem was that "it has been my fate through life to fall in with clever but unpopular connections." Historians, point to a nasty personality that alienated friend and enemy alike. His contemporaries distrusted him as too prone to duplicity. Biographer John Cannon says "His uneasiness prompted him to alternate flattery and hectoring, which most of his colleagues found unpleasant, to suspiciousness... In debate he was vituperative and sarcastic." Success came too early, produced jealousy when he was tagged as an upstart Irishman. He never understood the power of the House of Commons, he advocated numerous reforms free trade, religious toleration, parliamentary reform. He was ahead of his time, but was unable to build an adequate network of support from his colleagues who distrusted his motives.
In turn he distrusted others, tried to do all the work himself so that it would be done right. He was born William Fitzmaurice in Dublin in Ireland, the first son of John Fitzmaurice, the second surviving son of the 1st Earl of Kerry. Lord Kerry had married Anne Petty, the daughter of Sir William Petty, Surveyor General of Ireland, whose elder son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1688 and whose younger son had been created Baron Shelburne in 1699 and Earl of Shelburne in 1719. On the younger son's death the Petty estates passed to the aforementioned John Fitzmaurice, who changed his branch of the family's surname to "Petty" in place of "Fitzmaurice", was created Viscount Fitzmaurice in 1751 and Earl of Shelburne in 1753, his grandfather Lord Kerry died when he was four, but Fitzmaurice grew up with other people's grim memories of the old man as a "Tyrant" whose family and servants lived in permanent fear of him. Fitzmaurice spent his childhood "in the remotest parts of the south of Ireland," and, according to his own account, when he entered Christ Church, Oxford, in 1755, he had "both everything to learn and everything to unlearn".
From a tutor whom he describes as "narrow-minded" he received advantageous guidance in his studies, but he attributes his improvement in manners and in knowledge of the world chiefly to the fact that, as was his "fate through life", he fell in "with clever but unpopular connexions". Shortly after leaving the university he served in 20th Foot regiment commanded by James Wolfe during the Seven Years' War, he became friends with one of his fellow officers Charles Grey whose career he assisted. In 1757 he took part in the amphibious Raid on Rochefort which withdrew without making any serious attempt on the town; the following year he was sent to serve in Germany and distinguished himself at Minden and Kloster-Kampen. For his services he was appointed aide-de-camp to the new King, George III, with the rank of Colonel; this brought protests from several members of the cabinet as it meant he was promoted ahead of much more senior officers. In response to the appointment the Duke of Richmond resigned a post in the royal household.
Though he had no active military career after this, his early promotion as colonel meant that he would be further promoted through seniority to
Calne is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, southwestern England, at the northwestern extremity of the North Wessex Downs hill range, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Calne is on a small river, the Marden, that rises 2 miles away in the Wessex Downs, is the only town on that river, it is on the A4 road national route 19 mi east of Bath, 6 mi east of Chippenham, 13 mi west of Marlborough and 16 mi southwest of Swindon. Wiltshire's county town of Trowbridge is 15 mi to the southwest, with London 82 mi due east as the crow flies. At the 2011 Census, Calne had 17,274 inhabitants. In AD 978, Anglo-Saxon Calne was the site of a large two-storey building with a hall on the first floor, it was here that St Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury met the Witenagemot to justify his controversial organisation of the national church, which involved the secular priests being replaced by Benedictine monks and the influence of landowners over churches on their lands being taken away. According to an account written about 1000, at one point in this meeting Dunstan called upon God to support his cause, at which point the floor collapsed killing most of his opponents, whilst Dunstan and his supporters were in the part that remained standing.
This was claimed as a miracle by Dunstan's supporters. Early market townIn 1086 Calne may have been, as it was a market town on the main London-Bristol road; the church in it was well endowed. 74 or more households were held outright by burghal tenure, the lordship of its large outlying land was divided between the king and the church. In the Middle Ages the king's successor as the lord of Calne manor and, as owner of the church's revenues, the treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral, each had the right to hold a market and a fair in the town, with two triangular market places or fair grounds. A modest hospital was provided on a modest endowment from 1248 until it provided no accommodation in 1546 and was sold two years by the Crown. IndustryCalne had a significant woollen broadcloth industry in the 18th century, evidence of this can be seen set around the triangular green by the parish church, where 24 listed buildings remain, five at Grade II* including the Tounson almshouses for the neediest poor and Georgian era clothiers' houses.
Nearby are some of the 20 original cloth mills along the Marden. St Mary's church was extended by the generous donations of rich clothiers and wool merchants in the 15th century. Houses of the 17th and 18th centuries have external walls of stone and timber-framed walls inside. Most of the stone is limestone rubble, laid with ashlar dressings in houses of higher quality; until the 19th century, quarries beside the London road northwest and southeast of the town were sources of stone for building. A relic of 19th century lime extraction, a kiln, exists in the grounds of St Mary's School; this solid marine deposition is chiefly one chemical, calcium carbonate, is dug in nearby pits for its main use in cement and as fertiliser on acid ground. Former canalThe Wilts & Berks Canal linked the Kennet and Avon Canal at Semington, near Melksham, to the River Thames at Abingdon. Much of the traffic on the canal was coal from the Somerset Coalfield; as the canal passed through open country near Stanley, east of Chippenham, a short branch led through three locks to a wharf in Calne.
The canal was completed in 1810 and abandoned in 1914. Former railwayCalne's former railway station opened in 1863, the terminus of its own branch line of the Great Western Railway running east from Chippenham, with one intermediate stop: Stanley Bridge Halt; the opening of Black Dog Halt in the early 20th century provided insufficient demand to slow a progressive decline. The branch closed as a result of the Beeching Axe in September 1965, having suffered the ignominy of making the biggest loss per mile of any line in the country. Wiltshire pork and ham Subsequently, Calne's main industry other than being a small market town was the imposing Harris pork processing factory; the factory provided employment directly and indirectly to many of the residents until the early 1980s. It is said that the pork-curing industry developed because pigs reared in Ireland were landed at Bristol and herded across England on drovers' roads to Smithfield, passing through Calne; the factory started in the second half of the 18th century when brothers John and Henry Harris started businesses which merged in 1888 as C. & T. Harris & Co.
The factory has now been demolished and its site redeveloped as shops, housing and a library. As a result of the closure, unemployment in the town increased and during much of the 1980s Calne suffered many of the economic restructuring problems more associated with large cities. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Calne saw rapid expansion compared to most other towns in the South West region, with a population which the district council projected to peak at around 19,000 by 2015 but which has since been surpassed; the Lansdowne Park housing development has increased the physical scale of the town, creating an new northwestern suburb, including a new primary school, a medical centre and a small shopping area. This area in particular has attracted professional workers from traditionally more expensive areas such as Bath, Marlborough and as far afield as the'silicon valley' towns of central Berkshire; the development's name reflects its proximity to the seat of the Marquess of Lansdowne, whose family have resided at the nearby Bowood House country estate sin
The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England, summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640. It was so called because of its short life of only three weeks. After 11 years of attempting Personal Rule between 1629 and 1640, Charles recalled Parliament in 1640 on the advice of Lord Wentworth created Earl of Strafford to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland in the Bishops' Wars. However, like its predecessors, the new parliament had more interest in redressing perceived grievances occasioned by the royal administration than in voting the King funds to pursue his war against the Scottish Covenanters. John Pym, MP for Tavistock emerged as a major figure in debate. John Hampden, in contrast, was persuasive in private: he sat on nine committees. A flood of petitions concerning royal abuses were coming up to Parliament from the country. Charles's attempted offer to cease the levying of ship money did not impress the House. Annoyed with the resumption of debate on Crown privilege and the violation of Parliamentary privilege by the arrest of the nine members in 1629, unnerved about an upcoming scheduled debate on the deteriorating situation in Scotland, Charles dissolved Parliament on 5 May 1640, after only three weeks' sitting.
It would be followed in the year by the Long Parliament. List of MPs elected to the English parliament in 1640 List of Parliaments of England David Plant, "The Short Parliament" "John Hampden in the Short Parliament"
Lord of the manor
In English and Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property, one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined, may be held in moieties: the title. A title similar to such a lordship is known in French as Seigneur du Manoir, Welsh as Breyr, Gutsherr in German, Godsherre in Norwegian and Swedish, Ambachtsheer in Dutch and Signore or Vassallo in Italian. A lord of the manor might be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown; the origins of the lordship of manors arose in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism. Following the Norman conquest, land at the manorial level was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086; the title cannot nowadays be subdivided. This has been prohibited since 1290 in the Statute of Quia Emptores that prevents tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants wishing to alienate their land to do so by substitution.
Lord Denning, in Corpus Christi College Oxford v Gloucestershire County Council QB 360, described the manor thus: In medieval times the manor was the nucleus of English rural life. It was an administrative unit of an extensive area of land; the whole of it was owned by the lord of the manor. He lived in the big house called the manor house. Attached to it were many acres of grassland and woodlands called the park; these were the "demesne lands". Dotted all round were the enclosed homes and land occupied by the “tenants of the manor”; the owner of a lordship of the manor can be described as, Lord/Lady of the Manor of, sometimes shortened to Lord or Lady of. In modern times any person may choose to use a name, not the property of another. Under English common law a person may choose to be known by any name he sees fit as long as it is not done to commit fraud or evade an obligation. A manorial lordship is not a noble title. Lordship in this sense is a synonym for ownership, although this ownership involved a historic legal jurisdiction in the form of the court baron.
The journal Justice of the Peace & Local Government Law advises that the position is unclear as to whether a lordship of a manor is a title of honour or a dignity, as this is yet to be tested by the courts. Technically, lords freemen. John Selden in his esteemed work Titles of Honour writes, "The word Baro hath been so much communicated, that not only all Lords of Manors have been from ancient time, are at this day called sometimes Barons But the Judges of the Exchequer have it from antient time fixed on them."John Martin Robinson, Maltravers Herald Extraordinary and co-author of The Oxford Guide to Heraldry, gave his opinion that "Lordship of this or that manor is no more a title than Landlord of The Dog and Duck". The style'Lord of the Manor of X' or'Lord of X' is, in this sense, more of a description than a title, somewhat similar to the term Laird in Scotland. King's College, Cambridge have given the view that the term'indicated wealth and privilege, it carried rights and responsibilities'.
Since 1965 Lords of the Manor have been entitled to compensation in the event of compulsory purchase. Before the Land Registration Act 2002 it was possible for manors to be registered with HM Land Registry. Manorial incidents, which are the rights that a lord of the manor may exercise over other people's land, lapsed on 12 October 2013 if not registered by with the Land Registry; this is a separate issue to the registration of lordships of manors, since both registered and unregistered lordships will continue to exist after that date. It is only their practical rights that will lose what is called'overriding interest', or in other words the ability to affect land if the interests or rights are not registered against that land, as of 12 October 2013. Manorial incidents can still be recorded for either unregistered manors; this issue does not affect the existence of the title of lord of the manor. There have been cases where manors have been sold and the seller has unknowingly parted with rights to unregistered land in England and Wales.
In England in the Middle Ages, land was held of the English monarch or ruler by a powerful local supporter, who gave protection in return. The people who had sworn homage to the lord were known as vassals. Vassals were nobles who served loyalty in return for being given the use of land. After the Norman conquest of England, all land in England was owned by the monarch who granted the use of it by means of a transaction known as enfeoffment, to earls and others, in return for military service; the person who held feudal land directly from the king was known as a tenant-in-chief. Military servic
Robert Long (politician)
Robert Long of South Wraxall and Draycot Cerne in Wiltshire, was a Member of Parliament for Old Sarum in Wiltshire, for Calne and six times for the County of Wiltshire. He was the founder of the prominent Long family of South Draycott in Wiltshire, he was born in the son of Thomas Long. In 1414 Long was elected Member of Parliament for Old Sarum, MP for Wiltshire in 1421, 1423–24, 1429–30, 1433, again in 1442. On 4 November 1428 he was appointed Escheator of Wiltshire. Long married twice: Firstly at some time before 1417 to a certain Margaret Godfrey, of unrecorded family, by whom he had four sons, three of whom were Members of Parliament, including: John Long, MP Henry Long, MP Richard Long, MP for Old Sarum in 1442, the year that his father and two brothers were all Members of Parliament for various Wiltshire constituencies. Secondly, before 1428, to Margaret Popham, widow of John Cowdray and of William Wayte of Draycot and daughter and eventual heiress of Sir Philip Popham, MP, of Barton Stacey, Hampshire.
Robert Long owned the manors of South Wraxall and Draycot, both of which descended from him in the male line of the Long family for more than 400 years, with Draycot bequeathed away by his descendant William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley, 5th Earl of Mornington, who shocked his family by leaving it in his will to his cousin Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley, in 1863. Inheriting the Earth: The Long Family's 500 Year Reign in Wiltshire. Published in History of Parliament: House of Commons 1386-1421, ed. J. S. Roskell, L. Clark, C. Rawcliffe. 1993
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne
Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne, known as Lord Henry Petty from 1784 to 1809, was a British statesman. In a ministerial career spanning nearly half a century, he notably served as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer and was three times Lord President of the Council. Lansdowne was the son of Prime Minister William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne by his second marriage to Lady Louisa, daughter of John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory, he was educated at Westminster School, the University of Edinburgh, Trinity College, Cambridge. He entered the House of Commons in 1802 as member for the family borough of Calne and showed his mettle as a politician. In February 1806 he became Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord Grenville's Ministry of All the Talents, being at this time member for the University of Cambridge, but he lost both his seat and his office in 1807. In 1809 he became Marquess of Lansdowne, in the House of Lords and in society he continued to play an active part as one of the Whig leaders.
His chief interest was in the question of Roman Catholic emancipation, a cause which he championed, but he sympathised with the advocates of the abolition of the slave-trade and with the cause of popular education. Lansdowne, who had succeeded his cousin, Francis Thomas Fitzmaurice, as 4th Earl of Kerry in 1818, took office with Canning in May 1827 and was Secretary of State for the Home Department from July of that year until January 1828, he was Lord President of the Council under Earl Grey and under Lord Melbourne from November 1830 to August 1841, with the exception of the few months in 1835 when Sir Robert Peel was prime minister. He held the same office during the whole of Lord John Russell's ministry, having declined to become prime minister, sat in the cabinets of Lord Aberdeen and of Lord Palmerston, but without office. In 1857 he refused the offer of a dukedom, he died on 31 January 1863. Lansdowne's social influence and political moderation made him one of the most powerful Whig statesmen of the time.
Lansdowne chaired the inaugural meeting of the London Statistical Society, was its first president. He served a second term. Lord Lansdowne married Lady Louisa Fox-Strangways, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Ilchester, in 1808, she died in April 1851, aged 65. Lord Lansdowne died in January 1863, aged 82, his eldest son, the Earl of Kerry, had predeceased him and he was succeeded in the marquessate by his eldest surviving son Henry. The latter was the father of Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, who became a distinguished statesman. "Archival material relating to Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne". UK National Archives. Obituary in Illustrated London News, 14 February 1863. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Lansdowne